[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the presentation of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in orthopaedic surgery when a defined protocol for thromboprophylaxis is used. The objective with this study was to establish the VTE rate and mortality rate in orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: We performed a prospective, single centre observational cohort study of 45 968 consecutive procedures in 36 388 patients over a 10 year period. Follow-up was successful in 99.3%. The primary study outcome was the incidence of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality at 6 weeks, specified for different surgical procedures. The secondary outcome was to describe the DVT distribution in proximal and distal veins and the proportion of VTEs diagnosed after hospital discharge. For validation purposes, a retrospective review of VTEs diagnosed 7--12 weeks postoperatively was also performed. RESULTS: In total, 514 VTEs were diagnosed (1.1%; 95% CI: 1.10-1.14), the majority (84%) after hospital discharge (432 out of 514).With thromboprophylaxis, high incidence of VTE was found after internal fixation (IF) of pelvic fracture (12%; 95% CI: 5--26), knee replacement surgery (3.7%; 95% CI: 2.8-5.0), after internal fixation (IF) of proximal tibia fracture (3.8%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.3) and after IF of ankle fracture (3.6%; 95% CI: 2.9-4.4). Without thromboprophylaxis, high incidence of VTE was found after Achilles tendon repair (7.2%; 95% CI: 5.5-9.4). In total 1094 patients deceased (2.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33- 2.44) within 6 weeks of surgery. Highest mortality was seen after lower limb amputation (16.3%, CI: 13.8-19.1) and after hip hemiarthroplasty due to hip fracture (9.6%, CI; 7.6-12.1). CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of VTE is low after orthopaedic surgery but our study highlights surgical procedures after which the risk for VTE remains high and improved thromboprophylaxis is needed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pneumatic tourniquets are frequently used in knee arthroplasty surgery. However, there is a lack of evidence to define safe tourniquet time in lower limb surgery. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether tourniquet time influences the risk of postoperative complications after primary and secondary knee arthroplasty. METHODS: This study was a prospective register study. Since we wanted dispersion in tourniquet time, we included a consecutive series of 577 primary knee arthroplasties, 46 revision knee arthroplasties, and 18 patellar supplementing knee arthroplasties from a clinical audit database over a period of five years. The following postoperative complications were recorded: superficial wound infections, deep wound infections, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, nerve injuries, compartment syndrome, cuff pressure injuries, and bandage injuries. RESULTS: Tourniquet time over 100 minutes was associated with an increased risk of complications after knee arthroplasty surgery (OR 2.2, CI 1.5-3.1). This increase in risk remained after adjusting for cuff pressure, sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, smoking, diabetes, and surgery indication (OR 2.4, CI 1.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Tourniquet time over 100 minutes increases the risk of complications after knee arthroplasty surgery and special attention is advocated to reduce the tourniquet time.
International Orthopaedics 02/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To analyze factors influencing the reoperation rate due to fracture healing complications after internal fixation (IF) of Garden I and II femoral neck fractures with special reference to a new validated method assessing the preoperative posterior tilt on lateral radiographs. DESIGN:: Level II prospective cohort study. SETTING:: Level II trauma center. PATIENTS:: A consecutive cohort of 382 hips in 379 patients who underwent IF of a Garden I or II femoral neck fracture. INTERVENTION:: The posterior tilt in preoperative radiographs was analyzed with a new validated method. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate factors associated with reoperation due to fracture healing complications. Age, gender, cognitive function, ASA classification, time to surgery and the posterior tilt were tested as independent factors in the model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Reoperation rate due to fracture healing complications with a minimal follow-up of 5 years. Reoperation data were validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare's national registry using unique Swedish personal identification numbers. RESULTS:: The overall reoperation rate was 19% (72 out of 382 hips) and the reoperation rate due to fracture healing complications was 12% (45 out of 382 hips). The posterior tilt had no influence on the risk for reoperation due to fracture healing complication, nor had the age, gender, cognitive function, ASA classification or the time to surgery. CONCLUSIONS:: Preoperative posterior tilt measurement on lateral radiographs cannot be used as a discriminator for fracture healing complications in Garden I and II femoral neck fractures.
Journal of orthopaedic trauma 01/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Femoral neck fractures with a vertical orientation have been associated with an increased risk for failure as they are both axial and rotational unstable and experience increased shear forces compared to the conventional and more horizontally oriented femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyse outcome and risk factors for reoperation of these uncommon fractures. METHODS: A cohort study with a consecutive series of 137 hips suffering from a vertical hip fracture, treated with one method: a sliding hips screw with plate and an antirotation screw. Median follow-up time was 4.8 years. Reoperation data was validated against the National Board of Health and Welfare's national registry using the unique Swedish personal identification number. RESULTS: The total reoperation rate was 18%. After multivariable Logistic regression analysis adjusting for possible confounding factors there was an increased risk for reoperation for displaced fractures (22%) compared to undisplaced fractures (3%), and for fractures with poor implant position (38%) compared to fractures with adequate implant position (15%). CONCLUSIONS: The reoperation rate was high, and special attention should be given to achieve an appropriate position of the implant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Hip arthroplasty is an option for elderly patients with osteoporosis for the treatment of failure after fixation of trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, either as a total hip arthroplasty (THA) or as a hemiarthroplasty (HA). We analyzed the reoperation rate and risk factors for reoperation in a consecutive series of patients. Methods All patients (n = 88) operated from 1999 to 2006 with a THA (n = 63) or an HA (n = 25) due to failure of fixation of a trochanteric fracture (n = 63) or subtrochanteric fracture (n = 25) were included. Background data were collected from the patient records. A search was performed in the national registry of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in order to find information on all reoperations. The follow-up time was 5-11 years. Results The reoperation rate was 16% (14/88 hips). A periprosthetic fracture occurred in 6 patients, a deep prosthetic infection in 5 patients, and a dislocation of the prosthesis in 3 patients. Standard-length femoral stems had an increased risk of reoperation (11/47) compared to long stems (3/41) (HR = 4, 95% CI: 1.0-13; p = 0.06). Interpretation The high reoperation rate reflects the complexity of the surgery. Using long femoral stems that bridge previous holes and defects may be one way to reduce the risk for reoperation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a strong consensus for surgical treatment of reruptures and neglected ruptures of the Achilles tendon. A number of different surgical techniques have been described and several of these methods include extensive surgical exposure to the calf and technically demanding tendon transfers. The overall risk of complications is high and in particular the risk for wound healing problems, which are triggered by an increased tension in the skin when inserting a bulky graft to cover the rupture. In order to reduce the risk for wound healing problems a new, less complicated surgical technique was developed, as described in this study.
Nine consecutive patients (including six chronic ruptures and three reruptures) with complicating co-morbidities and with a tendon defect between three and eight centimetres were operated upon using the described novel technique. Patient-reported functional outcome was reported after two to eight years.
All tendon defects were successfully repaired. Neither early nor late surgical complications occurred. High patient satisfaction was reported for all patients.
The new surgical technique with a medial Achilles tendon island flap seems to be safe and results in a good patient reported outcome.
International Orthopaedics 03/2012; 36(8):1629-34. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty (HA) is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Data from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register suggest that there is a higher risk for revision surgery with the bipolar HA compared with the unipolar HA.
In this study we analysed the reoperation and the dislocation rates for Exeter HAs in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture, comparing the unipolar and bipolar prosthetic designs. Additionally, we compared the outcome for HAs performed as a primary intervention with those performed secondary to failed internal fixation.
We studied 830 consecutive Exeter HAs (427 unipolar and 403 bipolar) performed either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reoperation and prosthetic dislocation. Age, gender, the surgeon's experience, indication for surgery (primary or secondary) and type of HA (unipolar or bipolar) were tested as independent variables in the model.
The prosthetic design (uni- or bipolar) had no influence on the risk for reoperation or dislocation, nor had the age, gender or the surgeon's experience. The secondary HAs were associated with a significantly increased risk for reoperation (HR 2.6, CI 1.5-4.5) or dislocation (HR 3.3, CI 1.4-7.3) compared to the primary HAs. We found no difference in the risk for reoperation or dislocation when comparing Exeter unipolar and bipolar HAs, but special attention is called for to reduce the risk of prosthesis dislocation and reoperation after a secondary HA.
International Orthopaedics 07/2011; 36(4):711-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurs frequently in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding long-term sequelae of DVT after different types of surgical procedures.
To describe the long-term effect of symptomatic (SDVT) and asymptomatic (ADVT) deep venous thrombosis on venous function and subsequent incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in patients who have undergone surgery for Achilles tendon rupture.
This observational follow-up study includes 83 patients with postoperative DVT, examined after a mean of 7 years. There were two series of patients: 45 with SDVT and 38 with ADVT. In both series, more than 90% of the DVTs were limited to calf veins. Follow-up examinations comprised color duplex ultrasonography (CDU), strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP), clinical examination including scoring for venous disease and questionnaires for quality of life (QOL).
A mild degree of PTS was found in 11% of the patients: 13% in SDVT and 8% in ADVT patients. The rate of recurrent ipsilateral DVT was 2%. Deep venous reflux was more common in patients with SDVT than in ADVT patients (84% vs. 55%, P < 0.01). Only a few patients had plethysmograpically abnormal findings without difference between the two groups.
DVT after surgery for Achilles tendon rupture consists mainly of distal DVTs and are associated with a low risk for PTS. Deep venous reflux was more common in SDVT than in ADVT patients, probably as an effect of larger DVTs in the former group.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2011; 9(8):1493-9. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to prevent hip arthroplasty dislocations, information regarding the direction of the dislocation is important for accurate implant positioning and for optimising the postoperative regimens in relation to the surgical approach used. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the surgical approach on the direction of the dislocation in patients treated by a hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a femoral neck fracture. Fracture patients have a high risk for dislocations, and this issue has not been previously studied in a selected group of patients with a femoral neck fracture. We analysed the radiographs of the primary dislocation in 74 patients who had sustained a dislocation of their HA (n = 42) or THA (n = 32). In 42 patients an anterolateral (AL) surgical approach was used and in 32 a posterolateral (PL). The surgical approach significantly influenced the direction of dislocation in patients treated with HA (p < 0.001), while no such correlation was found after THA (p = 0.388). For THA patients there was a correlation between the mean angle of anteversion of the acetabular component and the direction of dislocation when comparing patients with anterior and posterior dislocations (p = 0.027). These results suggest that the surgical approach of a HA has an influence on the direction of dislocation, in contrast to THA where the position of the acetabular component seems to be of importance for the direction of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures.
International Orthopaedics 06/2010; 34(5):641-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative asymptomatic deep venous thromboses (ADVT) can give rise to posttthrombotic syndrome (PTS), but there are still many unresolved issues in this context. For example, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the fate of small ADVT following minor orthopedic surgery. This follow-up study evaluates postthrombotic changes and clinical manifestations of PTS in a group of patients with asymptomatic calf vein DVT after surgery for Achilles tendon rupture.
Forty-six consecutive patients with distal ADVT were contacted and enrolled in a follow-up consisting of a single visit at the hospital at a mean time of 5 years postoperatively, including clinical examination and scoring, ultrasonography and venous plethysmography. All patients had participated in DVT-screening with colour duplex ultrasound (CDU) 3 and 6 weeks postoperatively and 80% of them were treated with anticoagulation.
With CDU postthrombotic changes and deep venous reflux were detected at follow-up in more than 50% of the patients, more commonly in somewhat larger calf DVT:s initially affecting more than one vessel. However, only about 10% of the patients had significant venous reflux according to venous plethysmography. No patient had plethysmographic evidence of remaining outflow obstruction, but presence of postthrombotic changes shown with CDU negatively influenced venous outflow capacity measured with plethysmography. A clinical entity of PTS was rarely found and occurred only in two patients (4%) and then classified by Villalta scoring as of mild degree with few clinical signs of disease. Distal ADVT:s detected in the early postoperative period (3 weeks) showed DVT-progression in 75% of the limbs that were still immobilized and without anticoagulation.
Asymptomatic postoperative distal DVT:s following surgery for Achilles tendon rupture have a good prognosis and a favourable clinical outcome. In our material of 46 patients the general appearance of the clinical entity of PTS at 5 years follow-up was low (<5%). Morphological and functional abnormalities were mainly seen in those patients that initially had somewhat larger distal DVT:s involving more than one deep calf vein segment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a well-recognized condition that develops after symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, but the clinical significance and late complications of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis (ADVT) are unclear.
To determine whether ADVT following minor surgery affects venous function and contributes to the later development of PTS.
The study included 83 patients operated on for Achilles tendon rupture; 38 patients with postoperative ADVT and 45 patients without (control group). The follow-up examinations five years after the operation comprised computerised strain-gauge plethysmography, colour duplex ultrasonography, clinical scoring of venous disease, and quality of life (QOL).
Villalta scores, CEAP classification and QOL did not differ between groups. PTS (=Villalta score > or =5) was found in three ADVT patients (8%) and in two controls (4%). Ultrasonography revealed post-thrombotic changes in 55% of ADVT patients and in none of the controls. Deep venous reflux occurred in 22 ADVT patients and in three controls (P<0.001). There was no difference between groups in plethysmographic variables, demonstrating that the ultrasonographic abnormalities were of negligible haemodynamic significance.
PTS is not a common sequel to ADVT after minor surgery. Although more than 50% of patients with ADVT developed post-thrombotic changes according to ultrasound, these changes did not result in haemodynamically significant venous dysfunction.
European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 05/2009; 38(2):229-33. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total hip replacement is increasingly used in active, relatively healthy elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Dislocation of the prosthesis is a severe complication, and there is still controversy regarding the optimal surgical approach and its influence on stability. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the total hip replacement, paying special attention to the surgical approach.
We included 713 consecutive hips in a series of 698 patients (573 females) who had undergone a primary total hip replacement (n = 311) for a non-pathological, displaced femoral neck fracture (Garden III or IV) or a secondary total hip replacement (n = 402) due to a fracture-healing complication after a femoral neck fracture. We used Cox regression to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation after the operation. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon's experience, femoral head size, and surgical approach were tested as independent factors in the model.
The overall dislocation rate was 6%. The anterolateral surgical approach was associated with a lower risk of dislocation than the posterolateral approach with or without posterior repair (2%, 12%, and 14%, respectively (p < 0.001)). The posterolateral approach was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation, with a hazards ratio (HR) of 6 (2-14) for the posterolateral approach with posterior repair and of 6 (2-16) without posterior repair.
In order to minimize the risk of dislocation, we recommend the use of the anterolateral approach for total hip replacement in patients with femoral neck fractures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip replacement using a hemiarthroplasty is a common surgical procedure in elderly patients with fractures of the femoral neck. The optimal surgical approach regarding the risk of dislocation is controversial. We analyzed factors influencing the stability of the hemiarthroplasty, with special regard to the surgical approach.
We studied 720 consecutive patients on whom 739 hemiarthroplasties were performed between 1996 and 2003, either as a primary operation for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck or as a secondary procedure after failed internal fixation of a fracture of the femoral neck. Logistic regression analyses were performed in order to evaluate factors associated with prosthetic dislocation.
The multivariate regression analysis showed that the posterolateral approach was the only factor associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation: OR 3.9 (CI: 1.6-10) for the posterolateral approach with posterior repair and OR 6.9 (CI: 2.6-19) for the posterolateral approach without posterior repair. Age, sex, indication for surgery, the surgeon's experience, and type of HA had no statistically significant effect on the dislocation rate.
Compared to the anterolateral approach, the posterolateral approach was associated with a significantly increased risk of dislocation in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with HA. A posterior repair appears to reduce the rate of dislocation, although not to the same low level as in patients operated using the anterolateral approach.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal trauma and immobilization are well-known risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). While prophylaxis against thromboembolic complications has become routine after major orthopedic surgery, whether or not prophylaxis after minor surgery and lower limb immobilization is necessary is still under debate.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 272 consecutive patients were randomized to receive either thromboprophylaxis with Dalteparin (n = 136) or placebo (n = 136) for 5 weeks after ankle fracture surgery. All patients received 1 week of initial treatment with Dalteparin before randomization. A unilateral phlebography was performed when the cast was removed.
The overall incidence of DVT was 21% (95% CI: 13-29%) in the Dalteparin group and 28% (CI: 19- 37%) in the placebo group (risk ratio = 0.8, CI: 0.6-1.1; p = 0.3). The incidence of proximal DVTs was 4% and 3%, respectively. No major bleeding occurred.
We found no significant difference in the incidence of DVT between the 2 treatment groups and our results do not support prolonged thromboprophylaxis. The overall incidence of DVT was high, reflecting the potential risk of PE and post-thrombotic syndrome after ankle fracture surgery. Most of the DVTs were asymptomatic, however, and were located in distal veins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prophylaxis against thromboembolic complications has become routine after major orthopedic surgery. In contrast, it remains an issue for debate whether prophylaxis after minor surgery and immobilization is necessary, even though these treatments are well-known risk factors for deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dalteparin during lower-limb immobilization after surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. DESIGN SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 105 consecutive patients surgically treated for Achilles tendon rupture in a trauma hospital. DVT screening with color duplex sonography was conducted 3 weeks and 6 weeks after surgery. All DVTs were confirmed with phlebography. Intervention was placebo or dalteparin (5000 U) given subcutaneously once daily for 6 weeks postoperatively.
Primary endpoint analysis was available for 91 patients. DVT was diagnosed in 16 of 47 patients (34%) in the dalteparin group and in 16 of 44 patients (36%) in the placebo group. These figures are not significantly different (P = 0.8). Proximal DVT was diagnosed in 1 patient (2%) in the dalteparin group and in 3 patients (6%) in the placebo group (P = 0.6). No pulmonary emboli or major bleeding occurred in either of the groups.
DVT is common after surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture, and therefore effective thromboprophylaxis is desirable. In our study, thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin, however, does not affect the incidence of DVT during immobilization after Achilles tendon rupture surgery. Long-term effects of immobilization, such as the risk for postthrombotic syndrome, need to be investigated further.
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 02/2007; 21(1):52-7. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phlebography is regarded as the reference standard for diagnosing asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in studies of thromboprophylaxis. However, technical advances with noninvasive color duplex sonography (CDS) have made this procedure an interesting alternative.
The objective of the present prospective study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of CDS with those of phlebography.
The first 180 consecutive patients included in a larger randomized trial for prolonged thromboprophylaxis were subject to unilateral CDS and to phlebography after ankle fracture surgery. The patients were examined 6 weeks after surgery, all examinations being evaluated blindly. After patient drop outs and exclusions, 144 patients were left for analysis.
Phlebography and CDS examinations were inconclusive or were not completed for 19% of these patients (28/144). DVT was diagnosed by phlebography in 21% (24/116) of the remaining patients. Most of the thrombi were isolated calf DVTs (18/24). In contrast, DVT was diagnosed by CDS in 31% of these patients (36/116): only one case diagnosed by phlebography was missed by CDS. The specificity of CDS is thus 86% and its sensitivity is 96%. The positive predictive value is 64%, and the negative predictive value is 99%.
CDS is a safe method for detecting asymptomatic distal DVT. It has a high sensitivity and high negative predictive value, which means that the method is highly reliable to rule out DVT. Our results indicate that CDS could be considered as an alternative method for DVT screening.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2006; 4(4):807-12. · 6.08 Impact Factor