Georgi Abraham

Madras Medical Mission, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (161)203.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old man with diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, presented with persistent cough and hiccups, continued to be unwell with weight loss, poor appetite, and recurrent respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and cough. Whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed metabolically active lesions in liver, stomach/lesser sac, pancreas, and left sixth rib. As he had repeated bilateral transudative pleural effusion, left mini thoracotomy with pleural biopsy showed no evidence of granuloma or malignancy. Upper gastroscopy showed tiny gastric polyp; biopsy revealed benign lesion. Left posterior rib biopsy from the lesion and iliac crest biopsy showed no evidence of malignancy or granuloma. Further evaluation showed plasma chromogranin A -5737 μg/L (<100 μg/L) with a repeat value of 6950 μg/L (<100 μg/L). He was initiated on oral sunitinib 25 mg once a day and injection octreotide 20 mg subcutaneously once a month. The plasma chromogranin A level and his symptoms, however, showed an initial improvement, but gradually worsened after 4 months despite being on treatment. After 6 months, the patient developed a gangrenous lesion of his glans penis with necrosis. Due to severe pain on conservative measures, penectomy with perineal urethrostomy was performed. Biopsy of the lesion showed blood vessels with intimal calcifications and thrombosis suggesting penile necrosis. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.
    Hemodialysis International 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/hdi.12337 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate nutrition in patients on hemodialysis is an important step for improving the quality of life. This prospective study was undertaken to monitor the nutritional status of patients who were given high-protein supplements on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and to correlate with biochemical parameters in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This prospective study was conducted on 55 chronic kidney disease patients on MHD (37 women, 18 men), aged between 21 and 67 years. Of the 55 patients, 26 patients received high-protein commercial nutritional supplements, whereas 29 patients received high-protein kitchen feeding. Every patient had their MIS, 24-hour dietary recall, hand grip, mid arm circumference, triceps skin-fold thickness at 0, 3, and 6 months. Each of the above parameters was compared between the high-protein commercial nutritional supplement cohort and high-protein kitchen feeding cohort, and the data were analyzed. Of the 55 patients, 82.61% of patients on high-protein kitchen feeding group and 66.67% in high-protein commercial nutritional supplement group were nonvegetarian (P = 0.021). According to the MIS, improvement was observed in malnutrition status from 3- to 6-month period in 38.1% of patients in high-protein commercial supplement group, whereas only in 8.7% in high-protein kitchen feeding group (P = 0.04). Assessment showed improvement in malnutrition status with high-protein commercial nutritional supplement, which was marked in patients with age group >65 years (P = 0.03) and in those in whom serum albumin is <35 g/L (P = 0.02). Both high-protein kitchen feeding and high-protein commercial nutritional supplement cohorts were observed to have improvement in overall nutritional status. Older patients >65 years with lower serum albumin levels (<3.5 g/dL) were observed to have significant improvement in nutritional status with high-protein commercial nutritional supplements. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.
    Hemodialysis International 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/hdi.12330 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are available for the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While developed countries mainly use hemodialysis as a form of RRT, peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been increasingly utilized in developing countries. Chronic PD offers various benefits including lower cost, home-based therapy, single access, less requirement of highly trained personnel and major infrastructure, higher number of patients under a single nephrologist with probably improved quality of life and freedom of activities. PD has been found to be lifesaving in the management of AKI in patients in developing countries where facilities for other forms of RRT are not readily available. The International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis has published guidelines regarding the use of PD in AKI, which has helped in ensuring uniformity. PD has also been successfully used in certain special situations of AKI due to snake bite, malaria, febrile illness, following cardiac surgery and in poisoning. Hemodialysis is the most common form of RRT used in ESRD worldwide, but some countries have begun to adopt a ‘PD first’ policy to reduce healthcare costs of RRT and ensure that it reaches the underserved population.
    05/2015; 8(3). DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfv029
  • Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 04/2015; 35(2):233-234. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2014.00086 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract There is an enormous increase in the burden of chronic kidney disease both in developing and developed countries. There is a paucity of data on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in India. We used a cross-sectional prospective observational study to determine the prevalence of OSA in non-dialysis CKD patients. Of the 647 CKD patients 302 patients were in stage II, III and IV. The study population was screened using the Berlin questionnaire and 87 patients were positive for OSA (28%). Among the 87, 37 patients were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. Fifty patients underwent a split night sleep study. Stage II, III CKD patients were clubbed as early CKD or group one and stage IV CKD patients were clubbed as late CKD or group two. The spilt night study revealed an 88% incidence of OSA of varying severity. A sub group analysis was done to assess the severity of OSA. A statistical significance (p < 0.05) between early and late CKD group was observed with respect to AHI and ODI. An improvement in the late CKD is observed and the Z values for AHI and ODI are 4.273 and 2.307, respectively. The prevalence and incidence of OSA was found to be 28% and 88% in non-dialysis CKD patients, respectively and the risk and severity of OSA increased with the progression of CKD stages and thus necessitating the need for screening the non-dialysis CKD population.
    Renal Failure 11/2014; 37(2):1-5. DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.979730 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a 47 year old patient with proven primary IgA nephropathy who presented with osteomyelitis of the medial end of the right clavicle. The patient was not on immunosuppressive medications. He underwent aspiration curettage and CT scan of the clavicle which yielded pus that grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy the patient presented a complete recovery of the lesion with no loss of renal function. This case highlights the importance of positive cultures in the choice of the appropriate therapy in an extremely rare case of an immunocompetent patient with osteomyelitis of the clavicle.
    11/2014; 3:268. DOI:10.12688/f1000research.3891.1
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    ABSTRACT: There has been an exponential increase in the incidence of diabetes and hypertension in India in the last few decades, with a proportional increase in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preventive health care and maintenance of asymptomatic chronic disease such as CKD are often neglected by patients until they become symptomatic with fluid retention and uremia. Management of hyperphosphatemia in CKD remains one of the challenges of nephrology in India for this reason, as it is almost completely asymptomatic but contributes to renal osteodystrophy, metastatic vascular calcification, and acceleration of cardiovascular disease. Lack of understanding of the dangers of asymptomatic hyperphosphatemia, the huge pill burden of phosphate binders, difficulty with dietary and dialysis compliance, and most importantly, the added expense of the drugs places additional road blocks in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia at a population level in developing countries like India. In this review we seek to address the contribution of hyperphosphatemia to adverse outcomes and discuss economic, cultural, and societal factors unique to the management of phosphate levels in Indian patients with advanced CKD.
    International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 10/2014; 7:391-9. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S49933
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Hydration and nutritional status of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Body composition monitoring (BCM) by multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (MFBS) is considered to be a superior modality of fluid assessment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialysis. We did a longitudinal prospective study in South India on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients over 24 months and looked at impact of baseline nutritional parameters and body composition parameters on 24-month mortality. Ninety-nine patients stable on dialysis for at least 3 months were recruited (MHD 85, CAPD 14) at baseline and at 24 months, 41 were alive and 33 had expired, 12 had undergone renal transplant and 13 were lost to follow-up. BCM and nutritional assessment were done at baseline and at follow-up. Baseline overhydration (OH) differed significantly between surviving and dead patients (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between OH and mortality showed that the best cut-off point to differentiate between survived and expired patients was 3.15 L. ROC curve for BMI showed lower than cut-off of 22.65 kg/m(2) to predict mortality with sensitivity 41.30% and specificity 81.81%. At follow-up, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF), biceps skin fold thickness (BSF) and mid arm circumference (MAC) increased significantly from baseline (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Overhydration and BMI are important predictors of mortality in dialysis patients. Improvement in anthropometric markers TSF, BSF and MAC in MHD patients was associated with survival.
    Renal Failure 09/2014; 37(1):1-7. DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.964147 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of data on mineral bone disease in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients from India. This retrospective analysis was undertaken on 858 (males: 599; females: 259) patients from two medical centers on MHD from 1998 to 2010. Age, gender, months on dialysis, hours per session of dialysis, hemoglobin, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), urine output, erythropoietin dosage per week, blood sugar, blood pressure, urea reduction rate, gain in fluid and fluid removed per session, serum albumin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D level, supplemental vitamin D and use of phosphate binder for therapy were documented. Overall, 191 patients died (22%) during the observation period. There was an 86% patient survival rate at 1 year on dialysis and an overall predicted 3-year survival rate of 78%. A relatively higher iPTH (P = 0.012), a need for vitamin D supplementation (P = 0.003), less hours on dialysis per session (P = 0.046) and a non-vegetarian diet (P = 0.022) were significantly associated with mortality.
    Indian Journal of Nephrology 09/2014; 24(5):302-7. DOI:10.4103/0971-4065.132988
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    08/2014; 25(2):26. DOI:10.15582/ijpd/2014/v25i0/51812
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    08/2014; 25(2):20. DOI:10.15582/ijpd/2014/v25i0/51811
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    Ilangovan Veerappan · Georgi Abraham
    08/2014; 25(2):40. DOI:10.15582/ijpd/2014/v25i0/51814
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A 68-year-old diabetic chronic kidney disease patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for two years developed Candida haemulonii peritonitis without any predisposing factors. There is no effective treatment for this fungus. A peritoneal biopsy showed morphological changes of acute inflammation and chronicity.
    Renal Failure 07/2014; 36(9):1-2. DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.944067 · 0.78 Impact Factor
  • The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal 07/2014; 7(1):56-59. DOI:10.2174/1874303X01407010056
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    ABSTRACT: Background Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the collective probability of CIN in Indian population by developing a scoring system of several identified risk factors in patients undergoing PCI. Methods This is a prospective single center study of 1200 consecutive patients who underwent PCI from 2008 to 2011. Patients were randomized in 3:1 ratio into development (n = 900) and validation (n = 300) groups. CIN was defined as an increase of ≥25% and/or ≥0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 hours after PCI when compared to baseline value. Seven independent predictors of CIN were identified using logistic regression analysis - amount of contrast, diabetes with microangiopathy, hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and anemia. A formula was then developed to identify the probability of CIN using the logistic regression equation. Results The mean (±SD) age was 57.3 (±10.2) years. 83.6% were males. The total incidence of CIN was 9.7% in the development group. The total risk of renal replacement therapy in the study group is 1.1%. Mortality is 0.5%. The risk scoring model correlated well in the validation group (incidence of CIN was 8.7%, sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 82.1%, c statistic 0.95). Conclusion A simple risk scoring equation can be employed to predict the probability of CIN following PCI, applying it to each individual. More vigilant preventive measures can be applied to the high risk candidates.
    Indian Heart Journal 06/2014; 111(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ihj.2014.05.025 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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    Nephrology 04/2014; 19(Supplement S2):184-185. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: This aim of this multi-centric cross-sectional study was to assess the nutritional status in Indian chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and to compare the nutritional indicators between stage 5 dialyzed (CKD-D) patients below the poverty line (BPL), and stage 3-4 non-dialyzed (CKD-ND) patients above (APL) and below the poverty line. Methods: Patients were selected from a government medical college hospital, a charity-based outpatient dialysis unit, and a non-profit tertiary care center. The study groups included BPL CKD-ND (n = 100), BPL CKD-D (n = 98), and APL CKD-ND (n = 92) patients, based on a cut-off of per capita income US $1.25 a day. Patients were enquired by a qualified renal dietitian about their pattern of diet, and daily energy and protein intake by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were made and compared. Results: Nutritional indicators were low in all three groups compared to those prescribed by European Best Practice Guidelines (EBPG). BPL CKD-D patients had low serum albumin levels (32.44444 ± 6.279961 g/L; p = 0.017) and 41.83% of them were underweight. The APL CKD-ND group registered the lowest mean daily energy (22.576 ± 6.289 kcal/kg/day) and protein intake (0.71 ± 0.06 g/kg/day), due to dietary restrictions imposed on them by themselves and unqualified renal dietitians. The APL group had better indicators of nutritional status in terms of mid-upper arm circumference (p = 0.001), triceps skin fold thickness (p < 0.001), and serum hemoglobin (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Several nutritional parameters were below the recommended international guidelines for all the three groups, though the high income group had better parameters from several indicators. There is an urgent need for nutritional counseling for CKD-D and CKD-ND patients.
    Renal Failure 01/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2013.872570 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diseases of the genitourinary tract in association with the BK virus (BKV) infec-tion are increasing among renal allograft recipients. We herewith report a young, female renal transplant recipient who presented with allograft dysfunction secondary to proximal ureteric stenosis. The allograft function improved dramatically after correction and stenting of the ste-nosis. Our case suggests that screening for BKV infection should be an integral part of evaluation of allograft dysfunction.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2014; 25(1):101-4. DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.124508
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    11/2013; 6(6):659-661. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sft105