Carmen Díaz-Pedroche

Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (19)37.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The symptomatic presentation of cerebral schistosomiasis is uncommon. The case of a 25-year-old woman from Equatorial Guinea with headache and seizures secondary to cerebral neuroschistosomiasis, as confirmed by histopathological examination and microbiological study, is presented. A review of the literature on this subject is also provided.
    Case Reports 01/2009; 2009.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was designed to assess the reliability of the serial detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with febrile neutropenia. Two blood and two serum samples were taken weekly from 83 patients. A total of 2,244 samples were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Twelve (14.4%) patients were diagnosed with IA. Taking two consecutive positive results as the diagnostic criterion, PCR detected 11 cases, with 4 false positives, giving sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 91.6%, 94.4%, 73.3%, and 98.5%, respectively. On analyzing in conjunction with high-resolution chest tomography (HRCT) and galactomannan (GM) testing, the combination of serial PCR and GM detected 100% of aspergillosis cases, with a positive predictive value of 75.1%. This diagnostic strategy presented, according to CART analysis, a receiver-operator curve with an area under the curve of 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.895 to 1.032; P < 0.01), with a relative risk of IA 6.92 times higher than the control population and with predictive success of 95.2%. As regards early diagnosis, the serial detection of Aspergillus DNA took on average 21 days less than HRCT and 68 days less than GM. The serial detection of Aspergillus DNA using real-time quantitative PCR has great diagnostic applicability, which increases when combined with GM quantification.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2008; 47(2):379-84. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited information about clinical consequences of respiratory virus infections (RVI) in solid organ transplant recipients. No prospective epidemiological study has been published previously. We selected a cohort of 152 transplant recipients (cardiac, hepatic and renal transplant recipients). Median time from transplantation was 17 months (range 1-50). They were prospectively followed-up for RVI during 7 months (October to April). Clinical and microbiological evaluation (cell culture, shell vial and polymerase chain reaction technique) of each RVI episode was made. We detected 81 RVI (0.91 episodes/patient/year). Complications were detected in 15/81 episodes (18.5%): acute bronchitis (10 cases), pneumonia (three cases; 3.7% of RVI episodes) and bacterial sinusitis (2 cases). In 4 of 81 episodes (5%), patients needed hospitalization. A respiratory virus was isolated in 17 of 68 nasopharyngeal samples (six respiratory syncytial virus, six influenza, four picornavirus, one adenovirus). Fever presented an 83% positive predictive value for the diagnosis of influenza virus infection among those with a positive microbiological isolation. There were no episodes of acute rejection coincidentally with RVI. Only 54% of the subjects had been previously vaccinated against influenza. Incidence of RVI among solid organ transplant recipients is similar to general population but complications are higher. A relationship between RVI and rejection was not detected. The rate of influenza vaccination was lower than expected. The presence of fever in a transplant recipient with RVI strongly suggests influenza infection.
    Transplantation 11/2007; 84(7):851-6. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the acquisition routes of infection is crucial to designing specific preventive approaches against Staphylococcus aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis. From 2002 to 2004, a nasal sample was obtained from patients before cardiac surgery. We collected clinical and microbiologic data of all episodes of S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis. A case-control study (3:1) was performed to confirm the role of previous preoperative nasal colonization by S aureus as a risk factor for S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis molecular analysis of nasal and surgical site S aureus isolates was performed to analyze their relatedness in each patient with poststernotomy mediastinitis and with other patients of the study cohort. S aureus nasal cultures were positive in 228 (15.9%) of 1432 patients: methicillin-susceptible S aureus in 222 (15.5%) and meticillin-resistant S aureus in 6 (0.4%). S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis was diagnosed in 17 (1.2%) of 1432 patients: 9 (3.95%) of 228 in colonized patients versus 8 (0.66%) of 1204 in noncolonized patients (P < .0001). Seven of 9 patients (1.2%) with methicillin-susceptible S aureus had an identical isolate by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in preoperative nasal and surgical-site cultures, but no clonal relatedness was shown among the isolates from these 9 patients. None of the 8 patients with methicillin-resistant S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis had an identical isolate by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in preoperative nasal and surgical-site cultures, and the same clone of methicillin-resistant S aureus was responsible for all these cases. Endogenous [corrected] nasal colonization often precedes methicillin-resistant S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis, which suggests that preoperative [corrected] decontamination is adequate for preventing methicillin-susceptible [corrected] S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis, whereas hospital infection control measures seem to be the major factor for preventing methicillin-resistant S aureus poststernotomy mediastinitis.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 09/2007; 134(3):670-6. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of pleural empyema caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at the University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid (Spain). We included all adult patients with pleural empyema caused by S. pneumoniae diagnosed from 1998 to 2004. Eighteen cases of pleural empyema due to S. pneumoniae were analyzed. Fourteen patients had symptoms of respiratory infection, three had other symptoms, and one patient was asymptomatic. One-third of the patients did not have a pneumonia infiltrate visible on chest radiogram. In 46%, bacteremia was detected. All pleural fluids had a high white blood cell count, either with polymorphonuclear or lymphocytic predominance. Drainage with a chest tube was used in 94.4% of cases. Nine patients had a favorable outcome, five had to be admitted to the intensive care unit, and two died within the first week (mortality rate of 11.1%). Pleural empyema caused by S. pneumoniae has to be considered an aggressive disease that, occasionally, affects young and previously healthy individuals. Clinical manifestations are variable and pleural fluid can be a lymphocytic exudate. It has a noticeable associated morbidity and mortality, which must be kept in mind by clinicians when approaching a patient with a pleural effusion.
    European Journal of Internal Medicine 04/2007; 18(2):141-5. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information describing the incidence and clinical characteristics of late infection (LI) in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to define the incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors for LI (>6 months) as compared with infection in the early period (<6 months) after SOT. By the online database of the Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation (RESITRA) we prospectively analyzed 2702 SOT recipients from September 2003 to February 2005. Univariate and multivariate analysis using logistic regression were performed to calculate the risk factors associated with the development of LI. A total of 131 patients developed 176 LI episodes (8%). Global incidence of LI was 0.4 per 1000 transplant-days, ranging from 0.3/1000 in kidney transplants to 1.4 in lung transplants. Independent risk factors for LI in were: acute rejection in the early period (OR 1.5; CI 95%: 1.1-2.3), chronic graft malfunction (OR 2; CI 95%: 1.4-3), re-operation (OR 1.9; CI 95%: 1.3-2.8) relapsing viral infection apart from CMV (OR 1.9; CI 95%: 1.1-3.5), previous bacterial infection (OR 1.8; CI 95%: 1.2-2.6) and lung transplantation (OR 4.5; CI 95%: 2.6-7.8). Severe LI occurs in a subgroup of high-risk SOT recipients who deserve a more careful follow-up and could benefit from prolonged prophylactic measures similar to that performed in the early period after transplantation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 04/2007; 7(4):964-71. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of opportunistic infection (OI) is considered to be maximum during the first six months after solid organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to know the incidence and risk factors for OI in the late period (>6 months) compared with the early period (<6 months) after solid organ transplantation. We used the online database of the Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation (RESITRA), which prospectively analyzed 2,702 solid organ transplantation recipients from August 2003 to February 2005. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate the risk factors associated with the development of late OI. A total of 131 patients (6%) developed 176 infectious episodes in the late period. Although the incidence of infection and cytomegalovirus disease (0.4 per 1000 transplant days and 0.05 per 1000 transplant days, respectively) was lower than in the early period (3.5 per 1000 transplant days and 0.8 per 1000 transplant days; P<0.0001), the incidence of other OIs was similar in both periods (0.05 per 1000 transplant days versus 0.03 per 1000 transplant-days, P=0.5). Patients with the higher risk for developing late OI were those receiving early cytomegalovirus prophylaxis, patients who developed two or more episodes of acute rejection during the early period, patients with recurrent bacterial infection during the early period, patients with renal failure requiring dialysis, and patients with chronic graft malfunction. Our data suggest that in some high-risk patients, the critical period of risk for OI must be expanded beyond the first six months after transplant.
    Transplantation 01/2007; 82(11):1457-62. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in blood and urine for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of PCR performed in blood and urine samples from patients with proved or probable TB compared with a control group of patients. The PCR technique was performed using IS6110 primers. We included in the study 57 patients (43 with definite TB and 14 with probable TB) and 26 controls. Blood and urine samples were drawn at the time of microbiologic diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later. Cultures were positive in the early period (<1 month after treatment) in 11 of 57 patients (19%) with probable or definite TB, in comparison with 42% of patients (24/57) who yielded a positive PCR (P = 0.02). Urine samples increased the sensitivity of PCR determination in blood samples by 10%. The PCR in blood and/or urine was positive in 41% of patients with pulmonary TB, in 36% of patients with extrapulmonary TB, and in 50% of patients with disseminated TB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was still detectable by PCR in 5 of 13 patients with cured TB after 1 or more months of antituberculous treatment. The PCR detection of M. tuberculosis in blood and urine samples is useful for the diagnosis of different clinical forms of TB, mostly in those patients in which sample extraction is difficult or requires aggressive techniques. The sensitivity of this technique could be improved studying more than 1 sample in each patient, even after initiating an antituberculous treatment.
    Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 11/2006; 56(2):141-6. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to take the best approach to infection in the oncohematologic patient with fever, it is important to know not only how profound the neutropenia is and how long the patient has had it, but also the characteristics of the underlying disease, the immunosuppressive therapy received and the type of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplantation performed. Moreover, is important to consider if these patients have any personal or familial history of infectious diseases. All these aspects let us calculate the net state of immunosuppression and the risk of infection, and provide us with information about the most probable etiology in each case and the best prophylaxis and treatment. In this study we review the more important advances in chemotherapy in recent years that will make it necessary in the future to change our prophylactic guidelines for more effective prevention of infection in the oncohematologic patient.
    Revista espanola de quimioterapia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia 07/2006; 19(2):117-29. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of valganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in high-risk seropositive transplant patients is not known. We prospectively followed 301 seropositive solid organ transplant recipients to assess the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir (VGCV) in the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk patients. Asymptomatic patients with an antigenemia test >or=25 positive cells/2x10(5) polymorphonuclear cells received valganciclovir 900 mg twice a day as preemptive therapy until resolution of antigenemia (minimum 14 days). Additionally, patients treated with antilymphocytic drugs for more than 6 days received prophylaxis with VGCV 900 mg once a day during 90 days. Mean follow-up was 14 months (range 6-20 months). Thirty-eight patients received VGCV; 24 as preemptive therapy and 14 due to the use of antilymphocytic drugs. No patient developed CMV disease during the follow-up. Viral load (antigenemia) decreased a mean of 78% from baseline after 7 days of VGCV therapy (P=0.024) and 98% at day 14 (P=0.029). Two patients showed a relapse of the antigenemia test >or=25 positive cells and were successfully treated with a repeated course of VGCV. Leukopenia (<2500/mm3) developed in 3/24 (12.5%) recipients in the preemptive therapy group and required to discontinuing the drug in one of them. VGCV is safe and highly efficacious in the prevention of CMV disease in high-risk seropositive organ transplant recipients.
    Transplantation 07/2006; 82(1):30-5. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 02/2006; 24(1):61-3. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction This study describes a nosocomial outbreak of influenza in high-risk-hematological patients, and the usefulness of epidemiological measures and zanamivir administration for its control. Methods Fifteen patients who had been in contact with a patient with influenza A were included in the study. Viral culture of nasopharyngeal exudate was performed and the epidemiological data, risk factors and clinical outcome were evaluated. The efficacy of early therapy and preventive use of zanamivir was also assessed. Results Seven out of 15 patients (46.6%) developed symptoms and in 5 of these 7 cases (71.4%), influenza A virus was isolated. Eight patients did not develop symptoms and viral culture was sterile. All symptomatic patients were isolated, and treatment with inhaled zanamivir (10 mg/12 h, 5 days) was initiated as soon as possible; only one patient developed respiratory failure; the remaining cases had self-limited upper respiratory tract symptoms. There was no associated mortality. Zanamivir prophylaxis was used in three non-symptomatic patients considered to be at high risk. Tolerance to zanamivir was excellent. No new cases were observed after initiation of the preventive measures and use of zanamivir. Conclusion The attack rate in a nosocomial influenza outbreak can be very high in immunocompromised patients. Prompt initiation of preventive measures, early treatment and prophylaxis with zanamivir may help to limit the extension of these outbreaks.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 01/2006; 24(1):10–13. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Carmen Díaz-Pedroche, Manuel Lizasoain, Dolores Folgueira
    Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica, ISSN 0213-005X, Vol. 24, Nº. 1, 2006, pags. 61-63. 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We prospectively followed 70 CMV-seropositive solid organ transplant recipients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir (VGCV) as preemptive therapy based on antigenemia test to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. From December 2003 to May 2004, 12 of 70 (17%) asymptomatic patients who showed an antigenemia value > or =25 positive cells per 2 x 10(5) polymorphonuclear (PMN) were treated with VGCV (900 mg twice a day adjusted to renal function) until resolution of CMV antigenemia, a minimum of 14 days. No patient developed CMV disease during follow-up. Only one who showed an asymptomatic relapse of the antigenemia test > or =25 positive cells was successfully treated with a repeated course of VGCV. Mean duration of VGCV therapy was 18 days (range, 14 to 28). Antigenemia was negative in 7 of 12 (58%) patients after 14 days and negative in all patients 4 weeks after the administration of VGCV. No significant side effects were associated with the use of VGCV therapy. Preemptive VGCV therapy is safe and effective in the prevention of CMV disease in seropositive solid organ transplant recipients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2005; 37(9):3766-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solid organ transplantation is the best alternative for the treatment of end-stage kidney, liver, heart, pancreas and lung failure. Fungal infections (the most frequent are Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.) are associated with highest mortality in solid organ transplantation. The systemic use of liposomal amphotericin B has only been studied in liver transplant recipients. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the five studies that have been published are: 1) for the prophylaxis to be effective against Aspergillus spp., a dose of 5 mg/kg/day must be used; 2) its use must be reserved for situations with the highest risk for invasive fungal infections: retransplantation, the need for resurgery and, mainly, for those patients needing haemodialysis. Preliminary studies for the prophylactic use of nebulized liposomal amphotericin B in lung transplant receptors are promising.
    Revista espanola de quimioterapia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia 04/2005; 18(1):14-20. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Carmen Díaz-Pedroche, Francisco López-Medrano, Ignacio Arrese
    Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica, ISSN 0213-005X, Vol. 23, Nº. 6, 2005, pags. 385-386. 01/2005;
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    Antonio Lalueza, Carmen Díaz-Pedroche, Amparo Broseta
    Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica, ISSN 0213-005X, Vol. 23, Nº. 6, 2005, pags. 381-382. 01/2005;
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    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 01/1983; 23(6):381-2. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 23(6):385-6. · 1.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

219 Citations
37.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2008
    • Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2005–2006
    • Hospital 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain