[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We report a prospective multicenter phase II study of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using CD3/CD19-depleted grafts after reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine, thiotepa, melphalan and OKT-3. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-one adults with a median age of 46 years (range 19-65 years) have been enrolled. Diagnoses were acute myeloid leukemia (n=38), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=8), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=6), myeloma (n=4), chronic myeloid leukemia (n=3), chronic lymphatic leukemia (n=1) and myelodysplastic syndrome (n=1). Patients were considered high risk because of refractory disease (n=18), cytogenetics (n=6), complete remission (≥2) (n=9), chemosensitive relapse in partial remission (n=4) or relapse after prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=15 allogeneic, n=8 autologous, n=1 both). At haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 30 patients were in complete remission and 31 in partial remission. Grafts contained a median of 7.0×10(6) (range 3.2-22) CD34(+) cells/kg, 4.2×10(4) (range 0.6-44) CD3(+) T cells/kg and 2.7×10(7) (range 0.00-37.3) CD56(+) cells/kg. RESULTS: Engraftment was rapid with a median of 12 days to granulocytes more than 0.5×10(9)/L (range 9-50 days) and 11 days to platelets more than 20×10(9) (range 7-38 days). Incidence of grade IIIV acute graft-versus-host-disease and chronic graft-versus-host-disease was 46% and 18%, respectively. Non-relapse mortality on Day 100 was 23% and 42% at two years. Cumulative incidence of relapse/progression at two years was 31%. Kaplan-Meier estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival with median follow up of 869 days (range 181-1932) is 41% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions This regimen allows successful haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning in high-risk patients lacking a suitable donor. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:NCT00202917).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alternative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic transplantation, based on treosulfan and fludarabine, has recently been identified. The safety and efficacy of this new conditioning regimen has been investigated prospectively in patients with AML. A total number of 75 patients with AML in CR were treated with 3 × 14 g/m(2) treosulfan and 5 × 30 mg/m(2) fludarabine, followed by matched sibling or unrelated SCT. Patients were evaluated for engraftment, adverse events, GVHD, and for non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, overall and disease-free survival (DFS). All patients showed primary engraftment of neutrophils after a median of 20 days. Non-hematological adverse events grade III-IV in severity included mainly infections (59%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (7%). Acute GVHD grade II-IV occurred in 21% and extensive chronic GVHD occurred in 16% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 715 days, the 2-year overall and DFS estimates were 61% and 55%, respectively. The 2-year incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality reached 34% and 11%, respectively. In summary, our data confirm promising safety and efficacy of the treosulfan-based conditioning therapy in AML patients, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01063660.
Bone marrow transplantation 12/2011; 47(9):1171-7. · 3.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is a feasible procedure in selected patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM), but its efficacy remains a matter of debate. The mortality and morbidity related to the procedure and the rather high relapse risk make the use of allo-SCT controversial. In addition, the availability of novel antimyeloma treatments, such as bortezomib and immunomodulatory agents, have made allo-SCT less appealing to clinicians. We investigated the role of RIC allo-SCT in patients with MM who relapsed after autologous stem cell transplantation and were then treated with a salvage therapy based on novel agents. This study was structured similarly to an intention-to-treat analysis and included only those patients who underwent HLA typing immediately after the relapse. Patients with a donor (donor group) and those without a suitable donor (no-donor group) were compared. A total of 169 consecutive patients were evaluated retrospectively in a multicenter study. Of these, 75 patients found a donor and 68 (91%) underwent RIC allo-SCT, including 24 from an HLA-identical sibling (35%) and 44 from an unrelated donor (65%). Seven patients with a donor did not undergo allo-SCT for progressive disease or concomitant severe comorbidities. The 2-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 22% in the donor group and 1% in the no-donor group (P < .0001). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 42% in the donor group and 18% in the no-donor group (P < .0001). The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 54% in the donor group and 53% in the no-donor group (P = .329). In multivariate analysis, lack of a donor was a significant unfavorable factor for PFS, but not for OS. Lack of chemosensitivity after salvage treatment and high-risk karyotype at diagnosis significantly shortened OS. In patients who underwent allo-SCT, the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease had a significant protective effect on OS. This study provides evidence for a significant PFS benefit of salvage treatment with novel drugs followed by RIC allo-SCT in patients with relapsed MM who have a suitable donor.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 08/2011; 18(4):617-26. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alternative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic transplantation, based on treosulfan and fludarabine, has recently been identified. The rationale for this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of this regimen prospectively in patients with a primary myelodysplastic syndrome.
A total of 45 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes were conditioned with 3×14 g/m(2) treosulfan and 5×30 mg/m(2) fludarabine followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes were refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 (44%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (27%), refractory anemia (9%), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory anemia with excess blasts-1 (2%), and myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del (5q) (2%). The myelodysplastic syndrome was unclassified in 7% of the patients. Forty-seven percent of the patients had a favorable karyotype, 29% an unfavorable one, and 18% an intermediate karyotype. Patients were evaluated for engraftment, adverse events, graft-versus-host disease, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, overall survival and disease-free survival.
All but one patient showed primary engraftment of neutrophils after a median of 17 days. Non-hematologic adverse events of grade III-IV in severity included mainly infections and gastrointestinal symptoms (80% and 22% of the patients, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV developed in 24%, and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease in 28% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 780 days, the 2-year overall and disease-free survival estimates were 71% and 67%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 17% and 16%, respectively.
Our safety and efficacy data suggest that treosulfan-based conditioning therapy is a promising treatment option for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01062490.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence of infections due to previously rare opportunistic pathogens is increasing despite the use of novel treatment strategies for immunocompromised patients. Here, we report the case of a patient presenting with fever, muscle pain, and bilateral endophthalmitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Fusarium solani was isolated from peripheral blood samples and identified as the cause of gradual bilateral vision loss, despite appropriate antifungal prophylaxis, and therapy including vitrectomy and intraocular instillation of antifungal agents. The patient became comatose; basal meningitis involving both optic nerves was suspected based on magnetic resonance tomography. The patient died 8 days later due to septic multi-organ failure. Autopsy revealed that both kidneys, but no other organs, were infiltrated by Fusarium. No fungus was found in cerebral tissues or cerebrospinal fluid. Our case demonstrates some of the typical clinical features of systemic fusariosis and its potentially fatal outcome. The clinical observations reported here may help clinicians caring for immunocompromised patients to accelerate diagnosis and initiate treatment early at the onset of this fatal complication, and highlight the urgent need for interdisciplinary management of invasive fusariosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Daptomycin is a novel lipopeptide antibiotic agent approved for the treatment of gram-positive life-threatening infections. Here we report, for the first time, the isolation of a highly daptomycin-resistant strain of Corynebacterium jeikeium causing a life-threatening infection in a neutropenic patient undergoing cord blood transplantation for secondary acute myeloid leukemia.
Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2009; 47(7):2328-31. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GVL effect following allo-SCT is one of the most prominent examples showing the ability of the immune system to eliminate malignant hematological diseases. Tumor-associated Ags (TAA), for instance WT1 and proteinase-3, have been proposed as targets for T cells to establish a GVL effect. Here, we examined an additional TAA (MUC1) as a possible T-cell target of GVL-related immune responses. We have defined new peptide epitopes from the MUC1 Ag to broaden patients' screening and to expand the repertoire of immunologic monitoring as well as for therapeutic approaches in the future. Twenty-eight patients after allo-SCT have been screened for T-cell responses toward TAA (proteinase-3, WT1, MUC1). We could detect a significant relationship between relapse and the absence of a TAA-specific T-cell response, whereby only 2/13 (15%) patients with TAA-specific CTL relapsed, in contrast to 9/15 (60%) patients without TAA-specific CTL responses (P<0.05). In conclusion, CD8(+) T-cell responses directed to TAA might contribute to the GVL effect. These observations highlight both the importance and the potential of immunotherapeutic approaches after allo-SCT.
Bone marrow transplantation 01/2009; 43(5):399-410. · 3.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 21-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The patient had been in good health until a few days earlier, when he developed fever and night sweats and his performance status dramatically declined.
Laboratory tests, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analyses, bone-marrow biopsy, minimal residual disease analysis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, differential chimerism analysis using flow cytometry, mixed chimerism analysis, CT scans, electro-encephalography, cerebral magnetic resonance tomography.
Bcr-abl-positive and Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and primary graft failure complicated by invasive fungal infection and cytomegalovirus encephalitis.
Double cord-blood rescue transplantation, third-party CD34-positive stem-cell rescue transplantation, third-party cytomegalovirus-specific T lymphocyte transplantation.
Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 06/2008; 5(5):291-5. · 8.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HHCT) after high dose conditioning with CD34-selected stem cells has been complicated by high regimen related toxicities, slow engraftment and delayed immune reconstitution leading to increased treatment related mortality (TRM). A new regimen using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and graft CD3/CD19 depletion with anti-CD3 and anti-CD19 coated microbeads on a CliniMACS device may allow HHCT with lower toxicity and faster engraftment. CD3/CD19 depleted grafts not only contain CD34+ stem cells but also CD34 negative progenitors, natural killer, graft facilitating and dendritic cells. RIC was performed with fludarabine (150-200 mg/m(2)), thiotepa (10 mg/kg), melphalan (120 mg/m(2)) and OKT-3 (5 mg/day, day -5 to +14) and no posttransplant immunosuppression. Twenty nine patients (median age=42 (range, 21-59) years) have been transplanted with this regimen. Diagnosis were AML (n=16), ALL (n=7), NHL (n=3), MM (n=2) and CML (n=1). Patients were "high risk" with refractory disease or relapse after preceding HCT. The CD3/CD19 depleted haploidentical grafts contained a median of 7.6x10(6) (range, 3.4-17x10(6)) CD34+ cells/kg, 4.4x10(4) (range, 0.006-44x10(4)) CD3+ T cells/kg and 7.2x10(7) (range, 0.02-37.3x10(7)) CD56+ cells/kg. Donor-recipient KIR-ligand-mismatch was found in 19 of 29 patients. The regimen was well tolerated with maximum acute toxicity being grade 2-3 mucositis. Because of severe neurotoxicity in 4 patients treated with 200 mg/m(2) fludarabine, the dose was reduced to 150 mg/m(2). Engraftment was rapid with a median time to >500 granulocytes/microL of 12 (range, 10-21) days, >20,000 platelets/microL of 11 (range, 7-38) days and full donor chimerism after 2-4 weeks in all patients. Incidence of grade II-IV degrees GVHD was 48% with grade II degrees =10, III degrees =2 and IV degrees =2. One patient, who received the highest T-cell dose, developed lethal grade IV GVHD. TRM in the first 100 days was 6/29 (20%) with deaths due to idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (n=1), mucormycosis (n=1), pneumonia (n=3) or GVHD (n=1). Overall survival is 9/29 patients (31%) with deaths due to infections (n=7), GVHD (n=1) and relapse (n=12) with a median follow-up of 241 days (range, 112-1271). In conclusion, this regimen is promising in high risk patients lacking a suitable donor, and a prospective phase I/II study is ongoing.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) are increasingly used in patients not eligible for conventional conditioning. We did a retrospective, multicenter analysis to assess the feasibility of conditioning with fludarabine and treosulfan before allogeneic SCT in multiple myeloma patients. Thirty-four patients with a median age of 51.5 years were included in the analysis. All patients underwent myeloablation after conditioning followed by stable engraftment, and 29 of 31 evaluable patients (94%) showed early complete hematopoietic chimerism. Non-hematological toxicities were limited and encompassed mainly fever in neutropenia and infections. Grade II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was observed in 33 and 39%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 708 days (range 60-1729 days), the median progression-free survival was 180 days. The treatment-related mortality was 10% on day 100 and 25% after 1 year. The median overall survival has not yet been reached. Our data indicate that conditioning with fludarabine and treosulfan before allogeneic SCT is feasible in intensively pretreated multiple myeloma patients and leads to stable engraftment and complete hematopoietic chimerism. Randomized trials are warranted to determine if this approach might be incorporated in an algorithm of multiple myeloma treatment.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 05/2007; 39(7):389-96. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucormycoses are seen with an increasing incidence in immunocompromised patients. Most common presentations are rhinocerebral and pulmonary. We here report the experience of a single center with mucormycoses in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Mucormycoses were diagnosed in six patients, (median age of 52 years; range, 26-74) treated between 2001-2004. Diagnoses included acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=3), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=1), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=1) and multiple myeloma (n=1). Mucormycosis was diagnosed in the neutropenic state following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=3) or intense chemotherapy (n=3). Sites of infections were rhinocerebral, facial and pulmonary involvement in one patient each and disseminated mucormycosis in three patients. The diagnosis was established by computed tomography followed by surgical interventions and histological diagnosis in 4 patients and post-mortem in two patients. Species identified were Rhizopus (n=3), Rhizomucor (n=2) and Absidia (n=1). Treatment responses were best if surgical resection was followed by aggressive antifungal chemotherapy. Five of six 6 patients died, all of complications of mucormycosis or their underlying disease. Only one patient with facial mucormycosis is still alive.
This experience demonstrates that patient with mucormycoses have a high mortality rate and early recognition followed by aggressive surgical debridement, high dose antifungal therapy and attempts to correct the underlying immunocompromised state are crucial in the treatment of this fatal infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient engulfment of the intact cell corpse is a critical end point of apoptosis, required to prevent secondary necrosis and inflammation. The presentation of "eat-me" signals on the dying cell is an important part of this process of recognition and engulfment by professional phagocytes. Here, we present evidence that apoptotic cells secrete chemotactic factor(s) that stimulate the attraction of monocytic cells and primary macrophages. The activation of caspase-3 in the apoptotic cell was found to be required for the release of this chemotactic factor(s). The putative chemoattractant was identified as the phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine. Further analysis showed that lysophosphatidylcholine was released from apoptotic cells due to the caspase-3 mediated activation of the calcium-independent phospholipase A(2). These data suggest that in addition to eat-me signals, apoptotic cells display attraction signals to ensure the efficient removal of apoptotic cells and prevent postapoptotic necrosis.