[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key mediator of ischaemic brain injury induced by stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) limits brain injury in experimental stroke and reduces plasma inflammatory mediators associated with poor outcome in ischaemic stroke patients. Intravenous (IV) IL-1Ra crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with SAH, to achieve cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations that are neuroprotective in rats.
A small phase II, double-blind, randomised controlled study was carried out across two UK neurosurgical centres with the aim of recruiting 32 patients. Adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, requiring external ventricular drainage (EVD) within 72 hours of ictus, were eligible. Patients were randomised to receive IL-1Ra (500 mg bolus, then a 10 mg/kg/hr infusion for 24 hours) or placebo. Serial samples of CSF and plasma were taken and analysed for inflammatory mediators, with change in CSF IL-6 between 6 and 24 hours as the primary outcome measure.
Six patients received IL-1Ra and seven received placebo. Concentrations of IL-6 in CSF and plasma were reduced by one standard deviation in the IL-1Ra group compared to the placebo group, between 6 and 24 hours, as predicted by the power calculation. This did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.08 and P = 0.06, respectively), since recruitment did not reach the target figure of 32. No adverse or serious adverse events reported were attributable to IL-1Ra.
IL-1Ra appears safe in SAH patients. The concentration of IL-6 was lowered to the degree expected, in both CSF and plasma for patients treated with IL-1Ra.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 01/2014; 11(1):1. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are key effectors of the immune response and are routinely used as biomarkers in cerebrovascular diseases, but their role during brain inflammation remains largely unknown. Elevated circulating levels of the acute-phase protein pentraxin-3 (PTX3) are associated with worse outcome in stroke patients. Here we show that PTX3 is expressed in neurons and glia in response to cerebral ischemia, and that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key driver of PTX3 expression in the brain after experimental stroke. Gene deletion of PTX3 had no significant effects on acute ischemic brain injury. In contrast, the absence of PTX3 strongly compromised blood-brain barrier integrity and resolution of brain edema during recovery after ischemic injury. Compromised resolution of brain edema in PTX3-deficient mice was associated with impaired glial scar formation and alterations in scar-associated extracellular matrix production. Our results suggest that PTX3 expression induced by proinflammatory signals after ischemic brain injury is a critical effector of edema resolution and glial scar formation. This highlights the potential role for inflammatory molecules in brain recovery after injury and identifies APPs, in particular PTX3, as important targets in ischemic stroke and possibly other brain inflammatory disorders.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 18 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.224.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 12/2013; · 5.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is confounded by conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and infection, all of which alter peripheral inflammatory processes with concomitant impact on stroke outcome. The majority of the stroke patients are elderly, but the impact of interactions between aging and inflammation on stroke remains unknown. We thus investigated the influence of age on the outcome of stroke in animals predisposed to systemic chronic infection. Th1-polarized chronic systemic infection was induced in 18-22 month and 4-month-old C57BL/6j mice by administration of T. muris (gut parasite). One month after infection, mice underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size, brain gliosis and brain and plasma cytokine profiles were analyzed. Chronic infection increased the infarct size in aged but not in young mice at 24 hours. Aged, ischemic mice showed altered plasma and brain cytokine responses while the lesion size correlated with plasma pre-stroke levels of RANTES. Moreover, the old, infected mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophil recruitment and up-regulation of both plasma interleukin-17α and tumor necrosis factor α levels. Neither age nor infection status alone or in combination altered the ischemia-induced brain microgliosis. Our results show that chronic peripheral infection in aged animals renders the brain more vulnerable to ischemic insults, possibly by increasing the invasion of neutrophils and altering the inflammation status in the blood and brain. Understanding the interactions between age and infections is crucial for developing a better therapeutic regimen for ischemic stroke and when modeling it as a disease of the elderly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key regulator of inflammation and ischaemic brain injury, but the contribution of central and peripheral sources of IL-1 to brain injury is not well understood. Here we show that haematopoietic-derived IL-1 is a key driver of ischaemic brain injury. Wild type (WT) mice transplanted with IL-1αβ-deficient bone marrow displayed a significant (40%) reduction in brain injury induced by focal cerebral ischaemia compared to WT mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. This was paralleled by improved neurological outcome and the almost complete absence of splenic, but not liver-derived IL-1α after stroke in WT mice lacking haematopoietic-derived IL-1. IL-1αβ KO mice transplanted with IL-1αβ-deficient bone marrow showed a 60% reduction in brain injury compared to WT mice receiving WT bone marrow. Transplantation of WT bone marrow to IL-1αβ KO mice resulted in a similar level of blood brain barrier injury to WT mice receiving IL-1αβ-deficient bone marrow. Cerebral oedema after brain injury was reduced in IL-1αβ KO recipients irrespective of donor-derived IL-1, but a lack of haematopoetic IL-1 has also been associated with smaller brain oedema independently of recipient status. Thus, both central and haematopoietic-derived IL-1 are important contributors to brain injury after cerebral ischaemia. Identification of the cellular sources of IL-1 in the periphery could allow targeted interventions at these sites.
Disease Models and Mechanisms 03/2013; · 4.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage can adopt several phenotypes, process call polarization, which is crucial for shaping inflammatory responses to injury. It is not known if microglia, a resident brain macrophage population, polarizes in a similar way, and whether specific microglial phenotypes modulate cell death in response to brain injury. In this study, we show that both BV2-microglia and mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were able to adopt different phenotypes after LPS (M1) or IL-4 (M2) treatment in vitro, but regulated cell death differently when added to mouse organotypic hippocampal brain slices. BMDMs induced cell death when added to control slices and exacerbated damage when combined with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), independently of their phenotype. In contrast, vehicle- and M2-BV2-microglia were protective against OGD-induced death. Direct treatment of brain slices with IL-4 (without cell addition) was protective against OGD and induced an M2 phenotype in the slice. In vivo, intracerebral injection of LPS or IL-4 in mice induced microglial phenotypes similar to the phenotypes observed in brain slices and in cultured cells. After injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, microglial cells did not adopt classical M1/M2 phenotypes, suggesting that another subtype of regulatory phenotype was induced. This study highlights functional differences between macrophages and microglia, in response to brain injury with fundamentally different outcomes, even if both populations were able to adopt M1 or M2 phenotypes. These data suggest that macrophages infiltrating the brain from the periphery after an injury may be cytotoxic, independently of their phenotype, while microglia may be protective.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is involved in several brain disorders and can be monitored through expression of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) on activated microglia. In recent years, several new PET radioligands for TSPO have been evaluated in disease models. [(18)F]DPA-714 is a TSPO radiotracer with great promise; however results vary between different experimental models of neuroinflammation. To further examine the potential of [(18)F]DPA-714, it was compared directly to [(11)C]PK11195 in experimental cerebral ischaemia in rats.
Under anaesthesia, the middle cerebral artery of adult rats was occluded for 60 min using the filament model. Rats were allowed recovery for 5 to 7 days before one hour dynamic PET scans with [(11)C]PK11195 and/or [(18)F]DPA-714 under anaesthesia.
Uptake of [(11)C]PK11195 vs [(18)F]DPA-714 in the ischemic lesion was similar (core/contralateral ratio: 2.84±0.67 vs 2.28±0.34 respectively), but severity of the brain ischemia and hence ligand uptake in the lesion appeared to vary greatly between animals scanned with [(11)C]PK11195 or with [(18)F]DPA-714. To solve this issue of inter-individual variability, we performed a direct comparison of [(11)C]PK11195 and [(18)F]DPA-714 by scanning the same animals sequentially with both tracers within 24 h. In this direct comparison, the core/contralateral ratio (3.35±1.21 vs 4.66±2.50 for [(11)C]PK11195 vs [(18)F]DPA-714 respectively) showed a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio (1.6 (1.3-1.9, 95%CI) fold by linear regression) for [(18)F]DPA-714.
In a clinically relevant model of neuroinflammation, uptake for both radiotracers appeared to be similar at first, but a high variability was observed in our model. Therefore, to truly compare tracers in such models, we performed scans with both tracers in the same animals. By doing so, our result demonstrated that [(18)F]DPA-714 displayed a higher signal-to-noise ratio than [(11)C]PK11195. Our results suggest that, with the longer half-life of [(18)F] which facilitates distribution of the tracer across PET centre, [(18)F]DPA-714 is a good alternative for TSPO imaging.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56441. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute brain injury results in peripheral inflammatory changes, although the impact of these processes on neuronal death and neuroinflammation is currently unclear. To facilitate the translation of experimental studies to clinical benefit, it is vital to characterize the mechanisms by which acute brain injury induces peripheral inflammatory changes, and how these are affected by surgical manipulation in experimental models. Here we show that in mice, even mild surgical manipulation of extracranial tissues induced marked granulocyte mobilization (300%) and systemic induction of cytokines. However, intracranial changes induced by craniotomy, or subsequent induction of focal cerebral ischemia were required to induce egress of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow. CXCR2 blockade resulted in reduced mobilization of granulocytes from the bone marrow, caused an unexpected increase in circulating granulocytes, but failed to affect brain injury induced by cerebral ischemia. We also demonstrate that isoflurane anaesthesia interferes with circulating leukocyte responses, which could contribute to the reported vascular and neuroprotective effects of isoflurane. In addition, no immunosuppression develops in the bone marrow after experimental stroke. Thus, experimental models of cerebral ischemia are compromised by surgery and anaesthesia in proportion to the severity of surgical intervention and overall tissue injury. Understanding the inherent confounding effects of surgical manipulation and development of new models of cerebral ischemia with minimal surgical intervention could facilitate better understanding of interactions between inflammation and brain injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine receptor concentrations increase in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The relationship between plasma and CSF cytokines, and factors affecting this, are not clear. METHODS: To help define the relationship, paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from patients subject to ventriculostomy. Concentrations of key inflammatory cytokines, -interleukin (IL)-1ss, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1 receptor 2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and TNF receptors (TNF-R) 1 and 2 were determined by immunoassay of CSF from 21 patients, where samples were available at three or more time points. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of IL-1ss, IL-1Ra, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TNF-R1 were similar to those in CSF. Plasma TNF-R2 and IL-1R2 concentrations were higher than in CSF. Concentrations of IL-8 and IL-6 in CSF were approximately10- to 1,000-fold higher than in plasma. There was a weak correlation between CSF and plasma IL-8 concentrations (r = 0.26), but no correlation for IL-6. Differences between the central and peripheral pattern of IL-6 were associated with episodes of ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI). A VRI was associated with CSF IL-6 >10,000 pg/mL (P = 0.0002), although peripheral infection was not significantly associated with plasma IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that plasma cytokine concentrations cannot be used to identify relative changes in the CSF, but that measurement of CSF IL-6 could provide a useful marker of VRI.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2012; 9(1):255. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The innate immune response in the brain is initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) produced in response to central nervous system (CNS) infection or injury. These molecules activate members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, of which TLR4 is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although neurons have been reported to express TLR4, the function of TLR4 activation in neurons remains unknown. METHODS: TLR4 mRNA expression in primary mouse glial and neuronal cultures was assessed by RT-PCR. Mouse mixed glial, neuronal or endothelial cell cultures were treated with LPS in the absence or the presence of a TLR4 specific antagonist (VIPER) or a specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Expression of inflammatory mediators was assayed by cytometric bead array (CBA) and ELISA. Activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun was assessed by Western blot. The effect of conditioned media of untreated- versus LPS-treated glial or neuronal cultures on endothelial activation was assessed by neutrophil transmigration assay, and immunocytochemistry and ELISA were used to measure expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1). RESULTS: LPS induces strong release of the chemokines RANTES and CXCL1 (KC), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and IL-6 in primary mouse neuronal cultures. In contrast, LPS induced release of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mixed glial, but not in neuronal cultures. LPS-induced neuronal KC expression and release were completely blocked by VIPER. In glial cultures, LPS induced activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. In contrast, in neuronal cultures, LPS activated JNK but not ERK1/2 or p38, and the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly blocked LPS-induced KC expression and release. Finally, conditioned medium of LPS-treated neuronal cultures induced strong expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on endothelial cells, and induced infiltration of neutrophils across the endothelial monolayer, which was inhibited by VIPER. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate for the first time that neurons can play a role as key sensors of infection to initiate CNS inflammation.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 10/2012; 9(1):230. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The mechanism of development of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is poorly understood. Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development of ischemic stroke and may also predispose to the development of DCI following SAH. The objective of this study was to test whether concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)) were predictive for DCI following SAH. Secondary analyses considered white cell count (WCC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). METHODS: This was a single-center case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Plasma inflammatory markers were measured in patients up to 15 days after SAH (initial, peak, average, final and rate of change to final). Cases were defined as those developing DCI. Inflammatory markers were compared between cases and randomly selected matched controls. RESULTS: Among the 179 participants there were 46 cases of DCI (26%). In primary analyses the rate of change of IL-6 was associated with DCI (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.0); p=0.03). The final value and rate of change of WCC were associated with DCI (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.3) and OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6), respectively). High values of ESR were associated with DCI (OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.6) initial; OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2) average; OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) peak; and OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.3) final value). CONCLUSIONS: Leucocytosis and change in IL-6 prior to DCI reflect impending cerebral ischemia. The time-independent association of ESR with DCI after SAH may identify this as a risk factor. These data suggest that systemic inflammatory mechanisms may increase the susceptibility to the development of DCI after SAH.
Journal of neurointerventional surgery 09/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whilst it is well documented that all components of the neurovascular unit contribute to the restrictive nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), astrocytes have been identified as the cellular component most likely to play an essential role in maintaining the barrier properties. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the rat astrocyte cell line, CTX-TNA2, on the structural and functional characteristics of an in vitro BBB and determine the capacity of this astrocyte cell line to maintain the BBB phenotype. Co-culture of the CTX-TNA2 cells with primary porcine brain endothelial cells produced an in vitro BBB model which retains key features of the in vivo BBB. High transendothelial electrical resistances, comparable to those reported in vivo, were obtained. Ultrastructural analysis revealed distinct intercellular tight junction protein complexes and immunocytochemistry confirmed expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. Western blotting and fluorescent tracer assays confirmed expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) efflux transporters. Studies employing Alexa-fluor 555-conjugated human transferrin revealed temperature-sensitive internalisation indicating the BBB model retains functional receptor-mediated transferrin uptake. The findings of this study indicate that a robust BBB model has been produced and this is the first report of the inductive capacity of the CTX-TNA2 cell line. Since this in vitro BBB model possesses many key characteristics of the BBB in vivo it has the potential to be a valuable tool for the study of biochemical and physiological processes associated with the BBB.
Brain research 08/2012; 1479:17-30. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many neuroprotective agents have been effective in experimental stroke, yet few have translated into clinical application. One reason for this may be failure to consider clinical comorbidities/risk factors in experimental models. We have shown that a naturally occurring interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is protective against ischemic brain damage in healthy animals. However, protective effects of IL-1Ra have not been determined in comorbid animals. Thus, we tested whether IL-1Ra protects against brain injury induced by experimental ischemia in aged JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which have clinically relevant risk factors. Male, aged, lean, and corpulent rats exposed to transient (90 minutes) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) were administered two doses of IL-1Ra (25 mg/kg, subcutaneously) during reperfusion. Brain injury and neuroinflammatory changes were assessed 24 hours after tMCAO. Our results show that IL-1Ra administered at reperfusion significantly reduced infarct volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (50%, primary outcome) and blood-brain barrier disruption in these comorbid animals. Interleukin-1Ra also reduced microglial activation, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokines levels in the brain. These data are the first to indicate that IL-1Ra protects against ischemic brain injury when administered via a clinically relevant route and time window in animals with multiple risk factors for stroke.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 07/2012; 32(9):1810-9. · 5.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular inflammation contributes to diverse CNS disorders through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. The recruitment of neutrophils to the brain can contribute to neurotoxicity, particularly during acute brain injuries, such as cerebral ischemia, trauma, and seizures. However, the regulatory and effector mechanisms that underlie neutrophil-mediated neurotoxicity are poorly understood. In this study, we show that mouse neutrophils are not inherently toxic to neurons but that transendothelial migration across IL-1-stimulated brain endothelium triggers neutrophils to acquire a neurotoxic phenotype that causes the rapid death of cultured neurons. Neurotoxicity was induced by the addition of transmigrated neutrophils or conditioned medium, taken from transmigrated neutrophils, to neurons and was partially mediated by excitotoxic mechanisms and soluble proteins. Transmigrated neutrophils also released decondensed DNA associated with proteases, which are known as neutrophil extracellular traps. The blockade of histone-DNA complexes attenuated transmigrated neutrophil-induced neuronal death, whereas the inhibition of key neutrophil proteases in the presence of transmigrated neutrophils rescued neuronal viability. We also show that neutrophil recruitment in the brain is IL-1 dependent, and release of proteases and decondensed DNA from recruited neutrophils in the brain occurs in several in vivo experimental models of neuroinflammation. These data reveal new regulatory and effector mechanisms of neutrophil-mediated neurotoxicity (i.e., the release of proteases and decondensed DNA triggered by phenotypic transformation during cerebrovascular transmigration). Such mechanisms have important implications for neuroinflammatory disorders, notably in the development of antileukocyte therapies.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2012; 189(1):381-92. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation contributes to brain pathology in cerebrovascular disease through mechanisms that are poorly understood.
Here we show that atherosclerosis, a major systemic inflammatory disease, is associated with severe cerebrovascular inflammation in mice and that this effect is mediated by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed Paigen or Western diets develop vascular inflammation, microglial activation, and leukocyte recruitment in the brain, which are absent in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice crossed with IL-1 type 1 receptor-deficient mice. Systemic neutralization of IL-1β with an anti-IL-1β antibody reversed aortic plaque formation (by 34% after a Paigen and 45% after a Western diet) and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in peripheral organs. Central, lipid accumulation-associated leukocyte infiltration into the choroid plexus was reversed by IL-1β antibody administration. Animals fed a Western diet showed 57% lower vascular inflammation in the brain than that of mice fed a Paigen diet, and this was reduced further by 24% after IL-1β antibody administration.
These results indicate that IL-1 is a key driver of systemically mediated cerebrovascular inflammation and that interventions against IL-1β could be therapeutically useful in atherosclerosis, dementia, or stroke. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002006 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002006.).
Journal of the American Heart Association. 06/2012; 1(3):e002006.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a major contributor to the burden of stroke on society. Treatment options are limited and animal models of SAH do not always mimic key pathophysiological hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering development of new therapeutics. Inflammation is strongly associated with brain injury after SAH in animals and patients, and inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) represents a possible therapeutic target. Here we report that a rupture of the middle cerebral artery in the rat produces heterogeneous infarct patterns similar to those observed in human SAH. Administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) reduced blood-brain barrier breakdown, and the extent of breakdown correlated with brain injury. After SAH, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was strongly expressed around the bleed site and in the cortex and striatum, indicating the presence of free haem, a breakdown product of haemoglobin. HO-1 expression was also found in the same regions as microglial/macrophage expression of IL-1α. The direct effect of haem on IL-1α expression was confirmed in vitro using organotypic slice culture (OSC). Haem-induced cell death was dependent on IL-1 signalling, with IL-1Ra completely blocking cellular injury. Furthermore, stimulation of mouse primary mixed glial cells with haem induced the release of IL-1α, but not IL-1β. Thus, we suggest that haem, released from lysed red blood cells (RBCs) in the subarachnoid space, acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) driving IL-1-dependent inflammation. These data provide new insights into inflammation after SAH-induced brain injury and suggest IL-1Ra as a candidate therapeutic for the disease.
Disease Models and Mechanisms 05/2012; · 4.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections are common following stroke and adversely affect outcome. Cellular immune suppression associated with acute stroke may increase susceptibility to infection. Cytokines are important contributors to both stroke pathology and the response to infection. Since interleukin (IL)-1 blockade is a candidate treatment for cerebral ischemia, we examined whether administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) to patients with acute stroke affected innate cellular immune responses in a phase II placebo-controlled trial.
Venous blood samples were taken prior to treatment initiation, at 24h and 5 to 7d. Blood was also drawn from stroke-free controls. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of whole-blood cultures assessed the potential of leukocytes to produce cytokines.
Induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 by LPS was significantly reduced in patients at admission, compared to controls. At 24h, cytokine induction remained suppressed in the placebo group. In contrast, for patients treated with IL-1Ra, induction of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 was similar to controls and IL-1β induction was significantly greater than in the placebo group. At 5 to 7d, TNF-α and IL-1β induction remained suppressed only in the placebo group (p<0.05). Plasma cortisol concentrations, elevated at admission in patients compared to controls, were substantially reduced at 24h in the patients receiving IL-1Ra (p<0.05) and inversely correlated (p<0.001) with either TNF-α (r=-0.71) or IL-1β induction (r=-0.67) at admission.
Treatment with IL-1Ra reverses peripheral innate immune suppression in the acute phase of stroke, which is associated with attenuated cortisol production. The mechanisms underlying these observations, including the potential impact of IL-1Ra on stroke severity and the clinical significance of immune suppression, require further evaluation in larger studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of biochemical fluxes is distributed, and to perturb complex intracellular networks effectively it is often necessary to modulate several steps simultaneously. However, the number of possible permutations leads to a combinatorial explosion in the number of experiments that would have to be performed in a complete analysis. We used a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to optimize reagent combinations from a dynamic chemical library of 33 compounds with established or predicted targets in the regulatory network controlling IL-1β expression. The evolutionary algorithm converged on excellent solutions within 11 generations, during which we studied just 550 combinations out of the potential search space of ~9 billion. The top five reagents with the greatest contribution to combinatorial effects throughout the evolutionary algorithm were then optimized pairwise. A p38 MAPK inhibitor together with either an inhibitor of IκB kinase or a chelator of poorly liganded iron yielded synergistic inhibition of macrophage IL-1β expression. Evolutionary searches provide a powerful and general approach to the discovery of new combinations of pharmacological agents with therapeutic indices potentially greater than those of single drugs.
Nature Chemical Biology 12/2011; 7(12):902-8. · 12.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is established as a contributor to cerebrovascular disease. Risk factors for stroke include many conditions associated with chronic or acute inflammation, and inflammatory changes in the brain after cerebrovascular events contribute to outcome in experimental studies, with growing evidence from clinical research. The brain is extremely susceptible to inflammatory challenge, but resident glia, endothelial cells and neurones can all mount a pronounced inflammatory response to infection or injury. Recent discoveries highlight the importance of peripherally-derived immune cells and inflammatory molecules in various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), plays a pivotal role in both local and systemic inflammation, and is a key driver of peripheral and central immune responses to infection or injury. Inhibition of IL-1 has beneficial effects in a variety of experimental paradigms of acute brain injury and is a promising clinical target in stroke. We propose that blockade of IL-1 could be therapeutically useful in several diseases which are risk factors for stroke, and there is already considerable pre-clinical and clinical evidence that inhibition of IL-1 by IL-1 receptor antagonist may be valuable in the management of acute stroke.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invading neutrophils are important contributors to brain injury in the context of ischaemia. In vitro evidence suggests a key role for platelet-derived interleukin-1α in mediating neutrophil migration across the vascular endothelium. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelets and IL-1 using in vivo models of vascular inflammation. Two murine models were used. Bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice and lavage of the peritoneal cavity was performed 6 h later. LPS was stereotactically injected into the striatum, and the brain fixed and removed 24 h later. Flow cytometry was used to assess neutrophil levels in suspension, while immunohistochemistry was used to assess neutrophil numbers in tissue. To determine the role of platelets, platelet depletion was induced by injection of anti-CD41 antibody 24 h prior to LPS. To determine the role of IL-1, IL-1α/β double knockout mice were used. In the peritoneum, platelet depletion abolished neutrophil migration, indicating a key role for platelets in this process. A robust inflammatory response was seen in serum cytokines after LPS injection and platelet depletion selectively abrogated the increase in serum IL-1α. IL-1α/β double knockout mice revealed a significant difference in LPS-induced neutrophil migration between knockout animals and controls in the encephalitis model, with no difference in the peritonitis model. In an in vivo peritonitis model, neutrophil migration appears to be dependent on platelets, yet independent of IL-1. In an encephalitis model, neutrophil migration appears dependent on IL-1. This may suggest differential migration mechanisms in different vascular beds.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-1 is an important neuroimmunomodulator and a key mediator of inflammation during brain disorders. It acts on neuronal and glial cells via binding to the IL-1 type 1 receptor and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). More recently, a neuronal-specific isoform of IL-1RAcP, named IL-1RAcPb, has been identified. Our aim was to determine the role of IL-1RAcPb in IL-1 actions in neuronal and glial cells, and to further explore the signaling mechanisms of IL-1 in neurons. We found that IL-1RAcPb deletion had no effect on IL-1α- and IL-1β-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 or IL-6 release in glial cultures, although IL-6 release in response to high IL-1α concentration (30 IU/ml) was significantly reduced. We identified the p38 kinase as a key signaling element in IL-1α- and IL-1β-induced IL-6 synthesis and release in neuronal cultures. IL-1RAcPb deletion had no effect on IL-1α- and IL-1β-induced IL-6 release in neurons, but significantly reduced IL-1α- but not IL-1β-induced p38 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that the p38 signaling pathway plays an important role in IL-1 actions in neurons, and that IL-1RAcP may regulate some, but not all, neuronal activities in response to IL-1α.