[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) potently regulate dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and alter cocaine's ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic) stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unaided attempts to quit smoking commonly fail during the first 2 weeks of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling correlate with withdrawal from chronic nicotine exposure, but those changes have not been well-characterized.
Mice were administered nicotine in their drinking water for 4 or 12 weeks. Then nicotine was withheld for 1 to 10 days while DA signaling was characterized with in vivo microdialysis or fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.
Upon withdrawal of nicotine, the basal DA concentration in the nucleus accumbens decreased as measured by microdialysis. The length of time that the low basal DA state lasted depended on the length of the chronic nicotine treatment. Microdialysis indicated that acute re-exposure to nicotine during withdrawal temporarily reversed this hypodopaminergic state. Voltammetry measurements supported the microdialysis results by showing that nicotine withdrawal decreased tonic and phasic DA release. The basal DA concentration and tonic DA signals, however, were disproportionately lower than the phasic DA signals. Therefore, the phasic/tonic DA signaling ratio was increased during the withdrawal period.
The relative increase in the sensitivity of DA release to phasic stimulation suggests an increase in the signal-to-noise relationship of DA signaling during the withdrawal period. Therefore, the DA signal produced by acute nicotine re-exposure produces a DA response that might reinforce relapse to drug use (i.e., smoking). Because the basal DA concentration is low during withdrawal, therapies aimed at elevating the background DA signal represent a reasonable treatment strategy for nicotine-dependent individuals attempting to quit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) transcription factor contributes to the development and maintenance of dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. We found that heterozygous Nurr1 knockout (Nurr1 +/-) influenced the age-dependent decline in the number of DA neurons and influenced DA signaling. We examined the DA marker, tyrosine hydroxylase, using immunohistochemistry, and we measured DA signaling using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in 3 age groups of wild-type (Nurr1 +/+) and mutant (Nurr1 +/-) mice: 3-6, 9-12, and 15-23 mo old. Prior to significant loss of DA neurons and to the onset of parkinsonian symptoms, young Nurr1 +/- mice (3-6 mo) exhibited a decrease in peak evoked DA release that was partially countered by a decrease in the rate of DA reuptake. As peak evoked DA release declined with age for both the wild-type and Nurr1 +/- mice, both genotypes manifested decreased DA reuptake. As the DA release fell further with age, decreased DA reuptake eventually could not adequately compensate the Nurr1 +/- mice. The results indicated that Nurr1 deficiency led to impaired DA release even before significant DA neuron loss.
Neurobiology of aging 04/2011; 33(5):1001.e7-16. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine (DA) release varies within subregions and local environments of the striatum, suggesting that controls intrinsic and extrinsic to the DA fibers and terminals regulate release. While applying fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and using tonic and phasic stimulus trains, we investigated the regulation of DA release in the dorsolateral to ventral striatum. The ratio of phasic-to-tonic-evoked DA signals varied with the average ongoing firing frequency, and the ratio was generally higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) compared with the dorsolateral striatum. At the normal average firing frequency, burst stimulation produces a larger increase in the DA response in the NAc than the dorsolateral striatum. This finding was comparable whether the DA measurements were made using in vitro brain slices or were recorded in vivo from freely moving rodents. Blockade of the dopamine transporters and dopamine D(2) receptors particularly enhanced the tonic DA signals. Conversely, blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the beta(2) subunit (beta(2)(*)) predominantly suppressed tonic DA signals. The suppression of tonic DA release increased the contrast between phasic and tonic DA signals, and that made the frequency-dependent DA dynamics between the dorsolateral striatum and NAc more similar. The results indicate that intrinsic differences in the DA fibers that innervate specific regions of the striatum combine with (at least) DA transporters, DA receptors, and nAChRs to regulate the frequency dependence of DA release. A combination of mechanisms provides specific local control of DA release that underlies pathway-specific information associated with motor and reward-related functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell of the ventral striatum have similar cellular components and are both richly innervated by dopamine neurons. Despite similarities that extend throughout the striatum, only the NAc shell has a conspicuous increase in basal dopamine upon the initial administration of psychostimulant drugs such as nicotine. As measured by microdialysis, the elevated dopamine in the NAc shell is considered an identifying functional characteristic of addictive drugs. To examine this general functional difference between nicotine's action on the dorsolateral striatum and NAc shell, we directly monitored dopamine release in rat striatal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. In addition, we separately monitored the in vivo unit firing activity of putative midbrain dopamine neurons from freely moving rats using chronic multiple tetrodes. Nicotine administration increased the firing frequency of dopamine neurons and specifically increased the number and the length of phasic burst firing. The frequency dependence for dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum and NAc shell is fundamentally different, enabling mainly the NAc shell to capitalize on the nicotine-induced phasic burst firing by dopamine neurons. Although nicotine decreased low-frequency (tonic) dopamine release in both areas, the increased ratio of phasic bursts relative to tonic firing caused by nicotine boosted the basal dopamine concentration predominantly in the NAc shell. By favoring release from bursts while depressing release from tonic signals, nicotine spreads the range of dopamine signaling and effectively increases the signal-to-noise relationship along dopamine afferents.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2009; 29(13):4035-43. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The striatum receives rich dopaminergic and more moderate serotonergic innervation. After vesicular release, dopamine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling is controlled by transporter-mediated reuptake. Dopamine is taken up by dopamine transporters (DATs), which are expressed at the highest density in the striatum. Although DATs also display a low affinity for 5-HT, that neurotransmitter is normally efficiently taken up by the 5-HT transporters. We found that when extracellular 5-HT is elevated by exogenous application or by using antidepressants (e.g., fluoxetine) to inhibit the 5-HT transporters, the extremely dense striatal DATs uptake 5-HT into dopamine terminals. Immunohistochemical results and measurements using fast cyclic voltammetry showed that elevated 5-HT is taken up by DATs into striatal dopamine terminals that subsequently release 5-HT and dopamine together. These results suggest that antidepressants that block serotonin transporters or other factors that elevate extracellular 5-HT alter the temporal and spatial relationship between dopamine and 5-HT signaling in the striatum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Patients also frequently have noncognitive symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, apathy, and psychosis, that impair daily living. The most commonly prescribed treatments for Alzheimer's disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil and galantamine. Enhanced cholinergic functions caused by these compounds are believed to underlie improvements in learning, memory, and attention. The noncognitive aspects of dementia, however, are usually linked to serotonin and dopamine rather than acetylcholine because those neurotransmitter systems most directly influence mood, emotional balance, and psychosis. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to mouse striatal brain slices was used to measure the real-time release of dopamine arising from spontaneous activity or from single electrical stimulations. At concentrations that include their prescribed dosage ranges, donepezil (1-1000 nM) and galantamine (50-1000 nM) increase action potential-dependent dopamine release. Consistent with previous literature, the data support slightly different modes of action for donepezil and galantamine. The ability of these commonly prescribed drugs to alter catecholamine release may underlie their influence over noncognitive symptoms of dementia. Furthermore, these results suggest that acting via nicotinic receptors, these drugs may serve presently untapped therapeutic roles by altering dopamine release in other disorders involving dopaminergic systems.