Marianne Brabec

Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (10)38.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The human neonatal Fcgamma-receptor (hFcRn) involved in overall maternal-fetal IgG transmission is expressed in placental villous syncytiotrophoblast. However, the role of hFcRn in IgG transport and trafficking across this cell layer is poorly characterized. To gain insight into this mechanism we have overexpressed functional hFcRn in trophoblast-derived BeWo cells (BeWo/hFcRn cells) [Ellinger I, Reischer H, Lehner C, Leitner K, Hunziker W, Fuchs R. Placenta 2005;26:171-82] since parental BeWo cells endogenously express low levels of the receptor. We now demonstrate that hFcRn overexpression differentially affected apical-to-basolateral transcytosis and apical recycling: whereas IgG transcytosis was reduced by 35%, IgG recycling was stimulated by 100% as compared to parental cells, indicating that hFcRn plays a role in both processes. The endosomal compartments involved in hFcRn/IgG transport after apical IgG internalization were then analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using compartment specific markers. hFcRn/IgG were found in apical early endosomes, in transferrin recycling compartments and in vesicles near the basolateral plasma membrane, presumably transcytotic vesicles. Neither hFcRn nor IgG was routed to the degradative pathway to lysosomes. These transport and localization data are in accordance with efficient hFcRn-mediated apical IgG recycling and basolateral directed IgG transcytosis in placental trophoblasts.
    Placenta 09/2006; 27(8):799-811. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Marianne Brabec, Dieter Blaas, Renate Fuchs
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) is internalized by members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family into early endosomes (pH 6.2-6.0) where it dissociates from its receptors. After transfer into late endosomes, the virus undergoes a conformational change and RNA uncoating solely induced by pH < 5.6. Finally, virus capsids are degraded in lysosomes. To investigate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) in the HRV2 entry route, we used the inhibitor wortmannin. Although virus internalization was not altered by wortmannin, virus accumulated in enlarged early endosomes. Furthermore, the drug delayed HRV2 degradation and viral protein synthesis. Consequently, wortmannin-sensitive PI3K are involved in HRV2 transport from early to late compartments. However, wortmannin had no effect on the titer of infectious virus produced. Our data therefore suggest that virus retained in early endosomes for prolonged time periods can undergo the conformational change that otherwise occurs at pH < or = 5.6 in late endosomes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2006; 348(2):741-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, clinicians observe a reverse correlation of survival and a decreased plasma concentration of the most abundant free amino acid, glutamine (Gln). However, in this context, the role of Gln remains largely elusive. Gln is used as an energy substrate by monocytes. Gln deprivation of these cells results in an increased susceptibility to cell stress and apoptosis, as well as in a reduced responsiveness to pro-inflammatory stimuli. We performed a systematic study to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Gln depletion affects the heat stress response of the monocytic cell line U937. Proteomic analysis revealed that Gln depletion was associated with specific changes in the protein expression pattern. However, the overall level of tRNA-bound Gln remained unaffected. The stress protein heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 showed the highest reduction in protein synthesis. This was due to enhanced mRNA decay during Gln starvation while the transcriptional and the translational control of Hsp70 expression remained unchanged. A physiological Gln concentration and above was found to be necessary for maximum Hsp70 accumulation upon heat shock. Thus, the study shows a specific link between Gln metabolism and the regulation of heat shock proteins.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2006; 84(2):147-58. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a drug efflux transporter that is believed to affect the drug disposition of several drugs and xenobiotics. In the present study, we evaluated the localization and functional expression of BCRP in the human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo, an in vitro model of the human trophoblast, and compared it with the expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) as the most widely studied placental transporter. In addition, the expression of BCRP at the mRNA level was compared with that of MDR1 in the human term placenta. 2. Western blotting analysis revealed high endogenous expression of BCRP protein in BeWo cells. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that the BCRP transporter appears to be localized predominantly at the apical plasma membrane. Functional studies showed a significant effect of the BCRP inhibitors GF120918 (5 micromol/L) and Ko143 (1 micromol/L) on mitoxantrone accumulation and, thus, confirmed efflux activity of BCRP in BeWo cells. 3. Using absolute mRNA quantification with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we found high expression of BCRP in BeWo cells, whereas no transcript of MDR1 (P-glycoprotein), the most extensively studied drug transporter, was detected. 4. In the human placenta, BCRP was localized predominantly in the syncytiotrophoblast layer; however, immunopositivity for the BXP-21 antibody was also observed in fetal vessels of the chorionic villi. The number of BCRP transcripts in the human term placenta was found to be more than 10-fold higher compared with the expression of MDR1. 5. In conclusion, we suggest that BeWo cells could serve as a suitable in vitro model to study trans-trophoblast transport of BCRP substrates and that placental BCRP can play an important role in preventing the accumulation of potentially toxic xenobiotics in the trophoblast cells.
    Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2006; 33(1-2):58-65. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of virus uncoating on endosome integrity during the early steps in viral infection was investigated. Using fluid-phase uptake of 10- and 70-kDa dextrans labeled with a pH-dependent fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]) and a pH-independent fluorophore (cyanine 5 [Cy5]), we determined the pHs of labeled compartments in intact HeLa cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Subsequently, the number and pH of fluorescent endosomes in cell homogenates were determined by single-organelle flow analysis. Cointernalization of adenovirus and 70-kDa FITC- and Cy5-labeled dextran (FITC/Cy5-dextran) led to virus-induced endosomal rupture, resulting in the release of the marker from the low-pH environment into the neutral cytosol. Consequently, in the presence of adenovirus, the number of fluorescent endosomes was reduced by 40% compared to that in the control. When human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) was cointernalized with 10-and 70-kDa FITC/Cy5-dextrans, the 10-kDa dextran was released, whereas the 70-kDa dextran remained within the endosomes, which also maintained their low pH. These data demonstrate that pores are generated in the membrane during HRV2 uncoating and RNA penetration into the cytosol without gross damage of the endosomes; 10-kDa dextran can access the cytosol through these pores. Whereas rhinovirus-mediated pore formation was prevented by the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1, adenovirus-mediated endosomal rupture also occurred in the presence of the inhibitor. This finding is in keeping with the low-pH requirement of HRV2 infection; for adenovirus, no pH dependence for endosomal escape was found with this drug.
    Journal of Virology 02/2005; 79(2):1008-16. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HeLa cells were stably transfected with a cDNA clone encoding the B1 isoform of the mouse FcgammaRII receptor (hereafter referred to as HeLa-FcRII cells). The receptor was expressed at high level at the plasma membrane in about 90% of the cells. These cells bound and internalized mouse monoclonal virus-neutralizing antibodies 8F5 and 3B10 of the subtype immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and IgG1, respectively. Binding of the minor-group human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) to its natural receptors, members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, is dependent on the presence of Ca(2+) ions. Thus, chelating Ca(2+) ions with EDTA prevented HRV2 binding, entry, and infection. However, upon complex formation of (35)S-labeled HRV2 with 8F5 or 3B10, virus was bound, internalized, and degraded in HeLa-FcRII cells. Furthermore, challenge of these cells with HRV2-8F5 or HRV2-3B10 complexes resulted in de novo synthesis of viral proteins, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. These data demonstrate that minor-group receptors can be replaced by surrogate receptors to mediate HRV2 cell entry, delivery into endosomal compartments, and productive uncoating. Consequently, the conformational change and uncoating of HRV2 appears to be solely triggered by the low-pH (pH </= 5.6) environment in these compartments.
    Journal of Virology 03/2004; 78(6):2729-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) is internalized by members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. It then progresses into late endosomes, where it undergoes conversion from D- to C-antigenicity at pH < 5.6. Upon uncoating, the viral RNA is transferred into the cytoplasm across the endsosomal membrane. However, C-antigenic particles fail to attach to LDLR; this raised the question of whether the virus remains attached to the receptors and is carried to late compartments or rather falls off at the higher pH in early endosomes. We therefore determined the pH dependence of virus-receptor dissociation and virus conversion to C-antigen under conditions preventing endocytosis. (35)S-HRV2 was attached to HeLa cells at 4 degrees C and incubated in buffers of pH 7.4 to 5.0; levels of native virus and C-antigenic particles remaining cell associated or having been released into the medium were determined by immunoprecipitation. At pH 6.0, HRV2 was readily released from plasma membrane receptors in its native form, whereas at pH < or = 5.4, it was entirely converted to C-antigen, which, however, only dissociated from the surface upon prolonged incubation. The antigenic conversion occurred at the same pH regardless of whether HRV2 was free in solution or bound to its receptors. These data suggest that, in vivo, the virus is no longer bound to its receptors when the antigenic conversion and uncoating occur in more acidic late endosomes. When virus was bound to HeLa cells at 4 degrees C, converted into C-antigen by exposure to pH 5.3, and subsequently warmed to 34 degrees C in the presence of bafilomycin (to prevent endosomal uncoating), viral de novo synthesis was detected. This study demonstrates for the first time that a nonenveloped virus such as HRV2 can infect from the plasma membrane when artificially exposed to low pH. This implies that the viral RNA can gain access to the cytoplasm from the plasma membrane.
    Journal of Virology 05/2003; 77(9):5370-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During sepsis and major trauma the blood glutamine (Gln) level is reduced. The administration of Gln can improve the outcome of these patients. However, the mechanism of this beneficial effect of Gln is poorly understood. In the course of critical illness leucocytes are confronted with cytotoxic inflammatory mediators. To protect themselves against these factors, cells express heat shock proteins (HSP). Previous studies have shown that the expression of the major inducible HSP (HSP70) is improved by high Gln concentrations above 4 mM. In this study we investigated whether Gln depletion, such as observed during critical illness, has an effect on HSP70 expression. Human lymphocytes exposed for 2 h to 42 degrees C showed a 3-fold increase in HSP70 expression (P<0.01). A preceding Gln starvation period over 3 days had no influence on this increase. However, when Gln is reduced during the stress response, HSP70 expression is impaired. A reduction of Gln from 0.5 mM (physiological) to 0.125 mM (pathological) led to a 40% lower HSP70 level (P<0.002). In contrast, increasing Gln concentrations (up to 2 mM) had only minor stimulatory effects (about 15%). This Gln-dependency of heat mediated HSP70 expression was observed in resting as well as proliferating lymphocytes. Our data indicate that during periods of reduced plasma Gln levels the stress response of human lymphocytes is impaired. Thus, Gln may be essential to minimize the susceptibility of leucocytes to cytotoxic inflammatory mediators. This is a new aspect of the protective effect of Gln supplementation in critically ill patients.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 01/2002; 87 Suppl 1:S17-21. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fever has been associated with shortened duration and improved survival in infectious disease. The mechanism of this beneficial response is still poorly understood. The heat-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) has been associated with protection of leukocytes against the cytotoxicity of inflammatory mediators and with improved survival of severe infections. This study characterizes the induction of Hsp70 by feverlike temperatures in human leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using flow cytometry, Hsp70 expression was determined in whole blood samples. This approach eliminated cell isolation procedures that would greatly affect the results. Heat treatment of whole blood in vitro for 2 hours at different temperatures revealed that Hsp70 expression depends on temperature and cell type; up to 41 degrees C, Hsp70 increased only slightly in lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. However, in monocytes a strong induction was already seen at 39 degrees C, and Hsp70 levels at 41 degrees C were 10-fold higher than in the 37 degrees C control. To be as close as possible to the physiological situation during fever, we immersed healthy volunteers in a hot water bath, inducing whole body hyperthermia (39 degrees C), and measured leukocyte Hsp70 expression. Hsp70 was induced in all leukocytes with comparable but less pronounced cell type-specific variations as observed in vitro. Thus, a systemic increase of body temperature as triggered by fever stimulates Hsp70 expression in peripheral leukocytes, especially in monocytes. This fever-induced Hsp70 expression may protect monocytes when confronted with cytotoxic inflammatory mediators, thereby improving the course of the disease.
    Cell Stress and Chaperones 11/2001; 6(4):306-15. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many viruses gain access to the cell via the endosomal route and require low endosomal pH for infectivity. The GTPase dynamin is essential for clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and in HeLa cells overexpressing the nonfunctional dynaminK44A mutant the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is halted. HRV2, a human minor group rhinovirus, is internalized by members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family in a clathrin-independent manner. The low endosomal pH then leads to conversion of the capsid to C-antigen, which is required for release (uncoating) and transfer of the viral RNA into the cytosol and de novo synthesis of infectious virus. We here demonstrate that overexpression of dynaminK44A reduces this antigenic conversion and results in diminished viral synthesis. In contrast, lysosomal degradation is unaffected. The kinetics of the formation of C-antigen in vitro and in vivo suggest that the pH in endosomes is elevated by about 0.4 units upon overexpression of dynaminK44A. As a consequence, HRV2 uncoating is diminished early after internalization but attains control levels upon prolonged internalization. Thus, overexpression of dynaminK44A, in addition to trafficking defects, results in an elevated endosomal pH and thereby affects virus infection and most likely endosomal sorting and processing.
    Traffic 11/2001; 2(10):727-36. · 4.65 Impact Factor