[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular wall stress has been investigated in a variety of populations, but the effect of food intake has not been evaluated. We assessed whether left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.
Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 +/- 4.5 years were investigated. Meridional end-systolic wall stress (ESS) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) were measured before, 30 minutes after, and 110 minutes after a standardised meal.
Both ESS and cESS decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from fasting values 30 minutes after the meal, and had not returned to baseline after 110 minutes. ESS decreased from 65 +/- 16 kdynes/cm2 (fasting) to 44 +/- 12 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 58 +/- 13 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after eating. cESS decreased from 98 +/- 24 kdynes/cm2 to 67 +/- 18 kdynes/cm2 30 minutes after, and to 87 +/- 19 kdynes/cm2 110 minutes after the meal.
This study shows that left ventricular wall stress is affected by food intake in healthy subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very few validation studies have been performed between different generations of the commonly used Actigraph accelerometers. We compared daily physical activity data generated from the old generation Actigraph model 7164 with the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometer in 15 young females for eight consecutive days. We also investigated if different wear time thresholds had any impact on the findings. Minutes per day of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA) and very vigorous physical activity (VVPA) were calculated. Moreover, minutes of sedentary pursuits per day were calculated.
There were significant (P < 0.05) differences between the Actigraph 7164 and the GT1M concerning MVPA (61 +/- 21vs. 56 +/- 23 min/day), VPA (12 +/- 8 vs. 9 +/- 3 min/day) and VVPA (3.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 0.3 +/- 1.1 min/day). The different wear time thresholds had little impact on minutes per day in different intensities. Median minutes of sedentary pursuits per day ranged from 159 to 438 minutes depending on which wear time threshold was used (i.e. 10, 30 or 60 minutes), whereas very small differences were observed between the two different models.
Data from the old generation Actigraph 7164 and the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometers differ, where the Actigraph GT1M generates lower minutes spent in free living physical activity. Median minutes of sedentary pursuits per day are highly dependent on which wear time threshold that is used, and not by accelerometer model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies on the influence of alcohol consumption on lung function have shown conflicting results. Self-reported alcohol consumption may be inaccurate. This study used both a validated alcohol questionnaire and a blood marker of heavy alcohol consumption, and examined potential associations with different lung physiological variables.
The study population (450 subjects) answered an alcohol questionnaire (AUDIT-C) and performed spirometry, body plethysmography and a test for diffusing capacity for CO (DL,CO). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), a clinically used blood marker for identifying heavy alcohol consumption, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation were analysed.
Using AUDIT-C, 407 subjects were alcohol drinkers and 29 non-drinkers. Of the alcohol drinkers, 224 subjects were "hazardous drinkers" and 183 "moderate drinkers". Thirty-four subjects had a CDT ≥2.0% (=heavy drinkers). There was no difference in lung function between hazardous and moderate drinkers. Heavy drinkers had lower DL,CO (74% vs 83% PN, p = 0.003), more symptoms of chronic bronchitis (p = 0.001) and higher AUDIT-C scores (p < 0.001) than non-heavy drinkers. After adjustments (pack years and CRP) the difference in DL,CO (p = 0.037) remained. Multiple regression showed an association between CDT and both FEV1 (p = 0.004) and DL,CO (p = 0.012) in all alcohol drinkers, but not in never-smokers. The AUDIT-C score was associated with CDT (also after adjustments, p < 0.001) but not with any lung function variable.
The results from this study suggest that alcohol and particularly heavy drinking has an independent additive negative effect on lung function in smokers.
Respiratory medicine 09/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack of parental experience with organised sports and lack of economic/material resources explained much of the difference in sports participation. Children of immigrant background had significant lower participation in club sports but this did not affect their overall physical activity level.
European journal of sport science : EJSS : official journal of the European College of Sport Science. 05/2013; 13(3):321-31.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared, head-to-head, the old generation Actigraph model 7164 with the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. A total of 15 randomly selected teenagers (eight girls and seven boys) were investigated. They performed a treadmill test wearing the two kinds of accelerometers around the waist simultaneously. The treadmill test consisted of three different levels of speed 4, 6 and 8 km h(-1) for four consecutive minutes. Accelerometer counts per 1 sec epoch for the Actigraph GT1M versus the Actigraph 7164 were at 4 km h(-1) 21·6 ± 12·9 versus 26·5 ± 11·5 counts, at 6 km h(-1) 56·0 ± 23·2 versus 62·9 ± 25·6 counts and at 8 km h(-1) 142·6 ± 37·2 versus 156·4 ± 34·9 counts (P<0·01 for all levels of speed). Data from the old generation Actigraph 7164 and the new generation Actigraph GT1M accelerometers differ, where the Actigraph GT1M generates 10-23% lower values. Correction equation for Actigraph GT1M was Actigraph 7164 = 5·2484 + Actigraph GT1M counts × 1·0448. These results need to be taken into consideration when using these devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data exist of tracking and changes in accelerometer-measured physical activity in children.
Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days in 167 children (boys, n = 90; girls n = 77) age 9.8 ± 0.6 years. Follow-up measurement was made 2.0 ± 0.1 yrs later (range 1.9-2.1 yrs). General physical activity (GPA) was defined as mean count/minute. Minutes of inactivity; light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA); moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and vigorous physical activity (VPA) per day were calculated both as absolute values and as percentage of total registration time.
Spearman rank order correlation indicated low tracking of MVPA and VPA in girls (r = .25-0.33, P < .05), and low-moderate tracking of GPA, inactivity, LMVPA, MVPA and VPA in boys (r = .23-0.40, P < .05). Time in inactivity increased at follow-up by 5%-14%. Most of the assessed physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up by 6% to 30%.
Physical activity tracks at a low-moderate degree from age 10-12 years, which confirm previous investigations that have used self-report assessments. The low-moderate tracking of physical activity variables indicate that those who were most active initially remained most active. Increasing inactive behavior was observed and that several other physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health 02/2013; 10(2):241-8. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 245 children (137 boys and 108 girls) aged 8-11 years, were recruited from a population based cohort. VO2PEAK (ml/min-1/kg-1) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test. DXA-scan was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) and total fat mass (TBF). Echocardiography, with 2-dimensional guided M-mode, was performed in accordance with current guidelines. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDD) and left atrial end-systolic diameter (LA) were measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Results: Univariate correlations were found between VO2PEAK versus LVDD r=0.44 and LA r=0.27 (both P<0.05) and LVM r=-0.06 (NS) in boys. Corresponding values for girls were; 0.55, 0.34 (both P<0.05) and 0.11 (NS). Multiple regression analysis with VO2PEAK as dependent variable and inclusion of LBM, TBF, sex, age, Tanner stage, and maximal heart rate as independent variables showed that 67% of the total variance of VO2PEAK could be explained by these variables. Including LVDD or LA in the model, added 1% additional explained variance. Conclusion: Findings from this population based cohort of young healthy children show that multiple cardiac dimensions at rest are related to VO2PEAK. However, the different cardiac dimensions contributed very little to the added explained variance of VO2PEAK.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 02/2013; 53(1):42-7. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect in children of an exercise intervention program on fracture rates and skeletal traits. Fractures were registered for 5 years in a population-based prospective controlled exercise intervention study that included children aged 6-9 years at study start, 446 boys and 362 girls in the intervention group and 807 boys and 780 girls in the control group. Intervention subjects received 40 min/school day of physical education and controls, 60 min/week. In 73 boys and 48 girls in the intervention group and 52 boys and 48 girls in the control group, bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and bone area (mm(2)) were followed annually by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, after which annual changes were calculated. At follow-up we also assessed trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (g/cm(3)) and bone structure by peripheral computed tomography in the tibia and radius. There were 20.0 fractures/1,000 person-years in the intervention group and 18.5 fractures/1,000 person-years in the control group, resulting in a rate ratio of 1.08 (0.79-1.47) (mean and 95 % CI). The gain in spine BMD was higher in both girls (difference 0.01 g/cm(2), 0.005-0.019) and boys (difference 0.01 g/cm(2), 0.001-0.008) in the intervention group. Intervention girls also had higher gain in femoral neck area (difference 0.04 mm(2), 0.005-0.083) and at follow-up larger tibial bone mineral content (difference 0.18 g, 0.015-0.35), larger tibial cortical area (difference 17 mm(2), 2.4-31.3), and larger radial cross-sectional area (difference 11.0 mm(2), 0.63-21.40). As increased exercise improves bone mass and in girls bone size without affecting fracture risk, society ought to encourage exercise during growth.
Calcified Tissue International 01/2013; · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Children and adolescents are encouraged to maintain a habitually active lifestyle because of the known health benefits associated with regular physical activity, but there are some reports that a high level of activity may be associated with increased fracture risk. This prospective controlled exercise intervention study in pre-pubertal children evaluated if a school-based exercise intervention could enhance growth related gains in muscle strength and muscular function without affecting fracture risk. METHODS: Fractures were registered in 417 girls and 500 boys aged 7-9 years in the intervention and in 836 age-matched girls and 872 boys. The intervention included 40 minutes/day of school physical education for two years whereas the controls achieved 60 minutes/week. In a subsample consisting of 49 girls and 80 boys in the intervention and 50 girls and 53 boys in the control group, body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength by isokinetic Peak Torque (PT) of the knee extensors and flexors at 60 and 180 °/seconds by a computerized dynamometer and neuromuscular performance by Vertical Jump Height (VJH). RESULTS: The rate ratio [RR (95% confidence interval)] for children in the intervention group to sustain a fracture was 1.07 (0.66, 1.68). The annual gain in knee extensor PT at 180°/seconds was significantly higher for both girls (p<0.001) and boys (p<0.01) in the intervention compared to the control group. Boys in the intervention group also had a greater annual gain in knee flexion PT at 180 °/seconds (p<0.001) and girls a greater gain in VJH (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in school-based physical education from 60 to 200 min/week enhanced muscle strength in pre-pubertal children without affecting fracture risk.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 11/2012; · 4.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is limited information about any association between the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the presence of valvular disease. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 940 patients in sinus rhythm, examined by echocardiography in 1996. During 11 years of follow-up, we assessed the incidence of AF and outcome defined as valvular surgery or death, in relation to baseline valvular function. AS (aortic stenosis) severity at baseline examination was assessed using peak transaortic valve pressure gradient. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, the risk of developing AF was related to AS (significant AS versus no significant AS; hazard ratio (HR) 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.39-5.61, p<0.0001) and mitral regurgitation (MR) (significant MR versus no significant MR; HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.77-3.51, p<0.0001). Also the risk of valvular surgery or death was related to AS (HR 3.90, 95% CI 3.09-4.88, p<0.0001) and MR (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.67-2.53, p<0.0001). In multivariate analyses, adjusting for sex, age, other valvular abnormalities, left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrial size - AS was independently related to both endpoints, whereas MR was not independently related to either endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: AS, but not MR, was independently predictive of development of AF and combined valvular surgery or death. In patients with combined AS and MR, the grade of AS, more than the grade of MR, determined the risk of AF and combination of valvular surgery or death. Further studies using contemporary echocardiographic quantification of aortic stenosis are warranted to confirm these retrospective data based on peak transaortic valve pressure gradient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare preoperative patient evaluation by a vascular physician with a standardized workup protocol prior to elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), in terms of differences in patient medication and mortality.
Consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA treated with standard EVAR from 1998 to 2006 (group 2) and 2007 to 2011 (group 1) were compared. Patients in group 1 (N.=201) were investigated preoperatively by a vascular physician, evaluating comorbidities and medication. Patients in group 2 (N.=304) underwent a standardized preoperative work-up including spirometry and echocardiography. Median time of follow-up was 23 months in group 1 and 71 months in group 2.
The proportion of patients who had on-going medication with anti-platelet and lipid lowering medication at admission was higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (62% versus 51%; P=0.013 and 68% versus 35%; P<0.001). In group 1, the proportion of newly instituted or increased dosage of anti-hypertensive, anti-platelet or lipid lowering medication at preoperative evaluation was 40%, 24% and 31%, respectively. The total cost for preoperative assessment per patient was 272 € in group 1 and 293 € in group 2 (P<0.001). There was no difference in 30-day (P=0.29) or long-term (P=0.24) mortality between the two groups.
Preoperative assessment by a vascular physician resulted in lower costs and improvement of medication against atherosclerosis, uncontrolled hypertension and perioperative ischemic cardiac events, but mortality was unaffected.
International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 08/2012; 31(4):368-75. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC®) therapy is considered to be superior to conventional dressings in the treatment of peri-vascular groin infections after vascular surgery at our department. Therefore, we wanted to perform an early interim analysis of clinical outcome in these seriously ill patients at risk for amputation and death. Patients were randomised to either VAC® (n = 5) or Sorbalgon® (n = 5; best other treatment) therapy after surgical debridement. Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) studies of the skin adjacent to the undressed wound were performed after 14 days of wound treatment. There were no difference in LDPI values in VAC® versus Sorbalgon® treated patients (P = 0·46). One patient in the VAC® group suffered from two re-bleeding episodes, leading to vascular resection and transfemoral amputation and in the Sorbalgon® group two had a complete wound healing time of more than 4 months and one had a visible interposition bypass graft in the groin after 1 month of treatment. No patient died due to the groin infection. Although not statistically proven, fewer wound treatment failures were recorded in the VAC® group, justifying this early interim analysis. LDPI studies were feasible.
International Wound Journal 06/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most prospective pediatric exercise intervention studies cover <1 year and use bone traits as surrogate end points for fractures. This prospective controlled exercise intervention study therefore followed not only skeletal development but also fracture incidence for 4 years.
Fractures were prospectively registered in a cohort of children aged 7 to 9 years, 446 boys and 362 girls in the intervention group (2675 person-years) and 807 boys and 780 girls in the control group (5661 person-years). The intervention included 40 minutes per day of school physical education for 4 years whereas the controls had 60 minutes per week. In a subsample, 73 boys and 48 girls in the intervention and 52 boys and 48 girls in the control group, bone mineral content (g) and bone width (cm) were followed by means of dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry.
The rate ratio for fractures was 1.11. In the dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry-measured children, there were no group differences at baseline in age, anthropometrics, or bone traits. The mean annual gain in lumbar spine bone mineral content was 7.0% higher in girls and 3.3% higher in boys and in femoral neck width 1.7% higher in girls and 0.6% higher in boys in the intervention than in the control group.
A population-based moderately intense 4-year exercise program in 7- to 9-year-old children increased bone mass and size without affecting the fracture risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spirometry is used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Impulse oscillometry system (IOS) allows determination of respiratory impedance indices, which might be of potential value in early COPD, although previous experience is limited. We examined pulmonary resistance and reactance measured by IOS in subjects with or without self-reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema or COPD (Q+ or Q-) and subjects with or without COPD diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (G+ or G-).
From a previous population-based study 450 subjects were examined with spirometry and IOS and answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and diseases.
Seventy-seven subjects were Q+, of whom 34 also were G+. Q+/G- subjects (n = 43) reported respiratory symptoms more frequently (35-40% vs 8-14%) but had higher FEV(1) (100% vs 87%) than Q-/G+ subjects (n = 90), p < 0.05 for both comparisons. Q+ subjects had higher pulmonary resistance and lower pulmonary reactance than Q- subjects (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The same pattern was seen both in G+ subjects ((Q+/Q-) R5 0.39/0.32, R5-R20 0.10/0.07, X5 0.13/0.09, AX 0.55/0.27, p < 0.05 for all) and G- subjects ((Q+/Q-) R5 0.35/0.29, R5-R20 0.08/0.06, X5 0.10/0.08, AX 0.31/0.19 p < 0.05 for all) except for R20 (adjusted for gender and age).
Self-reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema or COPD was associated with higher pulmonary resistance and lower pulmonary reactance measured by IOS, both among subjects with and without COPD according to GOLD criteria. IOS may have the potential to detect pathology associated with COPD earlier than spirometry.
Respiratory medicine 05/2012; 106(8):1116-23. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epoch length on accumulation of minutes of physical activity per day over a spectrum of intensities, and the effect that selection of number of hours of acceptable registration required per day had on number of days that were considered acceptable.
Participants were 696 children (369 boys and 327 girls) aged 6.7±0.4 yrs, from a population-based cohort. Physical activity was assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer for four days.
Main findings were that epoch length had a profound impact on accumulation of minutes of physical activity per day for higher intensities, whereas it had no effect on mean counts per minute. The chosen number of hours for an acceptable registration per day heavily influenced the number of days that were considered acceptable.
The findings in the present investigation should be taken into consideration when planning objective measurements of daily physical activity in younger children, and highlight the need for setting international recommendations for physical activity measurements with accelerometers, if different studies are to be comparable.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 04/2012; 52(2):115-21. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children.
Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score.
Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p < 0.001, and for girls r = 0.45, r = 0.50 and r = 0.48, all p < 0.001.
Total body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution were all associated with higher composite risk factor scores for CVD in young children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies on associations between reduced lung function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have mainly been based on forced expiratory volume in 1-s (FEV(1) ) and vital capacity (VC). This study examined potential associations between five different lung function variables and plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA).
Subjects (n = 450) from a previous population-based respiratory questionnaire survey [current smokers without lower respiratory symptoms, subjects with a self-reported diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and never-smokers without lower respiratory symptoms] were examined using spirometry, body plethysmography and measurements of diffusing capacity for CO (D(L,CO) ). Plaques in the ICA were assessed by ultrasonography.
Two hundred and twenty subjects were current smokers, 139 ex-smokers and 89 never-smokers. COPD was diagnosed in 130 subjects (GOLD criteria). Plaques in the ICA were present in 231 subjects (52%). General linear analysis with adjustment for established risk factors for atherosclerosis, including C-reactive protein, showed that D(L,CO) was lower [77.4% versus 83.7% of predicted normal (PN), P = 0.014] and residual volume (RV) was higher (110.3% versus 104.8% of PN, P = 0.020) in subjects with than without plaques in the ICA. This analysis did not show any statistically significant association between plaques and FEV(1) or VC.
The occurrence of plaques in the ICA was associated with low D(L,CO) and high RV, but not significantly with FEV(1) or COPD status. The results suggest that the relationships between reduced lung function, COPD and CVD are complex and not only linked to bronchial obstruction and low-grade systemic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited data exists of tracking and changes in accelerometer measured physical activity in children. METHODS: Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for four days in 167 children (boys n=90, girls n=77), aged 9.8±0.6 years. Follow-up measurement was made 2.0±0.1 yrs later (range 1.9-2.1 yrs). General physical activity (GPA) was defined as mean count/minute. Minutes of inactivity, light- moderate- and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA), moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) per day were calculated both as absolute values and as percentage of total registration time. RESULTS: Spearman rank order correlation indicated low tracking of MVPA and VPA in girls (r=0.25-0.33, P<0.05), and low-moderate tracking of GPA, inactivity, LMVPA, MVPA and VPA in boys (r=0.23-0.40, P<0.05). Time in inactivity increased at follow-up by 5-14%. Most of the assessed physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up by 6-30%. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity tracks at a low-moderate degree from age 10 to age 12 years, which confirm previous investigations that have used self-report assessments. The low-moderate tracking of physical activity variables indicate that those who were most active initially remained most active. Increasing inactive behaviour was observed and that several other physical activity variables were decreased at follow-up.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health 02/2012; · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed short-term and long-term effects of a 3-yr controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)) and CVD risk factors in children.
The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention and 8 controls) and included a follow-up 4 yr after the end of intervention. The analyses included 696, 6- to 7-yr-old children at baseline, 612 postintervention (age 9.5 yr) and 441 at follow-up (age 13.4 yr). The intervention consisted of a doubling of the amount of physical education (PE; from 90 to 180 min·wk(-1)), training of PE teachers, and upgrading of PE and playing facilities. Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. VO(2peak) was directly measured, and PA was assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A composite risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA score), skinfolds, and inverse VO(2peak).
The HOMA score of the intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to postintervention compared with control boys (P = 0.004). From baseline to follow-up intervention group boys had a smaller increase in SBP compared with control boys (P = 0.010). There were no other significant differences between groups.
This 3-yr school-based PA intervention caused positive changes in SBP and HOMA score in boys but not in girls, and no effects were seen in PA, VO(2peak), fatness, and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of PE and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce major improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise 01/2012; 44(7):1310-7. · 4.48 Impact Factor