Michael Tagen

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States

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Publications (17)75.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Topotecan is widely used for refractory solid tumors but multi-drug resistance may occur due to tumor expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Since erlotinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, also inhibits several ABC transporters, we performed a phase I study to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous topotecan given in combination with erlotinib. Patients received 150 mg of oral erlotinib daily and a 30 min intravenous infusion of topotecan on days 1-5 of a 21-day cycle. Dosage escalation of topotecan occurred with a starting dosage of 0.75 mg/m(2). The pharmacokinetics of topotecan was evaluated on day 1 of cycle 1 without erlotinib and on day 1 of cycle 2 or 3 with erlotinib. Twenty-nine patients were enrolled. The maximum tolerated dosage was determined to be 1.0 mg/m(2). Dose-limiting toxicities included neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The average duration of treatment was 97 days. Two partial responses were observed. Topotecan clearance and exposure were similar with and without erlotinib. The combination of topotecan and erlotinib is tolerable at clinically effective doses. Erlotinib does not affect the disposition of topotecan to a clinically significant extent.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We performed a phase-1 pharmacokinetic optimal dosing study of intraventricular topotecan (IT), administered daily 5x, to determine whether, the maximum tolerated dose of IT topotecan was also the pharmacokinetic optimal dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received topotecan administered through an intraventricular access device (0.1 or 0.2 mg/dose), daily x 5 every other week 2x (Induction); every 3 weeks x 2 (Consolidation); then every 4 weeks for up to 11 courses (Maintenance). Ventricular CSF pharmacokinetic studies were performed on day 1, week 1 of induction, and in a subset of patients after a single intralumbar topotecan dose on day 1, week 3. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were enrolled. All were evaluable for toxicity and 18 were assessable for pharmacokinetics. Arachnoiditis requiring corticosteroid therapy occurred in or one of three patients at the 0.1 mg dose level and two of the initial three patients enrolled at the 0.2 mg dose level. All subsequent patients were therefore treated with concomitant dexamethasone. Pharmacokinetic evaluation after accrual of the first seven patients revealed that a topotecan lactone concentration >1 ng/ml for 8 hours was attained in all patients and thus, further dose escalation was not pursued. Results of simulation studies showed that at the dose levels evaluated, >99.9% of patients are expected to achieve CSF topotecan lactone concentrations >1 ng/ml for at least 8 hours. CONCLUSION: Intraventricular topotecan, 0.2 mg, administered daily for 5 days with concomitant dexamethasone is well tolerated and was defined to be the pharmacokinetic optimal dose in this trial.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 01/2013; 60(4):627-32. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: New, effective chemotherapeutic agents are needed for intraocular retinoblastoma. METHODS: This institutional clinical trial sought to estimate the rate of response to 2 courses of vincristine and topotecan (VT) window therapy in patients with bilateral retinoblastoma and advanced disease (Reese-Ellsworth group IV or V) in at least 1 eye. The topotecan dose started at 3 mg/m(2) /day for 5 days and was adjusted to target a systemic exposure of 140 ± 20 ng/mL · hour. The vincristine dose was 0.05 mg/kg for patients <12 months of age and 1.5 mg/m(2) for those >12 months of age at diagnosis. RESULTS: From February 2005 to June 2010, 27 patients received VT window therapy. Median age at enrollment was 8.1 months (range, 0.7-22.1 months). Twenty-four patients (88.9%) responded to window therapy (95% confidence interval = 71.3%-96.9%). Hematologic toxicity comprised grade 4 neutropenia (n = 27), grade 3 anemia (n = 19), and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (n = 16). Thirteen patients had grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was added after 10 patients had been treated, and it significantly reduced the duration of grade 4 neutropenia (median, 7 vs 24 days; P < .001). Pharmacokinetic studies showed rapid changes in topotecan clearance rates during the first year of life. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of topotecan and vincristine is effective for the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment alleviates the duration of grade 4 neutropenia. Appropriate topotecan starting doses for patients 0-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, and >12 months of age are specified. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a targeted radiopharmaceutical with activity in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. Irinotecan is a known radiosensitizer with activity in neuroblastoma. This phase I study aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of MIBG together with fixed doses of vincristine and irinotecan. Patients 1 to 30 years old with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma and MIBG-avid tumors were eligible. All patients had autologous hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) available and met standard phase I organ function requirements. Irinotecan (20 mg/m(2)/dose IV) was given on days 0 to 4 and 7 to 11, with vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2) IV) on days 0 and 7. MIBG was given on day 1 following a 3 + 3 phase I dose escalation design starting at 8 mCi/kg MIBG. PBSCs were administered at dose level 8 mCi/kg for prolonged myelosuppression and for all patients at 12 mCi/kg or more. Twenty-four patients evaluable for dose escalation (median age, 6.7 years; range, 1.9-26.8 years) received 1 (n = 17), 2 (n = 5), or 3 (n = 2) cycles of therapy. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were the most common toxicities. Two of 6 patients at the 18 mCi/kg dose level had dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), including one with protocol-defined DLT with prolonged mild aspartate aminotransferase elevation. Eighteen mCi/kg was the recommended phase 2 dose. Six additional patients were treated at 18 mCi/kg, with one additional DLT. Responses (2 complete and 4 partial responses) occurred in 6 of 24 (25%) evaluable patients. MIBG is tolerable and active at 18 mCi/kg with standard doses of vincristine and irinotecan.
    Clinical Cancer Research 03/2012; 18(9):2679-86. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of an oral cephalosporin allowed advancement of the dosage of oral irinotecan. This study investigates whether administration of an oral cephalosporin increases the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenous irinotecan. Irinotecan was administered intravenously on Days 1-5 and Days 8-12 of a 21-day cycle with continuous oral cefpodoxime starting 2 days prior to irinotecan. Cohorts of 3-6 pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors were enrolled at 4 dosage levels, starting at the single-agent irinotecan MTD of 20 mg/m(2) /dose. The 17 evaluable patients received 39 courses of therapy. None of the patients treated with 20 mg/m(2) /dose experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). One of six patients treated at 30 mg/m(2) /dose experienced dose-limiting neutropenia. Two of three patients treated with 45 mg/m(2) /dose and two of five treated with 40 mg/m(2) /dose experienced dose-limiting diarrhea, with associated dehydration and anorexia. Two unconfirmed partial responses were observed after one course in a patient with Ewing sarcoma and one with paraganglioma. A child with refractory neuroblastoma had disease stabilization through 12 courses of therapy. Median (range) systemic exposure to SN-38 at the MTD (30 mg/m(2) /dose) was 67 ng-h/mL (36 to 111 ng-h/mL). The MTD of intravenous irinotecan administered on a protracted schedule was increased by 50% from 20 to 30 mg/m(2) /dose with the addition of oral cefpodoxime. The most prominent DLT remained diarrhea. High interpatient variability in irinotecan pharmacokinetics was observed; however, SN-38 exposure at the MTD was greater than most reported exposures with the 20 mg/m(2) dosage.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 04/2011; 58(3):372-9. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) efflux irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 in vitro, and thus may contribute to system clearance of these compounds. Mdr1a/b(-/-), Mrp4(-/-), and wild-type mice were administered 20 or 40 mg/kg irinotecan, and plasma samples were collected for 6 hours. Irinotecan and SN-38 lactone and carboxylate were quantitated and data were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Mdr1a/b genotype was a significant covariate for the clearance of both irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone. Exposures to irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone after a 40 mg/kg dose were 1.6-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Plasma concentrations of irinotecan lactone, irinotecan carboxylate, and SN-38 lactone in Mrp4(-/-) mice were similar to the wild-type controls. These results suggest that P-gp plays a role in irinotecan and SN-38 elimination, but Mrp4 does not affect irinotecan or SN-38 plasma pharmacokinetics.
    Drug metabolism letters. 12/2010; 4(4):195-201.
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    ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) efflux irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 in vitro, and thus may contribute to system clearance of these compounds. Mdr1a/b-/-, Mrp4-/-, and wild-type mice were administered 20 or 40 mg/kg irinotecan, and plasma samples were collected for 6 hours. Irinotecan and SN-38 lactone and carboxylate were quantitated and data were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Mdr1a/b genotype was a significant covariate for the clearance of both irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone. Exposures to irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone after a 40 mg/kg dose were 1.6-fold higher in Mdr1a/b-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. Plasma concentrations of irinotecan lactone, irinotecan carboxylate, and SN- 38 lactone in Mrp4-/- mice were similar to the wild-type controls. These results suggest that P-gp plays a role in irinotecan and SN-38 elimination, but Mrp4 does not affect irinotecan or SN-38 plasma pharmacokinetics.
    Drug Metabolism Letters 11/2010; 4(4):195-201.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the role of drug transporters in central nervous system (CNS) penetration and cellular accumulation of erlotinib and its metabolite, OSI-420. After oral erlotinib administration to wild-type and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-knockout mice (Mdr1a/b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-), and Abcc4(-/-)), plasma was collected and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) was sampled using intracerebral microdialysis. A pharmacokinetic model was fit to erlotinib and OSI-420 concentration-time data, and brain penetration (P(Brain)) was estimated by the ratio of ECF-to-unbound plasma area under concentration-time curves. Intracellular accumulation of erlotinib was assessed in cells overexpressing human ABC transporters or SLC22A solute carriers. P(Brain) in wild-type mice was 0.27 ± 0.11 and 0.07 ± 0.02 (mean ± SD) for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively. Erlotinib and OSI-420 P(Brain) in Abcg2(-/-) and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Abcg2(-/-) mice were significantly higher than in wild-type mice. Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice showed similar brain ECF penetration as wild-type mice (0.49 ± 0.37 and 0.04 ± 0.02 for erlotinib and OSI-420, respectively). In vitro, erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation was significantly lower in cells overexpressing breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) than in control cells. Only OSI-420, not erlotinib, showed lower accumulation in cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) than in control cells. The P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar increased erlotinib and OSI-420 accumulation in BCRP-overexpressing cells. Erlotinib uptake was higher in OAT3- and OCT2-transfected cells than in empty vector control cells. Abcg2 is the main efflux transporter preventing erlotinib and OSI-420 penetration in mouse brain. Erlotinib and OSI-420 are substrates for SLC22A family members OAT3 and OCT2. Our findings provide a mechanistic basis for erlotinib CNS penetration, cellular uptake, and efflux mechanisms.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2010; 17(1):89-99. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutlin-3a is an MDM2 inhibitor that is under investigation in preclinical models for a variety of pediatric malignancies, including retinoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia. We used physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to characterize the disposition of nutlin-3a in the mouse. Plasma protein binding and blood partitioning were assessed by in vitro studies. After intravenous (10 and 20 mg/kg) and oral (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) dosing, tissue concentrations of nutlin-3a were determined in plasma, liver, spleen, intestine, muscle, lung, adipose, bone marrow, adrenal gland, brain, retina, and vitreous fluid. The PBPK model was simultaneously fit to all pharmacokinetic data using NONMEM. Nutlin-3a exhibited nonlinear binding to murine plasma proteins, with the unbound fraction ranging from 0.7 to 11.8%. Nutlin-3a disposition was characterized by rapid absorption with peak plasma concentrations at approximately 2 h and biphasic elimination consistent with a saturable clearance process. The final PBPK model successfully described the plasma and tissue disposition of nutlin-3a. Simulations suggested high bioavailability, rapid attainment of steady state, and little accumulation when administered once or twice daily at dosages up to 400 mg/kg. The final model was used to perform simulations of unbound tissue concentrations to determine which dosing regimens are appropriate for preclinical models of several pediatric malignancies.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 10/2010; 39(1):15-21. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of vandetanib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, administered once daily during and after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Radiotherapy was administered as 1.8-Gy fractions (total cumulative dose of 54 Gy). Vandetanib was administered concurrently with radiotherapy for a maximum of 2 years. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were evaluated during the first 6 weeks of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were obtained for all patients. Plasma angiogenic factors and VEGFR2 phosphorylation in mononuclear cells were analyzed before and during therapy. Twenty-one patients were administered 50 (n = 3), 65 (n = 3), 85 (n = 3), 110 (n = 6), and 145 mg/m(2) (n = 6) of vandetanib. Only one patient developed DLT (grade 3 diarrhea) at dosage level 5. An expanded cohort of patients were treated at dosage levels 4 (n = 10) and 5 (n = 4); two patients developed grade 4 hypertension and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome while also receiving high-dose dexamethasone. Despite significant interpatient variability, exposure to vandetanib increased with higher dosage levels. The bivariable analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) before and during therapy showed that patients with higher levels of VEGF before therapy had a longer progression-free survival (PFS; P = .022), whereas patients with increases in VEGF during treatment had a shorter PFS (P = .0015). VEGFR2 phosphorylation was inhibited on day 8 or 29 of therapy compared with baseline (P = .039). The recommended phase II dose of vandetanib in children is 145 mg/m(2) per day. Close monitoring and management of hypertension is required, particularly for patients receiving corticosteroids.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2010; 28(31):4762-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and rapid HTLC-ESI-MS/MS method with an advanced online sample preparation was developed for determination of the gamma-secretase inhibitor MK-0752 in human plasma using an internal standard. Plasma samples (100 microL) were diluted and injected directly onto an online extraction column (Cohesive Cyclone MAX 0.5 mm x 50 mm, > 30 microm), the sample matrix was washed out with an aqueous solution, and retained analytes were eluted out and transferred directly to the analytical column (Phenomenex Gemini 3 micron C18 110A, 50 mm x 2.0 mm at 50 degrees C) for separation using a gradient mobile phase. The eluted analytes were then detected on an API-3000 LC-MS/MS System with ESI and a negative multiple reaction monitoring mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 441-->175 for MK-0752 and 496-->175 for the internal standard. Online extraction recoveries were 81%. The method was validated and was linear in the range of 0.05-50 microg/mL. Within-day and between-day precisions were<8.6%, and accuracies were 0.7 and 7.1%. This method was applied to the measurement of plasma MK-0752 levels in a Phase I study of pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory brain tumors.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2010; 878(25):2348-52. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate associations between germline genetic variations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and toxicity in paediatric patients treated with gefitinib. Gefitinib treatment and toxicity data from five paediatric clinical trials were combined. EGFR genotypes evaluated included -191C>A, -216G>T, Arg497Lys and intron 1 CA sequence repeat number. The genetic variations were evaluated for associations with grade one or greater rash or diarrhoea during the first course of treatment. The analysis included 110 patients, 60 (55%) with grade one or greater rash and 47 (43%) with grade one or greater diarrhoea. Among patients with the -216 GG (n=51), GT (n=41) and TT (n=16) genotypes, grade one or greater rash occurred in 52.9%, 46.3% and 87.5% of patients (p=0.003, recessive model), respectively. Diarrhoea occurred in 27.5%, 58.5% and 43.8% of patients with respective GG, GT and TT genotypes (p=0.004, dominant model). The -191C>A, intron 1 CA repeat number and Arg497Lys genotypes were not significantly associated with either rash or diarrhoea. EGFR -216 and -191 polymorphisms were in linkage disequilibrium (D'=0.66, p=0.01). The haplotype (-191C, -216T) was associated with increased risk for rash (p=0.049), but was not more predictive of rash than the single -216 polymorphism. These findings indicate that EGFR -216G>T genotype is a predictive marker for the development of skin rash and diarrhoea in paediatric patients treated with gefitinib. Continued investigation of relationships between germline EGFR polymorphisms and the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in paediatric patients is warranted.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2010; 46(11):2045-51. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent, is widely used for the treatment of many adult and pediatric malignancies. The stability of cyclophosphamide in aqueous- and methylcellulose-based oral suspending vehicles is currently unknown. To develop and validate a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to measure cyclophosphamide concentrations in simple syrup and Ora-Plus, and assess the 56-day chemical stability and physical appearance of cyclophosphamide in these suspensions at both room temperature (22 degrees C) and 4 degrees C. The intravenous formulation of cyclophosphamide was diluted to 20 mg/mL in NaCl 0.9%, compounded 1:1 with either suspending vehicle, and stored in the dark in 3-mL amber polypropylene oral syringes at 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Aliquots from each syringe were obtained on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 and assayed using the validated stability-indicating HPLC-UV method. A C18 analytical column was used to separate cyclophosphamide from the internal standard, ifosfamide, with a mobile phase of 21% acetonitrile in 79% sodium phosphate buffer. The suspension was examined for odor change, visually examined under normal fluorescent light for color change, and examined under a light microscope for evidence of microbial growth. Samples of cyclophosphamide in both simple syrup and Ora-Plus were stable when kept at 4 degrees C for at least 56 days. At room temperature, cyclophosphamide in simple syrup and Ora-Plus had a shelf life of 8 and 3 days, respectively. No changes in color or odor or evidence of microbial growth were observed. Cyclophosphamide can be extemporaneously prepared in simple syrup or Ora-Plus and stored for at least 2 months under refrigeration without significant degradation.
    Annals of Pharmacotherapy 02/2010; 44(2):295-301. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and precise LC-ESI-MS/MS method for determination of nutlin-3a in murine plasma using ketoconazole as an internal standard was developed and validated. Plasma nutlin-3a samples were prepared by either a simple protein precipitation (PP) for the high concentration range (10-20,000ng/mL) or by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for the low concentration range (0.25-300ng/mL). Nutlin-3a and ketoconazole were separated on a modified C18 analytical column (4microm, 75mmx2mm) with an isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/5mM HCOONH(4)=70/30, v/v). The retention times of nutlin-3a and ketoconazole were 1.14 and 1.45min. Detection was achieved by a tandem MS system, monitoring m/z 582/99 and m/z 532/82 for nutlin-3a and ketoconazole, respectively. The PP method was linear in a range of 10-20,000ng/mL (R(2)>or=0.993) and the LLE method was linear in a range of 0.25-300ng/mL (R(2)>or=0.992). The mean recoveries for PP and LLE were 24% and 78%, respectively. Within-day and between-day precisions were <or=4.5% for PP and were <or=4.9% for LLE. Within-day and between-day accuracies (% error) ranged from 4.8 to -7.9 for PP, and from -0.2 to -8.4 for LLE. The two extraction methods produced equivalent results, allowing use of both within the same study. This method has been applied to the measurement of nutlin-3a concentrations in murine plasma samples obtained from a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 10/2009; 51(4):915-20. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A method to rapidly measure dopamine (DA), dihydroxyindolphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not yet been reported. A rapid, sensitive, and specific HPLC method was therefore developed using electrochemical detection. CSF was mixed with an antioxidant solution prior to freezing to prevent neurotransmitter degradation. Separation of the five analytes was obtained on an ESA MD-150 x 3.2 mm column with a flow rate of 0.37 mL/min and an acetonitrile-aqueous (5 : 95, v/v) mobile phase with 75 mM monobasic sodium phosphate buffer, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.81 mM sodium octylsulfonate and 5% tetrahydrofuran. The optimal electrical potential settings were: guard cell +325 mV, E1 -100 mV and E2 +300 mV. Within-day and between-day precisions were <10% for all analytes and accuracies ranged from 91.0 to 106.7%. DA, 5-HT, and their metabolites were stable in CSF with antioxidant solution at 4 degrees C for 8 h in the autoinjector. This method was used to measure neurotransmitters in CSF obtained from children enrolled on an institutional medulloblastoma treatment protocol.
    Biomedical Chromatography 10/2009; 24(6):626-31. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Topotecan is a substrate of the ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). To define the role of these transporters in topotecan penetration into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) and brain parenchymal extracellular fluid (ECF) compartments, we performed intracerebral microdialysis on transporter-deficient mice after an intravenous dose of topotecan (4 mg/kg). vCSF penetration of unbound topotecan lactone was measured as the ratio of vCSF-to-plasma area under the concentration-time curves. The mean +/- SD ratios for wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice were 3.07 +/- 0.09, 2.57 +/- 0.17, 1.63 +/- 0.12, and 0.86 +/- 0.05, respectively. In contrast, the ECF-to-plasma ratios for wild-type, Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice were 0.36 +/- 0.06, 0.42 +/- 0.06, and 0.88 +/- 0.07. Topotecan lactone was below detectable limits in the ECF of Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice. When gefitinib (200 mg/kg) was preadministered to inhibit Bcrp1 and P-gp, the vCSF-to-plasma ratio decreased to 1.29 +/- 0.09 in wild-type mice and increased to 1.13 +/- 0.13 in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, whereas the ECF-to-plasma ratio increased to 0.74 +/- 0.14 in wild-type and 1.07 +/- 0.03 in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice. Preferential active transport of topotecan lactone over topotecan carboxylate was shown in vivo by vCSF lactone-to-carboxylate area under the curve ratios for wild-type, Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice of 5.69 +/- 0.83, 3.85 +/- 0.64, 3.61 +/- 0.46, and 0.78 +/- 0.19, respectively. Our results suggest that Bcrp1 and P-gp transport topotecan into vCSF and out of brain parenchyma through the blood-brain barrier. These findings may help to improve pharmacologic strategies to treat brain tumors.
    Cancer Research 07/2009; 69(14):5885-92. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and selective method for simultaneous determination of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite carboxyethylphosphoramide mustard (CEPM) was developed using online sample preparation and separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Diluted plasma was injected onto an extraction column (Cyclone MAX 0.5 mm x 50 mm, >30 microm), the sample matrix was washed with an aqueous solution, and retained analytes were transferred to an analytical column (Gemini 3 microm C18 110A, 100 mm x 2.0 mm) using a gradient mobile phase prior to detection by MS/MS. Analytes were detected in an API-3000 LC-MS/MS system using positive multiple-reaction monitoring mode (m/z 261/140 and 293/221 for CTX and CEPM, respectively). Online extraction recoveries were 76% and 72% for cyclophosphamide and CEPM. Within-day and between-day variabilities were <3.0%, and accuracies were between -6.9% and 5.2%. This method has been used to measure plasma cyclophosphamide and CEPM concentrations in an ongoing Phase II study in children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 05/2009; 877(18-19):1709-15. · 2.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

114 Citations
75.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2013
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2010
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Clinical Pharmacy
      Knoxville, TN, United States