[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of licorice extract in a t-BHP (tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide)-induced liver damage model and the effects of its ingredients, glycyrrhizic acid (GA), liquiritin (LQ) and liquiritigenin (LG), in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cell model. The GA, LQ and LG inhibited the LPS-stimulated elevation of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and interleukin (IL)-6 in BV2 (mouse brain microglia) cells. Furthermore, licorice extract inhibited the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the livers of t-BHP-treated mice models. This result suggested that mechanistic-based evidence substantiating the traditional claims of licorice extract and its three bioactive components can be applied for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders, such as oxidative liver damage and inflammation diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to identify a new candidate anti-inflammatory compound for use in the active stage of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Benzylideneacetophenone compound JC3 [(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)phenylpro-2-en-l-one] was synthesized based on a structural modification of yakuchinone B, a constituent of the seeds of Alpinia oxyphylla, which belongs to the ginger family (Zingiberaceae), has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory phytochemical. Orbital fibroblasts were primarily cultured from patients with TAO, and the potential of JC3 to suppress the interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein (IP)-10/CXCL10 production in these cells was determined. IFN-γ strongly increased the level of IP-10/CXCL10 in orbital fibroblasts from patients with TAO. JC3 exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the IFN-γ-induced increase in IP-10/CXCL10 in a dose-dependent manner; its potency was greater than that of an identical concentration of yakuchinone B with no toxicity to cells at the concentration range used. Moreover, the constructed dimer and trimer polystructures of JC3, showed greater potency than JC3 in suppressing the IFN-γ-induced production of IP-10/CXCL10. JC3 significantly attenuated the IP-10/CXCL10 mRNA expression induced by IFN-γ, and a gel-shift assay showed that JC3 suppressed IFN-γ-induced DNA binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) in TAO orbital fibroblasts. Our results provide initial evidence that the JC3 compound reduces the levels of IP-10/CXCL10 protein and mRNA induced by IFN-γ in orbital fibroblasts of TAO patients. Therefore, JC3 might be considered as a future candidate for therapeutic application in TAO that exerts its effects by modulating the pathogenic mechanisms in orbital fibroblasts.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 06/2014; 46(6):e100. DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.26 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xanthigen, a mixture of brown seaweed and pomegranate seed extracts, has weight loss properties and lipid-lowering effects in mice and humans. This study elucidated the Xanthigen mechanism of an anti-obesity activity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Xanthigen decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. The serum leptin level and the adipose tissue leptin expression in mice fed HFD plus Xanthigen were significantly decreased, compared to HFD-fed mice. Phosphorylation of AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK) α and β and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in the adipose tissue of HFD plus Xanthigen-fed mice was elevated, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression was decreased. Xanthigen may have an anti-obesity activity by down-regulation of PPARγ and activation of the AMPK pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of peptidomimetic pseudo-prolyl-homophenylalanylketones were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3). In addition, the parasite killing activity of these compounds in human blood-cultured P. falciparum was examined. Of twenty-two (22) compounds synthesized, one peptidomimetic comprising a homophenylalanine-based α-hydroxyketone linked Cbz-protected hydroxyproline (39) showed the most potency (IC50 80nM against FP-2 and 60nM against FP-3). In silico analysis of these peptidomimetic analogs offered important protein-ligand structural insights including the role, by WaterMap, of water molecules in the active sites of these protease isoforms. The pseudo-dipeptide 39 and related compounds may serve as a promising direction forward in the design of competitive inhibitors of falcipains for the effective treatment of malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructus Sophorae, the dried ripe fruit of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.), is an herbal ingredient used in traditional Oriental medicine. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Fructus Sophorae extracts (FSE) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the production of prostaglandin () and tumor necrotic () were evaluated. Our data revealed that FSE increased the macrophage activation and the production of and , which was consistently correlated with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. On comparative cytokine protein array, FSE significantly increased several cytokines, which was associated with phosphorylation of mitogen- activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt in RAW 264.7 cells. However, each inhibitor of these molecules attenuated the FSE-induced production. These results indicate that FSE activated macrophages through the activation of MAPKs and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These findings suggest that FSE may provide a promising source of an immunoenhancing agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echinacea purpurea has been shown to have anti-diabetic activities; for example, it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Adipogenesis has been used to study the insulin signaling pathway and to screen anti-diabetic compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of E. purpurea (EEEP) and its constituents on the insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When adipocyte differentiation was induced with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the cellular triglyceride content were significantly increased by EEEP. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with EEEP were gradually increased as compared with control cells. Fat accumulation and triglyceride content of adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly increased as compared with control cells. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly higher than in control cells. These results suggest EEEP promotes the adipogenesis that is partially induced by insulin and that dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide appears to be responsible for EEEP-enhanced adipocyte differentiation.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 10/2013; 37(6). DOI:10.1007/s12272-013-0251-y · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple synthesis and biologic evaluation of trans-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamamides 10a–e and 11 as novel antinarcotic agents is described. The synthetic key strategies involve condensation reaction and coupling reaction to generate trans-3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamamides 10a–e and 11. They were evaluated for free radical scavenging, inhibitory action for neurotoxicity in cultured neurons, and antinarcotic activity in mice. It was found that compounds 10a, 10d, and 10e displayed significant inhibitory action of the glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and 10a–e and 11 showed high antinarcotic activity in mice.
Medicinal Chemistry Research 10/2013; 22(10). DOI:10.1007/s00044-012-0415-1 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1-50 μ g/mL). The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1 β , and TNF- α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg). To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2013; 2013:514049. DOI:10.1155/2013/514049 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function and the role of glucosylceramide have not been well studied in the central nervous system. This study was aimed to investigate the possible roles of glucosylceramide in memory function in aged mice. Glucosylceramide (50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed memory enhancing activity after 3-month treatment in the aged mice (C56BL/6, 18-20 months old) through Y-maze, novel objective test, and Morris water maze test. Long-term treatment of glucosylceramide decreased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in the brain of aged mice. The LPS-induced mRNA level of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1 β , and TNF- α was reduced by the acute treatment with glucosylceramide in adult mice. These results suggest that glucosylceramide plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and memory enhancement, and it could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2013; 2013:824120. DOI:10.1155/2013/824120 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total synthesis and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen was described. The key synthetic steps involve Knoevenagel condensation with p-methoxybenzaldehyde, in situ decarboxylation and intramolecular ring cyclization to construct the tetralone skeleton. Stereospecific reduction of the O-alkylated ketone 13 afforded good yield of precusor alcohol 5. Final coupling of alcohol 5 with 4-hydroxy-coumarin yielded flocoumafen (1). Separation and structure determination of cis- and trans-flocoumafen through 2D NMR analyses-assisted computer simulation techniques for the evaluation of anticoagulant activities are reported for the first time. This method is useful for generating the core tetralone skeleton of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and provides a generalized access to various warfarin type anticoagulants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple synthesis of modafinil derivatives and their biological activity are described. The key synthetic strategies involve substitution and coupling reactions. We determined the anti-inflammatory effects of modafinil derivatives in cultured BV2 cells by measuring the inhibition of nitrite production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 after LPS stimulation. It was found that for sulfide analogues introduction of aliphatic groups on the amide part (compounds 11a - d ) resulted in lower anti-inflammatory activity compared with cyclic or aromatic moieties (compounds 1 1e - k ). However, for the sulfoxide analogues, introduction of aliphatic moieties (compounds 1 2a - d ) showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than cyclic or aromatic fragments (compounds 1 2e - k ) in BV-2 microglia cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blue cohosh has been used as a medicinal herb in eastern North America. It was commonly used as traditional medicines for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, rheumatic pain, and as anti-inflammatory remedy. Particularly, extract of blue cohosh roots has been used as anti-inflammatory antipyretic in traditional medicines. In the present study, we investigated the effects of blue cohosh components on the suppressive expression of iNOS or proinflammatory cytokines after the activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was determined by western blotting or gene expression. Blue cohosh treatment suppressed the elevation of LPS-induced iNOS expression in a concentration-dependent manner in microglia cells. Blue cohosh constituents also suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, blue cohosh extract suppressed the expression of COX-2, iNOS, and proinflammatory cytokines in adrenal glands of mice. These results demonstrate that constituents of blue cohosh exert anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, blue cohosh may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2012; 2012:798192. DOI:10.1155/2012/798192 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modafinil has been used as a psychostimulant for the treatment of narcolepsy. However, its primary mechanism of action remains elusive. Therefore, we examined the effects of modafinil on K(Ca)3.1 channels and vascular smooth muscle contraction. K(Ca)3.1 currents and channel activity were measured using a voltage-clamp technique and inside-out patches in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) concentration was measured, and the phosphorylation of K(Ca)3.1 channel protein was examined using western blotting in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and/or primary cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Muscle contractions were recorded from mouse aorta and rat pulmonary artery by using a myograph developed in-house. Modafinil was found to inhibit K(Ca)3.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) of modafinil for the current inhibition was 6.8 ± 0.7 nM. The protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin also inhibited K(Ca)3.1 currents. The inhibitory effects of modafinil and forskolin on K(Ca)3.1 currents were blocked by the PKA inhibitors PKI(14-22) or H-89. In addition, modafinil relaxed blood vessels (mouse aorta and rat pulmonary artery) in a concentration-dependent manner. Modafinil increased cAMP concentrations in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts or primary cultured mouse aortic SMCs and phosphorylated K(Ca)3.1 channel protein in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. However, open probability and single-channel current amplitudes of K(Ca)3.1 channels were not changed by modafinil. From these results, we conclude that modafinil inhibits K(Ca)3.1 channels and vascular smooth muscle contraction by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, suggesting that modafinil can be used as a cAMP-dependent K(Ca)3.1 channel blocker and vasodilator.
Pharmacological Research 03/2012; 66(1):51-9. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2012.02.009 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simple synthesis and biological activities of modafinil derivatives are described. The key reactions include condensation of acid and propargyl alcohol, subsequent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of alkynes and (3-azido-propyl)cyclohexane or (4-azido-butyl)benzene in the presence of sodium ascorbate and CuSO₄·5H₂O in excellent yield. They were then evaluated for the suppression of LPS-induced NO generation in vitro. It was found that all compounds showed moderate effects for suppression of LPS-induced NO generation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o.) recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and efficient seven steps synthesis of brodifacoum and difethialone from phenylacetyl chloride is described. The key synthetic strategies involve Friedel-Crafts acylation, intramolecular ring cyclization and condensation reaction in the presence of Brønsted-Lowry acids. It was found that brodifacoum showed favorable inhibiting activities on LPS-stimulated nitrite production in BV-2 microglia cells. Brodifacoum exhibited superior anti-inflammatory effects than difethialone. We expect that an efficient linear synthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and key fragments that are useful agents for the modulation of inflammation as well as inhibition of coagulation will be of practical use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we describe the practical synthesis and biological properties of bergenin and its structural analogs. Synthetic bergenin compounds were prepared by acylation of bergenin. These compounds were then evaluated for suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation in cultured cells and anti-narcotic effects on morphine-dependent mice. We found that bergenin derivatives showed potent anti-inflammatory activity (suppression of NO generation) at concentrations ranging from 20 to 30 μmin vitro, and bergenin derivatives (10-20 mg/kg) exhibited significant anti-narcotic effects on morphine dependence in mice. These results suggest the potential utility of bergenin and its analogs as anti-narcotic agents and the design of more potent anti-inflammatory compounds.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 07/2011; 78(4):725-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01194.x · 2.49 Impact Factor