[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth of white adipose tissue takes place in normal development and in obesity. A pool of adipose progenitors is responsible for the formation of new adipocytes and for the potential of this tissue to expand in response to chronic energy overload. However, factors controlling self-renewal of human adipose progenitors are largely unknown. We investigated the expression profile and the role of activin A in this process.
Expression of INHBA/activin A was investigated in three types of human adipose progenitors. We then analyzed at the molecular level the function of activin A during human adipogenesis. We finally investigated the status of activin A in adipose tissues of lean and obese subjects and analyzed macrophage-induced regulation of its expression.
INHBA/activin A is expressed by adipose progenitors from various fat depots, and its expression dramatically decreases as progenitors differentiate into adipocytes. Activin A regulates the number of undifferentiated progenitors. Sustained activation or inhibition of the activin A pathway impairs or promotes, respectively, adipocyte differentiation via the C/EBPβ-LAP and Smad2 pathway in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Activin A is expressed at higher levels in adipose tissue of obese patients compared with the expression levels in lean subjects. Indeed, activin A levels in adipose progenitors are dramatically increased by factors secreted by macrophages derived from obese adipose tissue.
Altogether, our data show that activin A plays a significant role in human adipogenesis. We propose a model in which macrophages that are located in adipose tissue regulate adipose progenitor self-renewal through activin A.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies in humans and mice suggest the implication of the cysteine proteases cathepsins S, L, and K in vascular and metabolic complications of obesity.
Our objective was to identify clinically relevant forms of cathepsin in human obesity.
We conducted a prospective study on two independent cohorts.
The first cohort includes 45 obese women eligible for gastric surgery (age, 39 +/- 1.6 yr; body mass index, 47 +/- 0.99 kg/m(2)) and 17 nonobese women (age, 38 +/- 1.8 yr; body mass index, 21 +/- 0.44 kg/m(2)). The second cohort comprises 29 obese women (age, 57 +/- 0.8 yr; body mass index, 34 +/- 0.69 kg/m(2)) undergoing 6 months of medically supervised caloric restriction.
Cathepsin S, L, and K mRNA levels were determined in surgical adipose tissue biopsies. The proteins were measured in conditioned medium of adipose tissue explants and in circulation.
Obese subjects had a 2-fold increase in cathepsin S mRNA in adipose tissue as compared with normal-weight subjects and an increased rate (1.5-fold) of cathepsin S release in adipose tissue explants. Cathepsin S circulating concentrations were increased with obesity (+30%) and reduced after weight reduction (P < 0.05 for both). By contrast, cathepsin L was unaffected in adipose tissue and serum; cathepsin K was undetectable in circulation and unchanged in adipose tissue.
In humans, cathepsin S is more influenced than cathepsins L and K by changes in energy balance in adipose tissue and circulation. This opens new avenues to explore whether selective inhibition of this protease could reduce cardiovascular risk and ameliorate metabolic status in obese subjects.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 02/2010; 95(4):1861-8. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the role of adipose-produced chemokine, chemokine ligand (CCL) 5, on the recruitment and survival of macrophages in human white adipose tissue (WAT).
CCL5 levels measured by enzyme immunoassay in serum and by real-time polymerase chain reaction in WAT were higher in obese compared to lean subjects. CCL5, but not CCL2, secretion was higher in visceral compared to subcutaneous WAT. CCL5 mRNA expression was positively correlated with the inflammatory macrophage markers as CD11b, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 in visceral WAT (n=24 obese subjects), and was higher in macrophages than other WAT cells. We found that CCL5 triggered adhesion and transmigration of blood monocytes to/through endothelial cells of human WAT. Whereas in obese WAT apoptotic macrophages were located around necrotic adipocytes, we demonstrated that CCL5, but not CCL2, protected macrophages from free cholesterol-induced apoptosis via activation of the Akt/Erk pathways.
CCL5 could participate in the inflammation of obese WAT by recruiting blood monocytes and exerting antiapoptotic properties on WAT macrophages. This specific role of CCL5 on macrophage survival with maintenance of their lipid scavenging function should be taken into account for future therapeutic strategies in obesity-related diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Limiting white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion and therefore reducing inflammation could be effective in preventing the progression of obesity and the development of associated complications. We investigated the effects of 1,2-vinyldithiin (1,2-DT), a garlic-derived organosulfur, on the differentiation and inflammatory state of human preadipocytes. Preadipocytes were prepared from subcutaneous adipose tissue of nonobese young women and differentiated in the presence of 1,2-DT. Inflammatory preadipocytes were obtained following treatment with human macrophage-secreted factors. 1,2-DT (100 micromol/L) significantly reduced gene expression of PPARgamma2 (-40%), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (-25%), lipoprotein lipase (-22%), leptin (-30%), and adiponectin (-15%). Lipid accumulation was also significantly diminished in preadipocytes differentiated in the presence of 100 micromol/L 1,2-DT (-37%) compared with controls. Furthermore, 100 micromol/L 1,2-DT treatment for 10 d significantly reduced PPARgamma activity (-27%). The protein expression of perilipin and the secretion levels for 2 adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, were significantly diminished in 1,2-DT-cultured preadipocytes (-37, -51, and -43%, respectively). Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) induced by macrophage-secreted factors was partially abolished in 100 micromol/L 1,2-DT-treated preadipocytes (-28 and -25%, respectively). In conclusion, we demonstrated that 1,2-DT, a garlic-derived organosulfur, has antiadipogenic and antiinflammatory actions on human preadipocytes and may be a novel, antiobesity nutraceutical.
Journal of Nutrition 09/2009; 139(11):2055-60. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White adipose tissue (WAT) in obese humans is characterized by macrophage accumulation the effects of which on WAT biology are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that macrophage-secreted factors impair preadipocyte differentiation and induce inflamma- tion, and we described the excessive fibrotic deposition in WAT from obese individuals. Microarray analysis revealed significant overexpression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in inflammatory preadipocytes. We show here an organized deposition of fibronectin, collagen I, and tenascin-C and clustering of the ECM receptor 5 integrin, characterizing inflammatory preadipocytes. Anti-5 integrin-neutralizing antibody decreased proliferation of these cells, underlining the importance of the fibronectin/integrin partnership. Fibronectin-cultured preadipocytes exhibited increased proliferation and expression of both nuclear factor-B and cyclin D1. Small interfering RNA deletion of nuclear factor-B and cyclin D1 showed that these factors link preadipocyte proliferation with inflammation and ECM remodeling. Macrophage- secreted molecules increased preadipocyte migration through an increase in active/phosphor- ylated focal adhesion kinase. Gene expression and neutralizing antibody experiments suggest that inhibin A, a TGF- family member, is a major fibrotic factor. Interactions between preadipocytes and macrophages were favored in a three-dimensional collagen I matrix mim- icking the fibrotic context of WAT. Cell-rich regions were immunostained for preadipocytes, proliferation, and macrophages in the vicinity of fibrotic WAT from obese individuals. In conclusion, an inflammatory environment leads to profound modifications of the human preadipocyte phenotype, producing fibrotic components with increased migration and pro- liferation. This phenomenon might play a role in facilitating the constitution of quiescent preadipocyte pools and eventually in the maintenance and aggravation of increased fat mass
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the secretome of differentiating human preadipocytes using global gene expression profiling.
Gene expression was measured using microarrays at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 in primary preadipocytes undergoing adipogenesis (n=6 independent subjects). Predictive bioinformatic algorithms were employed to identify those differentially expressed genes that code for secreted proteins.
Gene expression was assessed using microarrays and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, bioinformatic predictive algorithms were used to identify the secretome of differentiating preadipocytes, and the secretion of the most significant candidates were confirmed at the protein level using western blots or ELISA tests. Gene expression was also assayed in the adipocyte and stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of obese subjects.
Microarray analysis identified 33 genes whose expression significantly changed (false discovery rate of 1%) during adipogenesis and code for secreted proteins. Of these genes, 18 are novel candidate adipose tissue 'secretome' genes. Their relative gene expression in adipocyte and SVF of obese subjects revealed that most of these genes are more highly expressed in the SVF. A novel candidate, matrix gla protein (MGP), was upregulated (approximately 30-fold) during adipogenesis, second only to leptin (approximately 50-fold). MGP and another secretome candidate protein, inhibin beta B (INHBB), were detected in the secretion media of adipocytes isolated from adipose tissue explants.
Gene expression coupled with predictive bioinformatic algorithms has proved a valid and alternative approach to further define the adipocyte secretome. Many of the novel candidate secretome genes are components of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. MGP and INHBB represent new adipokines whose function in adipose tissue remains to be unravelled.
International journal of obesity (2005) 03/2009; 33(3):354-63. · 4.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) is secreted by hepatocytes in response to injury and is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines. In obese humans, adipocytes are also a major contributor to circulating A-SAA levels.
We aimed to investigate the role and regulation of A-SAA in human adipose tissue (AT).
An approach combining microarrays and the FunNet bioinformatics tool was applied to human AT fractions (i.e. adipocytes vs. stroma vascular fraction) to hypothesize genes and functions related to A-SAA. Experiments with human AT from 37 obese subjects and human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells were used to confirm the microarray driven hypotheses.
Microarray analysis highlighted the relationship between A-SAA and stroma vascular fraction inflammatory genes, and between A-SAA and adipocyte-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We confirmed that serum amyloid A (SAA) protein is expressed in sc AT of obese subjects (n = 37, body mass index = 49.3 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)) and showed that SAA protein expression correlated with adipocyte size (R = 0.44; P = 6.10(-3)), macrophage infiltration (R = 0.61; P = 10(-4)), and ABC subfamily A1 protein expression (R = 0.43; P = 9.10(-3)). IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and human AT macrophage-conditioned medium significantly induced A-SAA secretion (from 2.6 to 7.6 fold) in hMADS cells. Recombinant SAA induced cholesterol ABC subfamily A1-dependent efflux from hMADS adipocytes by 4.3-fold in a dose-dependent manner.
This work provides original insight suggesting that A-SAA is a player in the dialogue between hypertrophied adipocytes and macrophages through its regulation of adipocyte cholesterol efflux.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2009; 94(5):1810-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. The white adipose tissue produces a variety of inflammation-related proteins whose expression is increased in obese subjects. The nonadipose cell fraction, which includes infiltrated macrophages, is a determinant source of inflammation-related molecules within the adipose tissue. Our working hypothesis is that macrophage infiltration affects fat expansion through a paracrine action on adipocyte differentiation. Human primary preadipocytes were then differentiated in the presence of conditioned media obtained from macrophages differentiated from blood monocytes. Preadipocytes treated by macrophage-conditioned medium displayed marked reduction of adipogenesis as assessed by decreased cellular lipid accumulation and reduced gene expression of adipogenic and lipogenic markers. In addition to this effect, the activation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharides stimulated nuclear factor kappaB signaling, increased gene expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and induced preadipocyte proliferation. This phenomenon was associated with increased cyclin D1 gene expression and maintenance of the fibronectin-rich matrix. Anti-TNFalpha neutralizing antibody inhibits the inflammatory state of preadipocytes positioning TNFalpha as an important mediator of inflammation in preadipocytes. Strikingly, conditioned media produced by macrophages isolated from human adipose tissue exerted comparable effects with activated macrophages, i.e. decreased adipogenesis and increased inflammatory state in the preadipocytes. These data show that macrophage-secreted factors inhibit the formation of mature adipocytes, suggesting possible role in limiting adipose tissue expansion in humans.