Marykate Martelon

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Are you Marykate Martelon?

Claim your profile

Publications (17)67.37 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD) have been previously shown to be at very high risk for substance use disorders (SUD). We now examine the influence of a parental history of substance use disorders on SUD risk in offspring with and without BPD.Methods We studied 190 parents ascertained through 104 adolescent BPD probands and 189 parents ascertained through 98 control probands using structured interviews. We compared the prevalence of SUD using logistic regression.ResultsWhile adjusting for BPD in our combined sample, probands with a parental history of SUD were more likely to have an alcohol use disorder compared to probands without a parental history. Probands with a parental history of SUD were not more likely to have a drug use disorder or overall SUD compared to probands without a parental history. BPD in the offspring did not pose any additional risk between parental history of SUD and offspring SUD.Conclusion Alcohol use disorders were more common in the offspring of parents with a SUD history compared to parents without SUD and the risk was not influenced by offspring BPD.Scientific SignificanceClarifying the mechanisms linking parental SUD to offspring SUD, particularly in children and adolescents with BPD, would help clinicians to educate and monitor high-risk families, which would facilitate strategies to mitigate risks associated with parental substance abuse. (Am J Addict 2014;XX:1–7)
    American Journal on Addictions 03/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Previous work shows that children with high scores (2SD, combined score≥210) on the Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Anxious-Depressed (A-A-A) subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) are more likely than other children to meet criteria for bipolar (BP)-I disorder. However, the utility of this profile as a screening tool has remained unclear. Methods We compared 140 patients with pediatric BP-I disorder, 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 114 control subjects. We defined the CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile as an aggregate cutoff score of≥210 on the A-A-A scales. Patients were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and functional measures. Results Patients with BP-I disorder were significantly more likely than both control subjects (Odds Ratio [OR]: 173.2; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 21.2 to 1413.8; P<0.001) and those with ADHD (OR: 14.6; 95% CI, 6.2 to 34.3; P<0.001) to have a positive CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile. Receiver Operating Characteristics analyses showed that the area under the curve for this profile comparing children with BP-I disorder against control subjects and those with ADHD was 99% and 85%, respectively. The corresponding positive predictive values for this profile were 99% and 92% with false positive rates of<0.2% and 8% for the comparisons with control subjects and patients with ADHD, respectively. Limitations Non-clinician raters administered structured diagnostic interviews, and the sample was referred and largely Caucasian. Conclusions The CBCL-Severe Dysregulation profile can be useful as a screen for BP-I disorder in children in clinical practice.
    Journal of Affective Disorders. 01/2014; 165:81–86.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Self-regulatory mechanisms appear etiologically operant in the context of both substance use disorders (SUD) and bipolar disorder (BD), however, little is known about the role of deficits in emotional self-regulation (DESR) as it relates to SUD in context to mood dysregulation. To this end, we examined to what extent DESR was associated with SUD in a high-risk sample of adolescents with and without BD. METHODS: 203 families were assessed with a structured psychiatric interview. Using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a subject was considered to have DESR when he or she had an average elevation of 1 standard deviation (SD) above the norm on 3 clinical scale T scores (attention, aggression, and anxiety/depression; scores: 60×3≥180). RESULTS: Among probands and siblings with CBCL data (N=303), subjects with DESR were more likely to have any SUD, alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and cigarette smoking compared to subjects with scores <180 (all p values <0.001), even when correcting for BD. We found no significant differences in the risk of any SUD and cigarette smoking between those with 1SD and 2SD above the mean (all p values >0.05). Subjects with cigarette smoking and SUD had more DESR compared to those without these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with DESR are more likely to smoke cigarettes and have SUD. More work is needed to explore DESR in longitudinal samples.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although the DSM-IV provides explicit criteria for the diagnosis of BP-I disorder, this is a complex diagnosis that requires high levels of clinical expertise. Previous work shows children with a unique profile of the CBCL of high scores (2SD) on the attention problems (AP), aggressive behavior (AGG), and anxious-depressed (AD) (A-A-A) subscales are more likely than other children to meet criteria for BP-I disorder in both epidemiological and clinical samples. However, since not all BP-I disorder children have a positive profile questions remain as to its informativeness, particularly in the absence of an expert diagnostician. METHODS: Analyses were conducted comparing personal and familial correlates of BP-I disorder in 140 youth with a structured interview and an expert clinician based DSM-IV diagnosis of BP-I disorder with (N=80) and without (N=60) a positive CBCL- Severe Dysregulation profile, and 129 controls of similar age and sex without ADHD or a mood disorder. Subjects were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and wide range of functional measures. We defined the CBCL-severe dysregulation profile as an aggregate cut-off score of ≥210 on the A-A-A scales. RESULTS: BP-I probands with and without a positive CBCL-severe dysregulation profile significantly differed from Controls in patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial and psychoeducational dysfunction, and cognitive deficits, as well as in their risk for BP-I disorder in first degree relatives. LIMITATIONS: Because the sample was referred and largely Caucasian, findings may not generalize to community samples and other ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: A positive CBCL-severe dysregulation profile identifies a severe subgroup of BP-I disorder youth.
    Journal of affective disorders 11/2012; · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the risk for bipolar I disorder in first-degree relatives of children with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder via meta-analysis and expanded controlled study. For the meta-analysis, PubMed was searched for scientific articles published in the world literature in English through 2011. The keywords searched were bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives, family study, and control. All online abstracts were reviewed, and relevant full manuscripts were collected and reviewed. Citations were also examined for other potentially relevant articles. The analysis included only controlled family studies that examined rates of bipolar I disorder in all first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) of pediatric bipolar I probands and that had age- and sex-matched controls. Family history studies were excluded, as were studies that were not in English, did not report bipolar I rates for all first-degree relatives, or reported only bipolar spectrum rates. Also excluded were family studies that included only adult probands. A meta-analysis was conducted of the 5 controlled family studies of pediatric bipolar I probands that met the search criteria using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. For the family study, our previous sample of DSM-IV bipolar I probands was greatly expanded using structured diagnostic interviews. The new study included 239 children aged 6-17 years who satisfied full DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder (n = 726 first-degree relatives), 162 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) probands (without bipolar I disorder; n = 511 first-degree relatives), and 136 healthy control probands (without ADHD or bipolar I disorder; n = 411 first-degree relatives). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative failure function was used to calculate survival curves and cumulative lifetime risk in relatives. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the risk of bipolar I disorder in relatives. The pooled odds ratio for bipolar I disorder in relatives was estimated to be 6.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8-10.1). First-degree relatives of bipolar I probands were also significantly more likely than first-degree relatives of both ADHD probands (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.02; 95% CI, 1.85-4.93; P < .001) and control probands (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.65-4.84; P < .001) to have bipolar I disorder. Our results document an increased familial risk for bipolar I disorder in relatives of pediatric probands with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2012; 73(10):1328-34. · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We used familial risk analysis to clarify the diagnostic comorbidity between pediatric BP-I disorder and ADHD, testing the hypothesis that pediatric-BP-I disorder comorbid with ADHD represents a distinct subtype. Structured diagnostic interviews were used to obtain DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses on first-degree relatives (n = 726) of referred children and adolescents satisfying diagnostic criteria for BP-I disorder (n = 239). For comparison, diagnostic information on the first-degree relatives (N = 511) of non-bipolar ADHD children (N = 162) and the first degree relatives (N = 411) of control children (N = 136) with neither ADHD nor BP-I disorder were examined. BP-I disorder and ADHD in probands bred true irrespective of the comorbidity with the other disorder. We also found that the comorbid condition of BP-I disorder plus ADHD also bred true in families, and the two disorders co-segregated among relatives. This large familial risk analysis provides compelling evidence that pediatric BP-I disorder comorbid with ADHD represents a distinct familial subtype.
    Journal of psychiatric research 09/2012; · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite increasing acknowledgement of bipolar disorder (BD) in childhood, there is a paucity of literature that has investigated obstetrical, perinatal, and infantile difficulties and their potential link with BD. To this end, we examined difficulties during delivery, immediate post-birth, and infancy and the association with BD in childhood. From two similarly designed, ongoing, longitudinal, case-control family studies of pediatric BD (N = 327 families), we analyzed 338 children and adolescents [mean (± standard deviation) age: 12.00 ± 3.37 years]. We stratified them into three groups: healthy controls (N = 98), BD probands (N = 120), and their non-affected siblings (N = 120). All families were comprehensively assessed with a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview for psychopathology and substance use. Mothers were directly questioned regarding the pregnancy, delivery, and infancy difficulties that occurred with each child using a module from the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Parent Version (DICA-P). Mothers of BD subjects were more likely to report difficulties during infancy than mothers of controls [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 6.6 (3.0, 14.6)]. Specifically, children with BD were more likely to have been reported as a stiffened infant [7.2 (1.1, 47.1)] and more likely to have experienced 'other' infantile difficulties [including acting colicky; 4.9 (1.3, 18.8)] compared to controls. We found no significant differences between groups in regards to obstetrical or perinatal difficulties (all p values > 0.05). While our results add to previous literature on obstetrical and perinatal difficulties and BD, they also highlight characteristics in infancy that may be prognostic indicators for pediatric BD.
    Bipolar Disorders 05/2012; 14(5):507-14. · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics of children that predicted the future development of SUDs and to see whether the role of these characteristics varied by sex. Subjects were children and adolescents with (n = 268; mean age ± standard deviation = 10.9 ± 3.2 years) and without (n = 229; mean age 11.9 ± 3.3 years) DSM-III-R ADHD followed prospectively and blindly over a 10-year follow-up period onto young adult years. Subjects were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews for psychopathology and SUDs. Over the 10-year follow-up period, ADHD was found to be a significant predictor of any SUD (hazards ratio 1.47; 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.02; p = .01) and cigarette smoking (2.38; 1.61-3.53; p < .01). Within ADHD, comorbid conduct disorder (2.74; 1.66-4.52; p < .01) and oppositional defiant disorder (2.21; 1.40-3.51; p < .01) at baseline were also found to be significant predictors of SUDs. Similar results were found for cigarette-, alcohol-, and drug-use disorders. There were few meaningful sex interaction effects. No clinically significant associations were found for any social or family environment factors or for cognitive functioning factors (p > .05 for all comparisons). These results indicate that ADHD is a significant risk factor for the development of SUDs and cigarette smoking in both sexes.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 06/2011; 50(6):543-53. · 6.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the correlates of psychosis in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD). We examined psychiatric comorbidity, familiality, and psychosocial functioning in multiple domains in BPD children and adolescents with and without psychotic features. As part of 2 ongoing family-based studies of children and adolescents with DSM-IV-defined BPD, we compared youth and their families with psychotic symptoms (BPD+P) and without psychotic symptoms (BPD-P). All youth and family members were assessed using indirect and direct structured psychiatric interviews (Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders-Epidemiologic Version and DSM-IV Structured Clinical Interview) in a blinded manner. One study was conducted from January 2000 through December 2004, and the other study was conducted from February 1997 through September 2006. Of the 226 youth with BPD, 33% manifested psychotic symptoms, as defined by the presence of hallucinations or delusions. We found that BPD+P youth had a greater number of BPD episodes (P < .01), more psychiatric hospitalizations (P < .01), and significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidity compared to BPD-P youth (all P values < .05). Additionally, a higher percentage of BPD+P youth had a family history of psychosis (P = .01). There was a lower processing speed (P = .03) and lower arithmetic scaled score (P = .04) in BPD+P youth, but no other meaningful differences in cognitive variables were identified between the 2 BPD groups. Psychosis in BPD was also associated with decreased family cohesion (P = .04) and poorer overall global functioning (P < .01). In children and adolescents with BPD, those who manifest psychotic features have higher rates of comorbid psychopathology, family history of psychosis, and poorer overall functioning in multiple domains than BPD children without psychosis. Future studies should examine neuroimaging correlates, medication response, and longitudinal course of children and adolescents with BPD who manifest psychosis as part of their clinical picture.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2011; 72(3):397-405. · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest regarding the risk and overlap of executive function deficits (EFDs) in stable cigarette smoking and substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, we examined whether earlier EFD was a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking and SUD and further explored the relationship between EFD and SUD. We assessed 435 subjects at the 5-year follow-up (232 subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], mean age ± SD: 15.4 ± 3.43 years; and 203 controls: 16.3 ± 3.42 years) and again 4 to 5 years later as part of a prospective family study of youth with ADHD. Individuals were assessed by structured psychiatric interview for psychopathology and SUD. EFD was categorically defined in an individual who had abnormal results on at least two of six neuropsychological tests of executive functioning. At the final follow-up period, ADHD was found to be a significant predictor of stable cigarette smoking (p < .01) and SUD into late adolescence and young adult years (p < .01). However, EFDs were not associated with an increase in subsequent substance use outcomes. New-onset stable cigarette smoking, but not SUD, was associated with subsequent EFD (p < .01). Our results do not support the hypothesis that EFDs predicts later stable cigarette smoking or SUD in children with ADHD growing up. However, stable cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent EFD.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 02/2011; 50(2):141-9. · 6.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined whether children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD) "self-medicate" with cigarettes, alcohol, or other substances of abuse. One hundred and five adolescents with BPD and 98 controls were comprehensively assessed with a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview for psychopathology and the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI) for self-medication. Thirteen control (mean ± standard deviation [SD]= 15.31 ± 1.18 years) and 27 BPD (15.30 ± 2.09 years) subjects endorsed use of one of the listed drugs in the DUSI Section A within the past year and were included in all analyses. BPD adolescents were more likely than nonmood disordered, substance-using controls to report starting to use their preferred drug for mood-altering effects. There were no differences between groups in motivation for use with respect to starting substances to sleep better or get high, or in continuing substances to change mood, sleep better, or get high. These data may contribute to increased prevention of substance use disorders and to the treatment of adolescent BPD. Further studies clarifying the characteristics of self-medication are necessary.
    American Journal on Addictions 11/2010; 19(6):474-80. · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. Our aim was to examine the effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on before-school ADHD symptoms and functioning in children with ADHD. In this randomized crossover study, conducted from May 2007 until December 2008, 6- to 12-year-old subjects with DSM-IV-defined ADHD received either MTS or a placebo transdermal system (PTS) at 10 mg for 1 week and then 20 mg for 1 week. Subjects were then crossed over directly to the other treatment for the remaining 2 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale. All analyses were intent to treat, with the last observation carried forward. Thirty subjects completed at least 1 week of treatment, and 26 subjects completed the entire protocol. The sample was primarily male, with a mean +/- SD age of 9.17 +/- 1.84 years. Compared to PTS, there were significant reductions with MTS in the ADHD Rating Scale score (P < .001). Adverse effects of MTS during the active (versus PTS) phase were similar to those seen in other controlled trials of MTS. These results show that MTS is effective not only for morning ADHD symptoms, but also in improving associated activities and functioning that occur before school in children with ADHD. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00586157.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 05/2010; 71(5):548-56. · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of bupropion in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid active Substance Use Disorders (SUD). METHODS: This was a six-week open trial of sustained-release (SR) bupropion in adults aged 18 to 55 years diagnosed with both ADHD and SUD. Bupropion-SR was initiated at 100 mg SR and increased weekly to a target dose of 200 mg SR twice daily. Subjects were assessed on multiple outcomes including ADHD, SUD, and adverse effects. All analyses were intent to treat, with last observation carried forward. RESULTS: Thirty-two subjects were treated with bupropion, with nineteen subjects completing the entire protocol (59%). At end point there were clinically significant reductions in the ADHD RS (34.1±8.2 to 19.4±11.4, -43%, t=6.49, p<0.0001) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of ADHD severity (baseline=5.0, endpoint=3.8, -24%, t=6.16, p<0.0001). In contrast, there were clinically negligible effects on the self-report of substance use (p's >0.05) and on the overall CGI of SUD severity (-23%, t=4.95, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this open trial suggest that in adults with ADHD and SUD, treatment with bupropion-SR is associated with clinically significant reductions in ADHD, but not SUD.
    Journal of ADHD & related disorders. 04/2010; 1(3):25-35.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, many practitioners remain reluctant to assess individuals for ADHD, in part related to the relative lack of data on the presenting symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. Comorbidity among adults with ADHD is also of great interest due to the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, which can lead to a more persistent ADHD among adults. We assessed 107 adults with ADHD of both sexes (51% female; mean +/- SD of 37 +/- 10.4 years) using structured diagnostic interviews. Using DSM-IV symptoms, we determined DSM-IV subtypes. The study was conducted from 1998 to 2003. Inattentive symptoms were most frequently endorsed (> 90%) in adults with ADHD. Using current symptoms, 62% of adults had the combined subtype, 31% the inattentive only subtype, and 7% the hyperactive/impulsive only subtype. Adults with the combined subtype had relatively more psychiatric comorbidity compared to those with the predominately inattentive subtype. Women were similar to men in the presentation of ADHD. Adults with ADHD have prominent inattentive symptoms of ADHD, necessitating careful questioning of these symptoms when evaluating these individuals.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2009; 70(11):1557-62. · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effectiveness of adding OROS methylphenidate (MPH) to children who are partial responders to atomoxetine (ATMX) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a two-phase, 7-week, open study in children aged 6-17 years. Phase I initiated ATMX for a minimum of 4 weeks. Phase II entered partial responders to ATMX and added up to 54 mg of OROS MPH to their regimen. Subjects were assessed on multiple outcomes, including ADHD, executive functioning, and adverse effects. All analyses were intent to treat, with last observation carried forward. Fifty subjects who were partial responders to ATMX were treated with the combination therapy, with 41 subjects completing the entire protocol. There was a 40% reduction in their ADHD Rating Scale from the start of phase II through the end of study (from 21.14 +/- 9.9 to 12.8 +/- 9.7, t = 6.5, p < 0.0001). In addition, there was a clinically significant reduction in the Clinical Global Index of ADHD severity from moderate to mild ADHD (start of phase II, 3.7; end of phase II, 2.7, 27%, t = 6.5, p < 0.0001), as well as improvements in executive functioning. These results suggest that OROS MPH added to the regimen of partial responders to ATMX improves ADHD and executive functioning, necessitating further controlled trials.
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 10/2009; 19(5):485-92. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability of adding OROS methylphenidate (MPH) to children who are partial responders to atomoxetine (ATMX) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a two-phase, 7-week, open study in children aged 6-17 years. Phase 1 initiated ATMX for a minimum of 4 weeks. Phase 2 entered partial responders to ATMX and added OROS MPH to their regimen. Safety was assessed using blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram readings, AEs, laboratories, and ATMX levels. Fifty subjects who were partial responders to ATMX received the combination therapy, with 41 subjects completing the entire protocol. As reported elsewhere (Wilens et al., 2009 ), OROS MPH added to partial responders of ATMX was accompanied by a 40% reduction in the ADHD rating scale score and improvements in executive functioning. However, the combination of ATMX plus OROS MPH was associated with greater rates of insomnia, irritability, and loss of appetite compared to ATMX alone. A small significant increase in diastolic blood pressure was observed during adjunctive OROS MPH, with no clinically meaningful changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters during the study. ATMX levels and liver function tests did not significantly change during the combination treatment. Adjunct OROS MPH in ATMX partial responders yielded an additive adverse effect burden in this short-term study. Further controlled research with larger samples of children is warranted.
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 10/2009; 19(5):493-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent work has highlighted important relationships among conduct disorder (CD), substance use disorders (SUD), and bipolar disorder in youth. However, because bipolar disorder and CD are frequently comorbid in the young, the impact of CD in mediating SUD in bipolar disorder youth remains unclear. 105 adolescents with DSM-IV bipolar disorder (mean +/- SD age = 13.6 +/- 2.50 years) and 98 controls (mean +/- SD age = 13.7 +/- 2.10 years) were comprehensively assessed with a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview for psychopathology and SUD. The study was conducted from January 2000 through December 2004. Among bipolar disorder youth, those with CD were more likely to report cigarette smoking and/or SUD than youth without CD. However, CD preceding SUD or cigarette smoking did not significantly increase the subsequent risk of SUD or cigarette smoking. Adolescents with bipolar disorder and CD were significantly more likely to manifest a combined alcohol plus drug use disorder compared to subjects with bipolar disorder without CD (chi(2) = 11.99, p < .001). While bipolar disorder is a risk factor for SUD and cigarette smoking in a sample of adolescents, comorbidity with preexisting CD does not increase the risk for SUD. Further follow-up of this sample through the full risk of SUD into adulthood is necessary to confirm these findings.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 02/2009; 70(2):259-65. · 5.81 Impact Factor