[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a microchromosome-carrying laboratory stock of the normally all-female Amazon molly Poecilia formosa triploid individuals were obtained, all of which spontaneously developed into males. A comparison of morphology of the external and internal insemination apparatus and the gonads, sperm ploidy and behaviour, to laboratory-bred F(1) hybrids revealed that the triploid P. formosa males, though producing mostly aneuploid sperm, are partly functional males that differ mainly in sperm maturation and sexual motivation from gonochoristic P. formosa males.
Journal of Fish Biology 11/2010; 77(7):1459-87. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phototactic behaviour of surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies Poecilia mexicana was examined. Surface-dwelling Atlantic mollies, as well as light- and dark-reared cave fish showed photophilic behaviour under all light intensities used (620, 50 and 3 lx).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic analyses were performed on a triploid hybrid individual produced in the laboratory by mating Poecilia formosa, an all-female gynogenetic diploid species, with a normal male of melanistic ornamental Poecilia sphenops (black molly). Direct chromosome preparations revealed 69 (3n) chromosomes in the somatic complement. This cytogenetic observation in conjunction with the pigmentation phenotype leads us to conclude that occasional failure of sperm exclusion may result in the presence of triploid hybrids even in the natural habitats.
Journal of Fish Biology 04/2005; 47(4):619 - 623. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA fingerprinting demonstrated no sexual reproduction of the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa with Limia vittata as host species, in contrast with a single report that claims to have found sexual reproduction with such matings.
Journal of Fish Biology 03/2005; 48(4):792 - 795. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All-female vertebrates are excellent model systems for studying many evolutionary problems. One of these is the Amazon molly. In this review, three aspects of its biology are discussed: (1) An important question is how dispensable genes, such as all male coding genes, evolve in this species. A number of studies found that most of these genes remain remarkably stable and functional. (2) The gynogenetic Amazon mollies have to live in sympatry with males of a gonochoristic species, because sperm are needed to trigger embryogenesis. Yet, Amazon mollies cannot replace their sexual competitors, because this would lead to their own extinction. Studies on the behavior of Amazon mollies and their sperm-donor species indicate that a number of behavior patterns stabilize the mating system by providing Amazon mollies with the copulations they need to reproduce. (3) The age of Amazon mollies has been estimated to be approximately 100,000 years. This is older than predicted by some theoretical models. In Amazon mollies two ways to occasionally incorporate fresh genetic material have evolved. One way is to add one complete set of paternal chromosomes, which, in nature, leads to stable triploid lineages. The second way is the incorporation of minute, centromere-containing microchromosomes. The evolutionary impact of these phenomena, however, is not resolved so far and needs further study.
Cytogenetics and cell genetics 02/1998; 80(1-4):193-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Amazon molly Poecilia formosa is a gynogenetic fish that reproduces through the development of ameiotic diploid eggs triggered by insemination by males of related species without following karyogamie. This leads to clonal offspring. In rare cases, however, this gynogenesis is leaky, and paternal DNA in the form of small supernumerary chromosomes is included into the maternal genome. We have obtained a clone where one such microchromosome contains a pigmentary locus, resulting in macromelanophore pigmentation of the carrier. Approximately 5% of these fish spontaneously develop exophytic nodular or papillomatous pigment cell tumors. The tumors display considerable differences with respect to growth characteristics and invasiveness, despite the genetic uniformity of the affected animals. Following transplantation to syngeneic hosts, a remarkable clonal variability was observed. Oncogenes that are involved in tumorigenesis in hereditary melanoma of the closely related fish Xiphophorus appear not to be instrumental for induction of the P. formosa pigment cell tumors. Moreover, a new genetic locus is defined that mediates susceptibility to pigment cell tumor development and leads to transformation of chromatoblasts.
Cancer Research 08/1997; 57(14):2993-3000. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clonal unisexual vertebrates, the genes specifying the males become dispensable. To study the fate of such genes the gynogenetic all-female fish Poecilia formosa was treated with androgens. Phenotypic males were obtained that exhibited the complete set of male characteristics of closely related gonochoristic species, including body proportions, pigmentation, the extremely complex insemination apparatus of poeciliid fish, sexual behavior, and spermatogenesis. The apparent stability of such genic structures, including those involved in androgen regulation, is contrasted by high instability of noncoding sequences. Frequent mutations, their clonal transmission, and at least two truly hypervariable loci leading to individual differences between these otherwise clonal organisms were detected by DNA fingerprinting. These observations substantiate the concept that also in "ameiotic" vertebrates certain compartments of the genome are more prone to mutational alterations than others.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1991; 88(19):8759-63. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the preference of Cave molly males to associate with a receptive or a non-receptive female while body contact was prevented but water-borne cues were allowed to reach the male. Both in light and in darkness, males did not prefer the receptive female. Water-borne chemical cues (pheromones) seem to be absent or they are not detected/used by males, respectively.
Natura Croatica (firstname.lastname@example.org); Vol.13 No.2.