Pawel M Kaminski

New York Medical College, New York City, NY, United States

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Publications (50)322.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) interferes with other mechanisms in addition to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Thus, in skeletal muscle arterioles, in the presence of ADMA, we investigated the dilator effect of an NO donor and increases in flow and aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, including the role of oxidative stress, which is known to reduce the bioavailability of NO. In isolated rat gracilis skeletal muscle arterioles (∼160 µm at 80 mm Hg), ADMA (similarly to pyrogallol) reduced dilations to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which was significantly prevented by the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT): SNP 10(-8)M; control: 43.2 ± 3%, ADMA: 4.9 ± 1%, ADMA + SOD/CAT: 30.2 ± 9% (p < 0.05). Also, ADMA reduced basal diameter and flow-induced dilations, which were not restored by L-arginine, but prevented by SOD/CAT and by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (but not xanthine oxidase) and by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). ADMA increased the production of reactive oxygen species detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, which was significantly inhibited by SNP or ARB. We suggest that by activating the vascular renin-angiotensin-NAD(P)H oxidase pathway, ADMA elicits oxidative stress, which interferes with the bioavailability of NO and consequently reduces NO-mediated dilations.
    Journal of Vascular Research 05/2012; 49(4):363-72. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although obesity-related cardiovascular disease and hypoxia are associated with erectile dysfunction, little is known about the direct effects of hypoxia on penile arteries. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia (Po(2) = approximately 10 Torr, 20 min) were investigated in isolated penile arteries to determine the influence of endothelium removal, nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase (COX), NADPH oxidase, changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a high-fat diet. Hypoxia-relaxed penile arteries contracted with phenylephrine by approximately 50%. Relaxation to hypoxia and acetylcholine was reduced by endothelium removal and by inhibition of NOS (N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine) and COX (indomethacin) but was enhanced by Tempol and by NADPH oxidase inhibition with apocynin and gp91ds-tat. Basal superoxide levels detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence were reduced by Tempol and gp91ds-tat and were enhanced by NOS blockade. Hypoxic relaxant responses were enhanced by catalase and ebselen. Exogenous peroxide evoked relaxations of penile arteries, which were partially inhibited by endothelium removal and by the inhibition of COX and extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but enhanced by p38 MAPK blockade. The NO-dependent component of relaxation to hypoxia was impaired in penile arteries from high-fat diet-fed, obese rats associated with increased superoxide production. Thus hypoxic relaxation of penile arteries is partially mediated by endothelial NO in a manner that is normally attenuated by endogenous ROS production. Obesity further increases superoxide production and impairs the influence of NO. Therefore, cardiovascular disease involving decreased NO bioavailability and/or enhanced ROS generation may contribute to erectile dysfunction through impairing the relaxation of penile arteries to hypoxia.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2010; 299(3):H915-24. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients on a low salt (LS) diet have increased mortality. To determine whether reduction in NO bioactivity may contribute to the LS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality. Adult male mongrel dogs were placed on LS (0.05% sodium chloride) for 2 weeks. Body weight (25.4 + or - 0.4 to 23.6 + or - 0.4 kg), left ventricular systolic pressure (137.0 + or - 3.4 to 124.0 + or - 6.7 mm Hg), and mean aortic pressure (111 + or - 3.1 to 98 + or - 4.3 mm Hg) decreased. Plasma angiotensin II concentration increased (4.4 + or - 0.7 to 14.8 + or - 3.7 pg/mL). Veratrine-induced (5 microg/kg) NO-mediated vasodilation was inhibited by 44% in LS; however, the simultaneous intravenous infusion of ascorbic acid or apocynin acutely and completely reversed this inhibition. In LS heart tissues, lucigenin chemiluminescence was increased 2.3-fold to angiotensin II (10(-8) mol/L), and bradykinin (10(-4) mol/L) induced reduction of myocardial oxygen consumption in vitro was decreased (40 + or - 1.3% to 16 + or - 6.3%) and completely restored by coincubation with tiron, tempol or apocynin. Switching of substrate uptake from free fatty acid to glucose by the heart was observed (free fatty acid: 8.97 + or - 1.39 to 4.53 + or - 1.12 micromol/min; glucose: 1.31 + or - 0.52 to 6.86 + or - 1.78 micromol/min). Western blotting indicated an increase in both p47(phox) (121%) and gp91(phox) (44%) as did RNA microarray analysis (433 genes changed) showed an increase in p47(phox) (1.6-fold) and gp91(phox) (2.0 fold) in the LS heart tissue. LS diet induces the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which increases oxidative stress via the NADPH oxidase and attenuates NO bioavailability in the heart.
    Circulation Research 12/2009; 106(3):593-600. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of the beta-adrenergic system is important in the pathological response to sustained cardiac stress, forming the rationale for the use of beta-blockers in heart failure. The beta3-adrenoreceptor (AR) is thought to couple to the inhibitory G-protein, G(i), with downstream signaling through nitric oxide, although its role in the heart remains controversial. In this study, we tested whether lack of beta3-AR influences the myocardial response to pressure-overload. Baseline echocardiography in mice lacking beta3-AR (beta3(-/-)) compared to wild type (WT) showed mild LV hypertrophy at 8 weeks that worsened as they aged. beta3(-/-) mice had much greater mortality after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) than WT controls. By 3 weeks of TAC, systolic function was worse. After 9 weeks of TAC, beta3(-/-) mice also had greater LV dilation, myocyte hypertrophy and enhanced fibrosis. NOS activity declined in beta3(-/-)TAC hearts after 9 weeks, and total and NOS-dependent superoxide rose, indicating heightened oxidative stress and NOS uncoupling. The level of eNOS phosphorylation in beta3(-/-)TAC hearts was diminished, and nNOS and iNOS expression levels were increased. GTP cyclohydrolase-1 expression was reduced, although total BH4 levels were not depleted. 3 weeks of BH4 treatment rescued beta3(-/-) mice from worsened remodeling after TAC, and lowered NOS-dependent superoxide. Thus, lack of beta3-AR signaling exacerbates cardiac pressure-overload induced remodeling and enhances NOS uncoupling and consequent oxidant stress, all of which can be rescued with exogenous BH4. These data suggest a cardioprotective role for the beta3-AR in modulating oxidative stress and adverse remodeling in the failing heart.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2009; 47(5):576-85. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox) is an important component of multiple vascular disease processes; however, the relationship between oxidase activation and the regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction by PKC remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the signaling cascade of PKC-elicited Nox activation and the role of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in mediating PKC-induced vascular contraction. Endothelium-denuded bovine coronary arteries showed a PKC-dependent basal production of lucigenin (5 muM)-detected Nox oxidase-derived superoxide, which was stimulated fourfold by PKC activation with 10 muM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). PDBu appeared to increase superoxide generation by Nox2 through both p47(phox) and peroxide-dependent Src activation mechanisms based on the actions of inhibitors, properties of Src phosphorylation, and the loss of responses in aorta from mice deficient in Nox2 and p47(phox). The actions of inhibitors of contractile regulating mechanisms, scavengers of superoxide and peroxide, and responses in knockout mouse aortas suggest that a major component of the contraction elicited by PDBu appeared to be mediated through peroxide derived from Nox2 activation stimulating force generation through Rho kinase and calmodulin kinase-II mechanisms. Superoxide generated by PDBu also attenuated relaxation to nitroglycerin. Peroxide-derived from Nox2 activation by PKC appeared to be a major contributor to the thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist U46619 (100 nM)-elicited contraction of coronary arteries. Thus a p47(phox) and Src kinase activation of peroxide production by Nox2 appears to be an important contributor to vascular contractile mechanisms mediated through activation of PKC.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2009; 296(4):H1048-57. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes the synthesis of superoxide (O2-). Diabetic-induced shifts to decrease the dimer:monomer ratio is thought to contribute to the degradation of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Exercise has long been useful in the management of diabetes. Although exercise-induced increases expression of eNOS has been reported, it is unclear if exercise may alter the functional coupling of eNOS. To investigate this question, Goto-Kakizaki rats (a model of type II diabetes) were randomly assigned to a 9-week running program (train) or sedentary (sed) groups. Exercise training significantly (p < .05) increased plantaris muscle cytochrome oxidase, significantly improved glycosylated hemoglobin (sed: 7.33 +/- 0.56%; train: 6.1 +/- 0.18%), ad improved insulin sensitivity. Exercise increased both total eNOS expression and the dimer:monomer ratio in the left ventricle LV (sed: 11.7 +/- 3.2%; train: 41.4 +/- 4.7%). Functional analysis of eNOS indicated that exercise induced significant increases in nitric oxide (+28%) production and concomitant decreases in eNOS-dependent superoxide (-12%) production. This effect was observed in the absence of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), but not in the presence of exogenous BH4. Exercise training also significantly decreased NADPH-dependent O2- activity. Exercise-induced increased eNOS dimerization resulted in an increased coupling of the enzyme to facilitate production of NO at the expense of ROS generation. This shift that could serve to decrease diabetic-related oxidative stress, which should serve to lessen diabetic-related complications.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2008; 7:34. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dietary polyphenolic compound resveratrol, by activating the protein deacetylase enzyme silent information regulator 2/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), prolongs life span in evolutionarily distant organisms and may mimic the cytoprotective effects of dietary restriction. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of resveratrol on cigarette smoke-induced vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, which is a clinically highly relevant model of accelerated vascular aging. Cigarette smoke exposure of rats impaired the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of carotid arteries, which could be prevented by resveratrol treatment. Smoking and in vitro treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) increased reactive oxygen species production in rat arteries and cultured coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), respectively, which was attenuated by resveratrol treatment. The smoking-induced upregulation of inflammatory markers (ICAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) in rat arteries was also abrogated by resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol also inhibited CSE-induced NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory gene expression in CAECs. In CAECs, the aforementioned protective effects of resveratrol were abolished by knockdown of SIRT1, whereas the overexpression of SIRT1 mimicked the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol treatment of rats protected aortic endothelial cells against cigarette smoking-induced apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol also exerted antiapoptotic effects in CSE-treated CAECs, which could be abrogated by knockdown of SIRT1. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated CSE-induced DNA damage in CAECs (comet assay). Thus resveratrol and SIRT1 exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, which protect the endothelial cells against the adverse effects of cigarette smoking-induced oxidative stress. The vasoprotective effects of resveratrol will likely contribute to its antiaging action in mammals and may be especially beneficial in pathophysiological conditions associated with accelerated vascular aging.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 07/2008; 294(6):H2721-35. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) in rats is preceded by an inflammatory response, progressive endothelial cell membrane disruption, reduction in the expression of caveolin-1, and reciprocal activation of STAT3 (PY-STAT3). Superoxide and NF-kappaB have been implicated in PAH. To evaluate the role of caveolin-1, PY-STAT3 activation, and superoxide in PAH, MCT-injected rats were treated daily with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; starting on days 1, 3, and 14 x 2 wk), an inhibitor of inflammation and NF-kappaB activation. Hemodynamic data, the expression of inhibitory (I)-kappaBalpha, caveolin-1, and Tie2 (a membrane protein), activation of PY-STAT3 and NF-kappaB, and superoxide chemiluminescence were examined. Rats developed progressive PAH at 2 wk post-MCT. There was progressive reduction in the expression of caveolin-1, Tie2, and activation of PY-STAT3 in the lungs. Reduction in I-kappaBalpha expression was present at 2 and 4 wk post-MCT. Superoxide chemiluminescence and NF-kappaB activation were observed only at 2 wk post-MCT and both decreased by 4 wk post-MCT despite progressive PAH. PDTC (starting on days 1 and 3) rescued caveolin-1 and Tie2, reversed MCT-induced PY-STAT3 activation, and attenuated PAH. In addition, PDTC restored I-kappaBalpha expression and reduced superoxide chemiluminescence at 2 wk but did not inhibit NF-kappaB activation despite attenuation of PAH. PDTC had no effect on established PAH. Increased superoxide chemiluminescence and NF-kappaB activation appear to be a transient phenomenon in the MCT model. Thus the disruption of endothelial cell membrane integrity resulting in caveolin-1 loss and reciprocal activation of PY-STAT3 plays a key role in the MCT-induced PAH.
    AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 07/2008; 294(6):L1250-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The B vitamin folic acid (FA) is important to mitochondrial protein and nucleic acid synthesis, is an antioxidant, and enhances nitric oxide synthase activity. Here, we tested whether FA reduces myocardial ischemic dysfunction and postreperfusion injury. Wistar rats were pretreated with either FA (10 mg/d) or placebo for 1 week and then underwent in vivo transient left coronary artery occlusion for 30 minutes with or without 90 minutes of reperfusion (total n=131; subgroups used for various analyses). FA (4.5x10(-6) mol/L i.c.) pretreatment and global ischemia/reperfusion (30 minutes/30 minutes) also were performed in vitro (n=28). After 30 minutes of ischemia, global function declined more in controls than in FA-pretreated rats (Delta dP/dtmax, -878+/-586 versus -1956+/-351 mm Hg/s placebo; P=0.03), and regional thickening was better preserved (37.3+/-5.3% versus 5.1+/-0.6% placebo; P=0.004). Anterior wall perfusion fell similarly (-78.4+/-9.3% versus -71.2+/-13.8% placebo at 30 minutes), yet myocardial high-energy phosphates ATP and ADP reduced by ischemia in controls were better preserved by FA pretreatment (ATP: control, 2740+/-58 nmol/g; ischemia, 947+/-55 nmol/g; ischemia plus FA, 1332+/-101 nmol/g; P=0.02). Basal oxypurines (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and urate) rose with FA pretreatment but increased less during ischemia than in controls. Ischemic superoxide generation declined (3124+/-280 cpm/mg FA versus 5898+/-474 cpm/mg placebo; P=0.001). After reperfusion, FA-treated hearts had smaller infarcts (3.8+/-1.2% versus 60.3+/-4.1% placebo area at risk; P<0.002) and less contraction band necrosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling positivity, superoxide, and nitric oxide synthase uncoupling. Infarct size declined similarly with 1 mg/d FA. FA pretreatment blunts myocardial dysfunction during ischemia and ameliorates postreperfusion injury. This is coupled to preservation of high-energy phosphates, reducing subsequent reactive oxygen species generation, eNOS-uncoupling, and postreperfusion cell death.
    Circulation 05/2008; 117(14):1810-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia increases glucose metabolism via the polyol pathway, which results in elevations of intracellular sorbitol concentration. Thus we hypothesized that elevated level of sorbitol contributes to the development of hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction of microvessels. In isolated, pressurized (80 mmHg) rat gracilis muscle arterioles (approximately 150 microm), high glucose treatment (25 mM) induced reduction in flow-dependent dilation (from maximum of 39 +/- 2% to 15 +/- 1%), which was significantly mitigated by an aldose reductase inhibitor, zopolrestat (maximum 27 +/- 2%). Increasing doses of sorbitol (10(-10)-10(-4) M) elicited dose-dependent constrictions (maximum 22 +/- 3%), which were abolished by endothelium removal, a prostaglandin H(2)/thromboxane A(2) (PGH(2)/TXA(2)) receptor (TP) antagonist SQ-29548, or superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT). Incubation of arterioles with sorbitol (10(-7) M) reduced flow-dependent dilations (from maximum of 39 +/- 2% to 20 +/- 1.5%), which was not further affected by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester but was prevented by SOD plus CAT and mitigated by SQ-29548. Nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside-induced (10(-9)-10(-6) M) dilations were also decreased in a SQ-29548 and SOD plus CAT-reversible manner, whereas adenosine dilations were not affected by sorbitol exposure. Sorbitol significantly increased arterial superoxide production detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, which was inhibited by SOD plus CAT. Sorbitol treatment also increased arterial formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. We suggest that hyperglycemia by elevating intracellular sorbitol induces oxidative stress, which interferes with nitric oxide bioavailability and promotes PGH(2)/TXA(2) release, both of which affect regulation of vasomotor responses of arterioles. Thus increased activity of the polyol pathway may contribute to the development of microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 12/2007; 293(5):H3096-104. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: l-arginine is the substrate used by NO synthase to produce the vasodilator NO. However, in several human diseases, such as hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, there is an increase in serum levels of methylated l-arginines, such as asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), which cannot be used by NO synthase to produce NO. Yet, the functional consequence of increased levels of ADMA on the vasomotor function of resistance vessels has not been delineated. We hypothesized that elevated levels of exogenous ADMA inhibit NO mediation of flow/shear stress-dependent dilation of isolated arterioles. In the presence of indomethacin, isolated arterioles from rat gracilis muscle (approximately 165 microm at 80 mm Hg) were incubated with ADMA (10(-4) mol/L), which eliminated the dilations to increases in intraluminal flow (control: from 164+/-5.4 to 188+/-3.8 microm versus ADMA: from 171+/-6.1 to 173+/-6.3 microm at 20 microL/min). ADMA did not affect dilations to nifedipine (10(-6) mol/L; control: 63.4+/-2%, ADMA: 65.8+/-3%) or 8-bromo cGMP (10(-4) mol/L; control: 51.2+/-2.1%, ADMA: 49.3+/-3.4%). In addition, ADMA elicited significant constriction of arterioles (from 173+/-17 microm to 138+/-16 microm at 80 mm Hg), which was prevented by previous incubation of arterioles with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) superoxide dismutase (SOD; 120 U/mL, control: 155+/-11 microm versus ADMA: 150+/-14 microm). Correspondingly, ADMA increased PEG-SOD reversible manner the production of vascular superoxide assessed by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and ethidium bromide fluorescence. Thus, increased levels of ADMA in various diseases could inhibit the regulation of arteriolar resistance by shear stress-induced release of NO and elicit superoxide-mediated increase in basal tone, both of which favor the development of hypertension.
    Hypertension 04/2007; 49(3):563-8. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality induced by cigarette smoking exceed those attributable to lung cancer, the molecular basis of smoking-induced vascular injury remains unclear. To test the link between cigarette smoke, oxidative stress, and vascular inflammation, rats were exposed to the smoke of five cigarettes per day (for 1 wk). Also, isolated arteries were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; 0 to 40 microg/ml, for 6 h) in organoid culture. We found that smoking impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxations of carotid arteries, which could be improved by the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements showed that both smoking and in vitro CSE exposure significantly increased vascular O(2)(*-) production. Dihydroethidine staining showed that increased O(2)(*-) generation was present both in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. CSE also increased vascular H(2)O(2) production (dichlorofluorescein fluorescence). Vascular mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha and that of inducible nitric oxide synthase was significantly increased by both smoking and CSE exposure, which could be prevented by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin) or scavenging of H(2)O(2). In cultured endothelial cells, CSE elicited NF-kappaB activation and increased monocyte adhesiveness, which were prevented by apocynin and catalase. Thus we propose that water-soluble components of cigarette smoke (which are likely to be present in the bloodstream in vivo in smokers) activate the vascular NAD(P)H oxidase. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H(2)O(2) activates NF-kappaB, leading to proinflammatory alterations in vascular phenotype, which likely promotes development of atherosclerosis, especially if other risk factors are also present.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2007; 292(1):H130-9. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that ANG II stimulation increased superoxide anion (O2-) through the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase and inhibited nitric oxide (NO)-dependent control of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVo2) by scavenging NO. Our objective was to investigate the role of NAD(P)H oxidase, especially the gp91phox subunit, in the NO-dependent control of MVo2. MVo2 in mice with defects in the expression of gp91phox [gp91(phox)(-/-)] was measured with a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Baseline MVo2 was not significantly different between wild-type (WT) and gp91(phox)(-/-) mice. Stimulation of NO production by bradykinin (BK) induced significant decreases in MVo2 in WT mice. BK-induced reduction in MVo2 was enhanced in gp91(phox)(-/-) mice. BK-induced reduction in MVo2 in WT mice was attenuated by 10(-8) mol/l ANG II, which was restored by coincubation with Tiron or apocynin. In contrast to WT mice, BK-induced reduction in MVo2 in gp91(phox)(-/-) mice was not altered by ANG II. There was a decrease in lucigenin (5 x 10(-6) mol/l)-detectable O2- in gp91(phox)(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. ANG II resulted in significant increases in O2- production in WT mice, which was inhibited by coincubation with Tiron or apocynin. However, ANG II had no effect on O2- production in gp91(phox)(-/-) mice. Histological examination showed that the development of abscesses and/or the invasion of inflammatory cells occurred in lungs and livers but not in hearts and kidneys from gp91(phox)(-/-) mice. These results indicate that the gp91(phox) subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase mediates O2- production through the activation of NAD(P)H oxidase and attenuation of NO-dependent control of MVo2 by ANG II.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2005; 289(2):H862-7. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis and decreases superoxide anion (O2-) formation in experimental diabetes by unknown mechanisms. We examined the effect of HO-1 protein and HO activity on extracellular SOD (EC-SOD), catalase, O2-, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels and vascular responses to ACh in control and diabetic rats. Vascular EC-SOD and plasma catalase activities were significantly reduced in diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats (P < 0.05). Upregulation of HO-1 expression by intermittent administration of cobalt protoporphyrin, an inducer of HO-1 protein and activity, resulted in a robust increase in EC-SOD but no significant change in Cu-Zn-SOD. Administration of tin mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1 activity, decreased EC-SOD protein. Increased HO-1 activity in diabetic rats was associated with a decrease in iNOS but increases in eNOS and plasma catalase activity. On the other hand, aortic ring segments from diabetic rats exhibited a significant reduction in vascular relaxation to ACh, which was reversed with cobalt protoporphyrin treatment. These data demonstrate that an increase in HO-1 protein and activity, i.e., CO and bilirubin production, in diabetic rats brings about a robust increase in EC-SOD, catalase, and eNOS with a concomitant increase in endothelial relaxation and a decrease in O2-. These observations in experimental diabetes suggest that the vascular cytoprotective mechanism of HO-1 against oxidative stress requires an increase in EC-SOD and catalase.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2005; 289(2):H701-7. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A1 mimetic peptide, synthesized from D-amino acid (D-4F), enhances the ability of HDL to protect LDL against oxidation in atherosclerotic animals. We investigated the mechanisms by which D-4F provides antioxidant effects in a diabetic model. Sprague-Dawley rats developed diabetes with administration of streptozotocin (STZ). We examined the effects of daily D-4F (100 microg/100 g of body weight, intraperitoneal injection) on superoxide (O2-), extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), vascular heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2) levels, and circulating endothelial cells in diabetic rats. In response to D-4F, both the quantity and activity of HO-1 were increased. O2- levels were elevated in diabetic rats (74.8+/-8x10(3) cpm/10 mg protein) compared with controls (38.1+/-8x10(3) cpm/10 mg protein; P<0.01). D-4F decreased O2- levels to 13.23+/-1x10(3) (P<0.05 compared with untreated diabetics). The average number of circulating endothelial cells was higher in diabetics (50+/-6 cells/mL) than in controls (5+/-1 cells/mL) and was significantly decreased in diabetics treated with D-4F (20+/-3 cells/mL; P<0.005). D-4F also decreased endothelial cell fragmentation in diabetic rats. The impaired relaxation typical of blood vessels in diabetic rats was prevented by administration of D-4F (85.0+/-2.0% relaxation). Western blot analysis showed decreased EC-SOD in the diabetic rats, whereas D-4F restored the EC-SOD level. We conclude that an increase in circulating endothelial cell sloughing, superoxide anion, and vasoconstriction in diabetic rats can be prevented by administration of D-4F, which is associated with an increase in 2 antioxidant proteins, HO-1 and EC-SOD.
    Circulation 07/2005; 111(23):3126-34. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in the maintenance of vascular function has not yet been studied. Thus we examined flow- and agonist-induced dilations in isolated mesenteric arteries (approximately 90 microm in diameter) of Mn-SOD heterozygous (Mn-SOD+/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Increases in flow elicited dilations in all vessels, but the magnitude of the dilation was significantly less in vessels of Mn-SOD+/- mice than in those of WT mice (64 vs. 74% of passive diameter). N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibited the dilation in vessels of WT mice but had no effect on vessels of Mn-SOD+/- mice. Tempol or tiron (superoxide scavengers) increased flow-induced dilation in vessels of Mn-SOD+/- mice. Acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced, but not adenosine-induced, dilations were also decreased in arteries of Mn-SOD+/- mice. Superoxide levels in the arteries of Mn-SOD+/- mice were significantly increased. Western blot analysis confirmed a 50% reduction of Mn-SOD protein in the vessels of Mn-SOD+/- mice. A 41% reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and a 37% reduction in eNOS activity were also found in the vessels of Mn-SOD+/- mice. Whereas there was no difference in eNOS protein in kidney homogenates of WT and Mn-SOD+/- mice, a significant reduction of nitric oxide synthase activity was found in Mn-SOD+/- mice, which could be restored by the administration of tiron. We conclude that an increased concentration of superoxide due to reduced activity of Mn-SOD, which inactivates nitric oxide and inhibits eNOS activity, contributes to the impaired vasodilator function of isolated mesenteric arteries of Mn-SOD+/- mice. These results suggest that Mn-SOD contributes significantly to the regulation of vascular function.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2005; 288(5):H2225-31. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that low K intake stimulated the expression of c-Src and that stimulation of protein tyrosine kinase inhibited ROMK channel activity (Wei, Y., Bloom, P., Lin, D. H., Gu, R. M., and Wang, W. H. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. 281, F206-F212). Decreases in dietary K content significantly increased O(2)(-) levels and the phosphorylation of c-Jun, a transcription factor, in renal cortex and outer medulla. The role of O(2)(-) and related products such as H(2)O(2) in stimulating the expression of protein tyrosine kinase is suggested by the observation that addition of 50-200 microm H(2)O(2) increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun and the expression of c-Src in M1 cells, a mouse collecting duct principal cell line. The effect of H(2)O(2) on c-Src expression was completely abolished with cyclohexamide or actinomycin D. The treatment of animals on a K-deficient (KD) diet with tempol for 7 days significantly decreased the production of O(2)(-), c-Jun phosphorylation, and c-Src expression. Moreover, low K intake decreased the activity of ROMK-like small conductance channels from 1.37 (control K diet) to 0.5 in the cortical collecting duct and increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. In contrast, the tempol treatment not only increased channel activity to 1.1 in the cortical collecting duct but also decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK from rats on a KD diet. Finally, suppressing O(2)(-) production with tempol significantly increased renal K excretion measured with metabolic cage and lowered the plasma K concentration in comparison with those on a KD diet alone without tempol. We conclude that O(2)(-) and related products play a role in mediating the effect of low K intake on c-Src expression and in suppressing ROMK channel activity and renal K secretion.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(11):10790-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that there is a limitation of exercise capacity in mice with defects in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which is associated with a greater increase in whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2). We hypothesized that in states in which superoxide anion (O2-) is increased, especially in the mitochondria, whole-body VO2 will be increased because of the inactivation of NO, and consequently, exercise capacity will be reduced. Heterozygous manganese superoxide anion dismutase (SOD2) gene-knockout mice (SOD2+/-), in which SOD2 activity is reduced by 30% to 80%, and wild-type control mice (SOD2+/+) were treadmill-tested to measure indices defining exercise capacity. Tempol was given to each mouse for 7 days by an intraperitoneal injection to scavenge O2- before a second treadmill testing. VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at rest were increased in SOD2+/-. The work (vertical distance run x body weight) to exhaustion was decreased in SOD2+/-. When the maximum VO2 and VCO2 were corrected to per work unit, they were increased in SOD2+/-. Tempol normalized basal VO2 and VCO2 and improved the work to exhaustion and corrected VO2 and VCO2 in SOD2+/-. VO2 of skeletal muscle was measured in vitro. Bradykinin-induced reduction in VO2 in vitro was attenuated in SOD2+/-, and was acutely restored by Tempol. There was a decrease in SOD2 protein level and a concomitant increase in lucigenin-detectable O2- production in skeletal muscle from SOD2+/-. These results suggest that exercise capacity is reduced in conditions in which superoxide anion is increased, and this is associated with a greater increase in whole-body oxygen consumption in SOD2+/- compared with SOD2+/+.
    Circulation 04/2005; 111(12):1480-6. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the control of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) by nitric oxide (NO). A NOS isoform is present in cardiac mitochondria and it is derived from neuronal NOS (nNOS). However, the role of nNOS in the control of MVO2 remains unknown. MVO2 in left ventricular tissues from nNOS-/- mice was measured in vitro. Stimulation of NO production by bradykinin or carbachol induced a significant reduction in MVO2 in wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast to WT, bradykinin- or carbachol-induced reduction in MVO2 was attenuated in nNOS-/-. S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline, a potent isoform selective inhibitor of nNOS, had no effect on bradykinin-induced reduction in MVO2 in WT. Bradykinin-induced reduction in MVO2 in eNOS-/- mice, in which nNOS still exists, was also attenuated. The attenuated bradykinin-induced reduction in MVO2 in nNOS-/- was restored by preincubation with Tiron, ascorbic acid, Tempol, oxypurinol, or SB203850, an inhibitor of p38 kinase, but not apocynin. There was an increase in lucigenin-detectable superoxide anion (O2-) in cardiac tissues from nNOS-/- compared with WT. Tempol, oxypurinol, or SB203850 decreased O2- in all groups to levels that were not different from each other. There was an increase in phosphorylated p38 kinase normalized by total p38 kinase protein level in nNOS-/- compared with WT mice. These results indicate that a defect of nNOS increases O2- through the activation of xanthine oxidase, which is mediated by the activation of p38 kinase, and attenuates the control of MVO2 by NO derived from eNOS.
    Circulation Research 03/2005; 96(3):355-62. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because systems controlled by basal NAD(P)H oxidase activity appear to contribute to differences in responses of endothelium-removed bovine coronary (BCA) and pulmonary (BPA) arteries to hypoxia, we characterized the Nox oxidases activities present in these vascular segments and how cytosolic NAD(P)H redox systems could be controlling oxidase activity. BPA generated approximately 60-80% more lucigenin (5 microM) chemiluminescence detectable superoxide than BCA. Apocynin (10 microM), a NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, and 6-aminonicotinamide (1 mM), a pentose phosphate inhibitor (PPP), both attenuated (approximately by 50-70%) superoxide detected in BPA and BCA. There was no significant difference in the expression of Nox2 or Nox4 mRNA or protein detected by Western blot analysis. NADPH and NADH increased superoxide in homogenates and isolated microsomal membrane fractions in a manner consistent with BPA and BCA having similar levels of oxidase activity. BPA had 4.2-fold higher levels of NADPH than BCA. The activity and protein levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting PPP enzyme generating cytosolic NADPH, were 1.5-fold higher in BPA than BCA. Thus BPA differ from BCA in that they have higher levels of G6PD activity, NADPH, and superoxide. Because both arteries have similar levels of Nox expression and activity, elevated levels of cytosolic NADPH may contribute to increased superoxide in BPA.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 02/2005; 288(1):H13-21. · 4.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
322.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2012
    • New York Medical College
      • • Department of Physiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2010
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • Departamento de Fisiología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • Semmelweis University
      • Department of Physiology
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary