[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is caused by mutations in the VDR gene, and its inheritance is autosomal recessive. In this report, we aimed to confirm whether HVDRR is occasionally inherited as a dominant trait. An 18-month-old Japanese boy was evaluated for short stature and bowlegs. His father had been treated for rickets during childhood, and his paternal grandfather had bowlegs. We diagnosed him with HVDRR based on laboratory data and radiographic evidence of rickets. Sequence analyses of VDR were performed, and the functional consequences of the detected mutations were analyzed for transcriptional activity, ligand binding, and interaction with the retinoid X receptor, cofactors, and the vitamin D response element (VDRE). A novel mutation (Q400LfsX7) and a reported variant (R370H) were identified in the patient. Heterozygous Q400LfsX7 was detected in his father, and heterozygous R370H was detected in his healthy mother. Functional studies revealed that the transcriptional activity of Q400LfsX7-VDR was markedly disturbed. The mutant had a dominant-negative effect on wild-type-VDR, and the ligand binding affinity of Q400LfsX7-VDR was completely impaired. Interestingly, Q400LfsX7-VDR had a strong interaction with corepressor NCoR and could interact with VDRE without the ligand. R370H-VDR was functionally similar to wild-type-VDR. In conclusion, we found a dominant-negative mutant of VDR causing dominantly inherited HVDRR through a constitutive corepressor interaction, a mechanism similar to that in dominantly inherited thyroid hormone receptor mutations. Our report together with a reported pedigree suggested a distinct inheritance of HVDRR and enriched our understanding of VDR abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human ether à go-go 1 potassium channel (hEAG1) is required for cell cycle progression and proliferation of cancer cells. Inhibitors of hEAG1 activity and expression represent potential therapeutic drugs in cancer. Previously, we have shown that hEAG1 expression is downregulated by calcitriol in a variety of cancer cells. Herein, we provided evidence on the regulatory mechanism involved in such repressive effect in cells derived from human cervical cancer. Our results indicate that repression by calcitriol occurs at the transcriptional level and involves a functional negative vitamin D response element (nVDRE) E-box type in the hEAG1 promoter. The described mechanism in this work implies that a protein complex formed by the vitamin D receptor-interacting repressor, the vitamin D receptor, the retinoid X receptor, and the Williams syndrome transcription factor interact with the nVDRE in the hEAG1 promoter in the absence of ligand. Interestingly, all of these transcription factors except the vitamin D receptor-interacting repressor are displaced from hEAG1 promoter in the presence of calcitriol. Our results provide novel mechanistic insights into calcitriol mode of action in repressing hEAG1 gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists supporting human osteoblast (hOB) differentiation in the absence of bone resorption are attractive agents in a bone regenerative setting. One potential candidate fulfilling these roles is 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (24,25D). Over forty years ago it was reported that supraphysiological levels of 24,25D could stimulate intestinal calcium uptake and aid bone repair without causing bone calcium mobilisation. VDR agonists co-operate with certain growth factors to enhance hOB differentiation but whether 24,25D might act similarly in promoting cellular maturation has not been described. Given our discovery that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) co-operated with VDR agonists to enhance hOB maturation, we co-treated MG63 hOBs with 24,25D and a phosphatase-resistant LPA analog. In isolation 24,25D inhibited proliferation and stimulated osteocalcin expression. When co-administered with the LPA analog there were synergistic increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP). These are encouraging findings which may help realise the future application of 24,25D in promoting osseous repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligands are therapeutic agents that are used for the treatment of psoriasis, osteoporosis, and secondary hyperparathyroidism and have immense potential as therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the major side effect of VDR ligands, the development of hypercalcemia, limits their expanded use. To develop tissue-selective VDR modulators, we have designed vitamin D analogs with an adamantane ring at the side chain terminal, which would interfere with helix 12, the activation function 2, and modulate the VDR potency. Here we report 25- or 26-adamantyl-23,23,24,24-tetradehydro-19-norvitamin D derivatives (ADTK1-4, 4b,a and 5a,b). These compounds showed high VDR affinities (90% at maximum), partial agonistic activities (EC50 10-9 to 10-8 M with 40-80% efficacy) in transactivation, and tissue-selective activities in target gene expressions. We investigate the structure-activity relationships of these compounds on the basis of their X-ray crystal structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the physiological and pharmacological actions of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in bone and calcium metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, and immunity. VDR also responds to secondary bile acids and belongs to the NR1I subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which regulates expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes. When compared to knockout mouse investigations of the other NR1I nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, an understanding of the role of VDR in xenobiotic metabolism remains limited. We examined the effect of VDR deletion in a mouse model of cholestasis. We performed bile duct ligation (BDL) on VDR-null mice and compared blood biochemistry, mRNA expression of genes involved in bile acid and bilirubin metabolism, cytokine production, and expression of inflammatory regulators with those of wild-type mice. VDR-null mice had elevated plasma conjugated bilirubin levels three days after BDL compared with wild-type mice. Urine bilirubin levels and renal mRNA and/or protein expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2 and 4 were decreased in VDR-null mice, suggesting impaired excretion of conjugated bilirubin into urine. While VDR-null kidney showed mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) after BDL and VDR-null macrophages had higher IL-6 protein levels after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the induction of intestinal Il6 mRNA expression and plasma IL-6 protein levels after BDL was impaired in VDR-null mice. Immunoblotting analysis showed that expression of an immune regulator, IκBα, was elevated in the jejunum of VDR-null mice, a possible mechanism for the attenuated induction of Il6 expression in the intestine after BDL. Increased expression of IκBα may be a consequence of compensatory mechanisms for VDR deletion. These results reveal a role of VDR in bilirubin clearance during cholestasis. VDR is also suggested to contribute to tissue-selective immune regulation.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51664. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051664 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and can be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid (9CRA). RXRs form homodimers and heterodimers with other nuclear receptors such as the retinoic acid receptor and NR4 subfamily nuclear receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Potential physiological roles of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified a gene regulated by these heterodimers utilizing HX600, a selective RXR agonist for Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR. While 9CRA induced many genes, including RAR-target genes, HX600 effectively induced only carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) in human teratocarcinoma NT2/D1 cells, which express RXRα, Nur77 and NURR1. HX600 also increased CPT1A expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells. Although HX600 induced CPT1A less effectively than 9CRA, overexpression of Nur77 or NURR1 increased the HX600 response to levels similar to 9CRA in NT2/D1 and HEK293 cells. A dominant-negative form of Nur77 or NURR1 repressed the induction of CPT1A by HX600. A protein synthesis inhibitor did not alter HX600-dependent CPT1A induction. Thus, the rexinoid HX600 directly induces expression of CPT1A through a Nur77 or NURR1-mediated mechanism. CPT1A, a gene involved in fatty acid β-oxidation, could be a target of RXR-NR4 receptor heterodimers.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 418(4):780-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.01.102 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possibility of pathological calcium metabolism is a critical health concern introduced by long-term space travel. Because vitamin D plays an important role in calcium homeostasis, we evaluated the effects of hypergravity on the expression of genes involved in vitamin D and calcium metabolism in ICR mice. When exposed to 2G hypergravity for 2 days, the mRNA expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (Cyp24a1) was increased and that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) was decreased. Although hypergravity decreased food intake and increased the expression of starvation-induced genes, the changes in Cyp24a1 and Cyp27b1 expression were not due to starvation, suggesting that hypergravity affects these genes directly. Hypergravity decreased plasma 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in ICR mice, suggesting a consequence of decreased Cyp27b1 and increased Cyp24a1 expression. Although 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha(OH)D(3)] treatment induced the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) target genes in the kidney of 2G-exposed ICR mice to similar levels as controls, 1alpha(OH)D(3) increased the intestinal expression of Cyp24a1 in ICR mice. Hypergravity-dependent changes of Cyp24a1 and Cyp27b1 expression were diminished in mice exposed to hypergravity for 14 days, which may represent an adaptation to hypergravity stress. Hypergravity exposure also increased Cyp24a1 expression in the kidney of C57BL/6J mice. We examined the effects of hypergravity on VDR-null mice and found that renal Cyp27b1 expression in VDR-null mice was decreased by hypergravity while renal Cyp24a1 expression was not detected in VDR-null mice. Thus hypergravity modifies the expression of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a nuclear receptor that regulates calcium homeostasis, has been found to function as a receptor for secondary bile acids. Because the in vivo role of VDR in bile acid metabolism remains unknown, we investigated the effect of VDR activation in a mouse model of cholestasis. We treated mice with 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha(OH)D(3)] after bile duct ligation (BDL) and examined mRNA expression and cytokine levels. 1alpha(OH)D(3) treatment altered the expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis and transport in the liver, kidney, and intestine but did not decrease bile acid levels in the plasma and liver of BDL mice. 1alpha(OH)D(3) treatment suppressed mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver and strongly decreased the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in BDL mice. These findings indicate that 1alpha(OH)D(3) regulates a network of bile acid metabolic genes and represses proinflammatory cytokine expression in BDL mice. VDR ligands have the potential to prevent the cholestasis-induced inflammatory response.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2008; 328(2):564-70. DOI:10.1124/jpet.108.145987 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand, regulates calcium homeostasis and also exhibits noncalcemic actions on immunity and cell differentiation. In addition to disorders of bone and calcium metabolism, VDR ligands are potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of immune disorders, microbial infections, and malignancies. Hypercalcemia, the major adverse effect of vitamin D(3) derivatives, limits their clinical application. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) is an additional physiological ligand for VDR, and its synthetic derivative, LCA acetate, is a potent VDR agonist. In this study, we found that an additional derivative, LCA propionate, is a more selective VDR activator than LCA acetate. LCA acetate and LCA propionate induced the expression of the calcium channel transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) as effectively as that of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), whereas 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was more effective on TRPV6 than on CYP24A1 in intestinal cells. In vivo experiments showed that LCA acetate and LCA propionate effectively induced tissue VDR activation without causing hypercalcemia. These bile acid derivatives have the ability to function as selective VDR modulators.
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2008; 49(4):763-72. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M700293-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid derivatives was prepared as candidate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta-selective agonists, based on our previously discovered potent human PPARalpha/delta dual agonist TIPP-401 as a lead compound. Structure-activity relationship studies clearly indicated the importance of the chain length of the alkoxy group at the 4-position, and the n-butoxy compound exhibited the most potent PPARdelta transactivation activity and highest PPARdelta selectivity. The (S)-enantiomer of a representative compound exhibited extremely potent PPARdelta transactivation activity, comparable with or somewhat superior to that of the known PPARdelta-selective agonist, GW-501516. The representative compound regulated the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis, and should be useful not only as a chemical tool to study PPARdelta function, but also as a candidate drug for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We synthesized four new vitamin D derivatives, diastereomers at C20 and C25 of 26-adamantyl-1,25-dihydroxy-2-methylene-22,23-didehydro-19,27-dinorvitamin D3 (ADMI1-4), which have the bulky and rigid adamantane ring system at the side chain terminus. These compounds had significant VDR affinity (1/6-1/30 that of the natural hormone) but their efficacies of transactivation in transient transcription assay was low (approximately 1/10). All ADMI compounds antagonized the action of 1,25(OH)2D3 in transient transcription assay in COS-7 cells with ADMI3 (20S,25S-isomer) was the most potent (IC50, 3 nM). ADMI3 (1 microM) suppressed the endogenous CYP24A1 gene expression induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) in HEK293 cells to nearly control level. Thus we have identified 26-adamantyl vitamin D compound as a novel highly potent VDR antagonist/partial agonist. A docking model of ADMI3 reveals that a terminal part of the large adamantane ring crowds the H12 residues (Val318 and Phe422) and this would prevent the H12 adopting the active conformation.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/2007; 460(2):240-53. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2006.11.026 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nervous system is highly sensitive to various environmental stresses, such as ischemia. Stress response mechanisms that result in neuroprotection, including the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP), are not well understood. We examined the effect of KNK437, a compound that inhibits the synthesis of inducible heat shock proteins, on neuronal differentiation in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. KNK437 decreased the expression of HSP70, and induced the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in the absence of stress stimulation, although with lower efficacy than nerve growth factor (NGF). Neurite outgrowth stimulated by KNK437 and NGF was blocked by inhibitors of ERK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, p38 MAP kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta signaling pathways. NGF, and not KNK437, induced acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, a functional differentiation marker, indicating that KNK437 utilizes a mechanism distinct from that of NGF. KNK437 enhanced the activity of low dose NGF treatment on neurite outgrowth induction and ERK phosphorylation in PC12 cells, a finding that identifies KNK437 as a possible nerve regeneration agent. This compound may be a useful tool for the investigation of neuronal differentiation and neuroprotection against environmental stress.