[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi x Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied.
Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL.
The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between different models and marker densities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying interindividual variation in stress responses and their links with production traits is a key issue for sustainable animal breeding. In this study, we searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the magnitude of the plasma cortisol stress response and compared them to body size traits in five F2 full-sib families issued from two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for high or low post-confinement plasma cortisol level. Approximately 1000 F2 individuals were individually tagged and exposed to two successive acute confinement challenges (1 month interval). Post-stress plasma cortisol concentrations were determined for each fish. A medium density genome scan was carried out (268 markers, overall marker spacing less than 10 cM). QTL detection was performed using qtlmap software, based on an interval mapping method (http://www.inra.fr/qtlmap). Overall, QTL of medium individual effects on cortisol responsiveness (<10% of phenotypic variance) were detected on 18 chromosomes, strongly supporting the hypothesis that control of the trait is polygenic. Although a core array of QTL controlled cortisol concentrations at both challenges, several QTL seemed challenge specific, suggesting that responses to the first and to a subsequent exposure to the confinement stressor are distinct traits sharing only part of their genetic control. Chromosomal location of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) makes it a good potential candidate gene for one of the QTL. Finally, comparison of body size traits QTL (weight, length and body conformation) with cortisol-associated QTL did not support evidence for negative genetic relationships between the two types of traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meat quality depends on skeletal muscle structure and metabolic properties. While most studies carried on pigs focus on the Longissimus muscle (LM) for fresh meat consumption, Semimembranosus (SM) is also of interest because of its importance for cooked ham production. Even if both muscles are classified as glycolytic muscles, they exhibit dissimilar myofiber composition and metabolic characteristics. The comparison of LM and SM transcriptome profiles undertaken in this study may thus clarify the biological events underlying their phenotypic differences which might influence several meat quality traits.
Muscular transcriptome analyses were performed using a custom pig muscle microarray: the 15 K Genmascqchip. A total of 3823 genes were differentially expressed between the two muscles (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P value ≤0.05), out of which 1690 and 2133 were overrepresented in LM and SM respectively. The microarray data were validated using the expression level of seven differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR. A set of 1047 differentially expressed genes with a muscle fold change ratio above 1.5 was used for functional characterization. Functional annotation emphasized five main clusters associated to transcriptome muscle differences. These five clusters were related to energy metabolism, cell cycle, gene expression, anatomical structure development and signal transduction/immune response.
This study revealed strong transcriptome differences between LM and SM. These results suggest that skeletal muscle discrepancies might arise essentially from different post-natal myogenic activities.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96491. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For decades, genetic improvement based on measuring growth and body composition traits has been successfully applied in the production of meat-type chickens. However, this conventional approach is hindered by antagonistic genetic correlations between some traits and the high cost of measuring body composition traits. Marker-assisted selection should overcome these problems by selecting loci that have effects on either one trait only or on more than one trait but with a favorable genetic correlation. In the present study, identification of such loci was done by genotyping an F2 intercross between fat and lean lines divergently selected for abdominal fatness genotyped with a medium-density genetic map (120 microsatellites and 1302 single nucleotide polymorphisms). Genome scan linkage analyses were performed for growth (body weight at 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks, and shank length and diameter at 9 weeks), body composition at 9 weeks (abdominal fat weight and percentage, breast muscle weight and percentage, and thigh weight and percentage), and for several physiological measurements at 7 weeks in the fasting state, i.e. body temperature and plasma levels of IGF-I, NEFA and glucose. Interval mapping analyses were performed with the QTLMap software, including single-trait analyses with single and multiple QTL on the same chromosome.
Sixty-seven QTL were detected, most of which had never been described before. Of these 67 QTL, 47 were detected by single-QTL analyses and 20 by multiple-QTL analyses, which underlines the importance of using different statistical models. Close analysis of the genes located in the defined intervals identified several relevant functional candidates, such as ACACA for abdominal fatness, GHSR and GAS1 for breast muscle weight, DCRX and ASPSCR1 for plasma glucose content, and ChEBP for shank diameter.
The medium-density genetic map enabled us to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that influenced the traits investigated. With this marker density, confidence intervals were sufficiently small (14 cM on average) to search for candidate genes. Altogether, this new information provides a valuable starting point for the identification of causative genes responsible for important QTL controlling growth, body composition and metabolic traits in the broiler chicken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) using genetic marker information is a time-consuming analysis that has interested the mapping community in recent decades. The increasing amount of genetic marker data allows one to consider ever more precise QTL analyses while increasing the demand for computation. Part of the difficulty of detecting QTLs resides in finding appropriate critical values or threshold values, above which a QTL effect is considered significant. Different approaches exist to determine these thresholds, using either empirical methods or algebraic approximations. In this article, we present a new implementation of existing software, QTLMap, which takes advantage of the data parallel nature of the problem by offsetting heavy computations to a graphics processing unit (GPU). Developments on the GPU were implemented using Cuda technology. This new implementation performs up to 75 times faster than the previous multicore implementation, while maintaining the same results and level of precision (Double Precision) and computing both QTL values and thresholds. This speedup allows one to perform more complex analyses, such as linkage disequilibrium linkage analyses (LDLA) and multiQTL analyses, in a reasonable time frame.
Journal of computational biology: a journal of computational molecular cell biology 09/2013; 20(9):672-86. · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The QTLMAS XVth dataset consisted of pedigree, marker genotypes and quantitative trait performances of animals with a sib family structure. Pedigree and genotypes concerned 3,000 progenies among those 2,000 were phenotyped. The trait was regulated by 8 QTLs which displayed additive, imprinting or epistatic effects. The 1,000 unphenotyped progenies were considered as candidates to selection and their Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) were evaluated by participants of the XVth QTLMAS workshop. This paper aims at comparing the GEBV estimation results obtained by seven participants to the workshop.
From the known QTL genotypes of each candidate, two "true" genomic values (TV) were estimated by organizers: the genotypic value of the candidate (TGV) and the expectation of its progeny genotypic values (TBV). GEBV were computed by the participants following different statistical methods: random linear models (including BLUP and Ridge Regression), selection variable techniques (LASSO, Elastic Net) and Bayesian methods. Accuracy was evaluated by the correlation between TV (TGV or TBV) and GEBV presented by participants. Rank correlation of the best 10% of individuals and error in predictions were also evaluated. Bias was tested by regression of TV on GEBV.
Large differences between methods were found for all criteria and type of genetic values (TGV, TBV). In general, the criteria ranked consistently methods belonging to the same family.
Bayesian methods - A<B<C<Cπ - were the most efficient whatever the criteria and the True Value considered (with the notable exception of the MSEP of the TBV). The selection variable procedures (LASSO, Elastic Net and some adaptations) performed similarly, probably at a much lower computing cost. The TABLUP, which combines BayesB and GBLUP, generally did well. The simplest methods, GBLUP or Ridge Regression, and even worst, the fixed linear model, were much less efficient.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The QTLMAS XVth dataset consisted of the pedigrees, marker genotypes and quantitative trait performances of 2,000 phenotyped animals with a half-sib family structure. The trait was regulated by 8 QTL which display additive, imprinting or epistatic effects. This paper aims at comparing the QTL mapping results obtained by six participants of the workshop.
Different regression, GBLUP, LASSO and Bayesian methods were applied for QTL detection. The results of these methods are compared based on the number of correctly mapped QTL, the number of false positives, the accuracy of the QTL location and the estimation of the QTL effect.
All the simulated QTL, except the interacting QTL on Chr5, were identified by the participants. Depending on the method, 3 to 7 out of the 8 QTL were identified. The distance to the real location and the accuracy of the QTL effect varied to a large extent depending on the methods and complexity of the simulated QTL.
While all methods were fairly efficient in detecting QTL with additive effects, it was clear that for non-additive situations, such as parent-of-origin effects or interactions, the BayesC method gave the best results by detecting 7 out of the 8 simulated QTL, with only two false positives and a good precision (less than 1 cM away on average). Indeed, if LASSO could detect QTL even in complex situations, it was associated with too many false positive results to allow for efficient GWAS. GENMIX, a method based on the phylogenies of local haplotypes, also appeared as a promising approach, which however showed a few more false positives when compared with the BayesC method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Our aim was to simulate the data for the QTLMAS2011 workshop following a pig-type family structure under an oligogenic model, each QTL being specific. RESULTS: The population comprised 3000 individuals issued from 20 sires and 200 dams. Within each family, 10 progenies belonged to the experimental population and were assigned phenotypes and marker genotypes and 5 belonged to the selection population, only known on their marker genotypes. A total of 10,000 SNPs carried by 5 chromosomes of 1 Morgan each were simulated. Eight QTL were created (1 quadri-allelic, 2 linked in phase, 2 linked in repulsion, 1 imprinted and 2 epistatic). Random noise was added giving an heritability of 0.30. The marker density, LD and MAF were similar to real life parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection on a huge amount of phenotypes, like eQTL detection on transcriptomic data, can be dramatically impaired by the statistical properties of interval mapping methods. One of these major outcomes is the high number of QTL detected at marker locations. The present study aims at identifying and specifying the sources of this bias, in particular in the case of analysis of data issued from outbred populations. Analytical developments were carried out in a backcross situation in order to specify the bias and to propose an algorithm to control it. The outbred population context was studied through simulated data sets in a wide range of situations.The likelihood ratio test was firstly analyzed under the "one QTL" hypothesis in a backcross population. Designs of sib families were then simulated and analyzed using the QTL Map software. On the basis of the theoretical results in backcross, parameters such as the population size, the density of the genetic map, the QTL effect and the true location of the QTL, were taken into account under the "no QTL" and the "one QTL" hypotheses. A combination of two non parametric tests - the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test - was used in order to identify the parameters that affected the bias and to specify how much they influenced the estimation of QTL location.
A theoretical expression of the bias of the estimated QTL location was obtained for a backcross type population. We demonstrated a common source of bias under the "no QTL" and the "one QTL" hypotheses and qualified the possible influence of several parameters. Simulation studies confirmed that the bias exists in outbred populations under both the hypotheses of "no QTL" and "one QTL" on a linkage group. The QTL location was systematically closer to marker locations than expected, particularly in the case of low QTL effect, small population size or low density of markers, i.e. designs with low power. Practical recommendations for experimental designs for QTL detection in outbred populations are given on the basis of this bias quantification. Furthermore, an original algorithm is proposed to adjust the location of a QTL, obtained with interval mapping, which co located with a marker.
Therefore, one should be attentive when one QTL is mapped at the location of one marker, especially under low power conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrative genomics approaches that combine genotyping and transcriptome profiling in segregating populations have been developed to dissect complex traits. The most common approach is to identify genes whose eQTL colocalize with QTL of interest, providing new functional hypothesis about the causative mutation. Another approach includes defining subtypes for a complex trait using transcriptome profiles and then performing QTL mapping using some of these subtypes. This approach can refine some QTL and reveal new ones.In this paper we introduce Factor Analysis for Multiple Testing (FAMT) to define subtypes more accurately and reveal interaction between QTL affecting the same trait. The data used concern hepatic transcriptome profiles for 45 half sib male chicken of a sire known to be heterozygous for a QTL affecting abdominal fatness (AF) on chromosome 5 distal region around 168 cM.
Using this methodology which accounts for hidden dependence structure among phenotypes, we identified 688 genes that are significantly correlated to the AF trait and we distinguished 5 subtypes for AF trait, which are not observed with gene lists obtained by classical approaches. After exclusion of one of the two lean bird subtypes, linkage analysis revealed a previously undetected QTL on chromosome 5 around 100 cM. Interestingly, the animals of this subtype presented the same q paternal haplotype at the 168 cM QTL. This result strongly suggests that the two QTL are in interaction. In other words, the "q configuration" at the 168 cM QTL could hide the QTL existence in the proximal region at 100 cM. We further show that the proximal QTL interacts with the previous one detected on the chromosome 5 distal region.
Our results demonstrate that stratifying genetic population by molecular phenotypes followed by QTL analysis on various subtypes can lead to identification of novel and interacting QTL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetics of transcript-level variation is an exciting field that has recently given rise to many studies. Genetical genomics studies have mainly focused on cell lines, blood cells or adipose tissues, from human clinical samples or mice inbred lines. Few eQTL studies have focused on animal tissues sampled from outbred populations to reflect natural genetic variation of gene expression levels in animals. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in a whole tissue, pig skeletal muscle sampled from individuals from a half sib F2 family shortly after slaughtering.
QTL detection on transcriptome measurements was performed on a family structured population. The analysis identified 335 eQTLs affecting the expression of 272 transcripts. The ontologic annotation of these eQTLs revealed an over-representation of genes encoding proteins involved in processes that are expected to be induced during muscle development and metabolism, cell morphology, assembly and organization and also in stress response and apoptosis. A gene functional network approach was used to evidence existing biological relationships between all the genes whose expression levels are influenced by eQTLs. eQTLs localization revealed a significant clustered organization of about half the genes located on segments of chromosome 1, 2, 10, 13, 16, and 18. Finally, the combined expression and genetic approaches pointed to putative cis-drivers of gene expression programs in skeletal muscle as COQ4 (SSC1), LOC100513192 (SSC18) where both the gene transcription unit and the eQTL affecting its expression level were shown to be localized in the same genomic region. This suggests cis-causing genetic polymorphims affecting gene expression levels, with (e.g. COQ4) or without (e.g. LOC100513192) potential pleiotropic effects that affect the expression of other genes (cluster of trans-eQTLs).
Genetic analysis of transcription levels revealed dependence among molecular phenotypes as being affected by variation at the same loci. We observed the genetic variation of molecular phenotypes in a specific situation of cellular stress thus contributing to a better description of muscle physiologic response. In turn, this suggests that large amounts of genetic variation, mediated through transcriptional networks, can drive transient cell response phenotypes and contribute to organismal adaptative potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08), with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations.
Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait.
Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the influence of major-effect mutations on the least affected traits, but is one order of magnitude lower than effect on variance of traits primarily affected by these causative mutations. This suggests that uncovering physiological traits directly affected by genetic polymorphisms would be an appropriate approach for further characterization of QTLs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that the ability to adapt to seawater in teleost fish is modulated by genetic factors. Most studies have involved the comparison of species or strains and little is known about the genetic architecture of the trait. To address this question, we searched for QTL affecting osmoregulation capacities after transfer to saline water in a nonmigratory captive-bred population of rainbow trout.
A QTL design (5 full-sib families, about 200 F2 progeny each) was produced from a cross between F0 grand-parents previously selected during two generations for a high or a low cortisol response after a standardized confinement stress. When fish were about 18 months old (near 204 g body weight), individual progeny were submitted to two successive hyper-osmotic challenges (30 ppt salinity) 14 days apart. Plasma chloride and sodium concentrations were recorded 24 h after each transfer. After the second challenge, fish were sacrificed and a gill index (weight of total gill arches corrected for body weight) was recorded. The genome scan was performed with 196 microsatellites and 85 SNP markers. Unitrait and multiple-trait QTL analyses were carried out on the whole dataset (5 families) through interval mapping methods with the QTLMap software. For post-challenge plasma ion concentrations, significant QTL (P < 0.05) were found on six different linkage groups and highly suggestive ones (P < 0.10) on two additional linkage groups. Most QTL affected concentrations of both chloride and sodium during both challenges, but some were specific to either chloride (2 QTL) or sodium (1 QTL) concentrations. Six QTL (4 significant, 2 suggestive) affecting gill index were discovered. Two were specific to the trait, while the others were also identified as QTL for post-challenge ion concentrations. Altogether, allelic effects were consistent for QTL affecting chloride and sodium concentrations but inconsistent for QTL affecting ion concentrations and gill morphology. There was no systematic lineage effect (grand-parental origin of QTL alleles) on the recorded traits.
For the first time, genomic loci associated with effects on major physiological components of osmotic adaptation to seawater in a nonmigratory fish were revealed. The results pave the way for further deciphering of the complex regulatory mechanisms underlying seawater adaptation and genes involved in osmoregulatory physiology in rainbow trout and other euryhaline fishes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New molecular technologies allow high throughput genotyping for QTL mapping with dense genetic maps. Therefore, the interest of linkage analysis models against linkage disequilibrium could be questioned. As these two strategies are very sensitive to marker density, experimental design structures, linkage disequilibrium extent and QTL effect, we propose to investigate these parameters effects on QTL detection.
The XIIIth QTLMAS workshop simulated dataset was analysed using three linkage disequilibrium models and a linkage analysis model. Interval mapping, multivariate and interaction between QTL analyses were performed using QTLMAP.
The linkage analysis models identified 13 QTL, from which 10 mapped close of the 18 which were simulated and three other positions being falsely mapped as containing a QTL. Most of the QTLs identified by interval mapping analysis are not clearly detected by any linkage disequilibrium model. In addition, QTL effects are evolving during the time which was not observed using the linkage disequilibrium models.
Our results show that for such a marker density the interval mapping strategy is still better than using the linkage disequilibrium only. While the experimental design structure gives a lot of power to both approaches, the marker density and informativity clearly affect linkage disequilibrium efficiency for QTL detection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many QTL for various traits have been mapped in livestock, location confidence intervals remain wide that makes difficult the identification of causative mutations. The aim of this study was to test the contribution of microarray data to QTL detection in livestock species. Three different but complementary approaches are proposed to improve characterization of a chicken QTL region for abdominal fatness (AF) previously detected on chromosome 5 (GGA5).
Hepatic transcriptome profiles for 45 offspring of a sire known to be heterozygous for the distal GGA5 AF QTL were obtained using a 20 K chicken oligochip. mRNA levels of 660 genes were correlated with the AF trait. The first approach was to dissect the AF phenotype by identifying animal subgroups according to their 660 transcript profiles. Linkage analysis using some of these subgroups revealed another QTL in the middle of GGA5 and increased the significance of the distal GGA5 AF QTL, thereby refining its localization. The second approach targeted the genes correlated with the AF trait and regulated by the GGA5 AF QTL region. Five of the 660 genes were considered as being controlled either by the AF QTL mutation itself or by a mutation close to it; one having a function related to lipid metabolism (HMGCS1). In addition, a QTL analysis with a multiple trait model combining this 5 gene-set and AF allowed us to refine the QTL region. The third approach was to use these 5 transcriptome profiles to predict the paternal Q versus q AF QTL mutation for each recombinant offspring and then refine the localization of the QTL from 31 cM (100 genes) at a most probable location confidence interval of 7 cM (12 genes) after determining the recombination breakpoints, an interval consistent with the reductions obtained by the two other approaches.
The results showed the feasibility and efficacy of the three strategies used, the first revealing a QTL undetected using the whole population, the second providing functional information about a QTL region through genes related to the trait and controlled by this region (HMGCS1), the third could drastically refine a QTL region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starvation triggers a complex array of adaptative metabolic responses including energy-metabolic responses, a process which must imply tissue specific alterations in gene expression and in which the liver plays a central role. The present study aimed to describe the evolution of global gene expression profiles in liver of 4-week-old male chickens during a 48 h fasting period using a chicken 20 K oligoarray.
A large number of genes were modulated by fasting (3532 genes with a pvalue corrected by Benjamini-Hochberg < 0.01); 2062 showed an amplitude of variation higher than +/- 40% among those, 1162 presented an human ortholog, allowing to collect functional information. Notably more genes were down-regulated than up-regulated, whatever the duration of fasting (16 h or 48 h). The number of genes differentially expressed after 48 h of fasting was 3.5-fold higher than after 16 h of fasting. Four clusters of co-expressed genes were identified by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Gene Ontology, KEGG and Ingenuity databases were then used to identify the metabolic processes associated to each cluster. After 16 h of fasting, genes involved in ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, were up-regulated (cluster-1) whereas genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis were down-regulated (cluster-2). For all genes tested, the microarray data was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Most genes were altered by fasting as already reported in mammals. A notable exception was the HMG-CoA synthase 1 gene, which was up-regulated following 16 and 48 h of fasting while the other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were down-regulated as reported in mammalian studies. We further focused on genes not represented on the microarray and candidates for the regulation of the target genes belonging to cluster-1 and -2 and involved in lipid metabolism. Data are provided concerning PPARa, SREBP1, SREBP2, NR1H3 transcription factors and two desaturases (FADS1, FADS2).
This study evidences numerous genes altered by starvation in chickens and suggests a global repression of cellular activity in response to this stressor. The central role of lipid and acetyl-CoA metabolisms and its regulation at transcriptional level are confirmed in chicken liver in response to short-term fasting. Interesting expression modulations were observed for NR1H3, FADS1 and FADS2 genes. Further studies are needed to precise their role in the complex regulatory network controlling lipid metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide scan was performed in Large White and French Landrace pig populations in order to identify QTL affecting reproduction and production traits. The experiment was based on a granddaughter design, including five Large White and three French Landrace half-sib families identified in the French porcine national database. A total of 239 animals (166 sons and 73 daughters of the eight male founders) distributed in eight families were genotyped for 144 microsatellite markers. The design included 51 262 animals recorded for production traits, and 53 205 litter size records were considered. Three production and three reproduction traits were analysed: average backfat thickness (US_M) and live weight (LWGT) at the end of the on-farm test, age of candidates adjusted at 100 kg live weight, total number of piglets born per litter, and numbers of stillborn (STILLp) and born alive (LIVp) piglets per litter. Ten QTL with medium to large effects were detected at a chromosome-wide significance level of 5% affecting traits US_M (on SSC2, SSC3 and SSC17), LWGT (on SSC4), STILLp (on SSC6, SSC11 and SSC14) and LIVp (on SSC7, SSC16 and SSC18). The number of heterozygous male founders varied from 1 to 3 depending on the QTL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A multivariate QTL detection was carried out on fatness and carcass composition traits on porcine chromosome 7 (SSC7). Single-trait QTLs have already been detected in the SLA region, and multivariate approaches have been used to exploit the correlations between the traits to obtain more information on their pattern: almost 500 measurements were recorded for backfat thickness (BFT1, BFT2), backfat weight (BFW) and leaf fat weight (LFW) but only about half that number for intramuscular fat content (IMF), affecting the detection. First, groups of traits were selected using a backward selection procedure: traits were selected based on their contribution to the linear combination of traits discriminating the putative QTL haplotypes. Three groups of traits could be distinguished based on successive discriminant analyses: external fat (BFT1, BFT2), internal fat (LFW, IMF) and BFW. At least four regions were distinguished, preferentially affecting one or the other group, with the SLA region always influencing all the traits. Meishan alleles decreased all trait values except IMF, confirming an opportunity for marker-assisted selection to improve meat quality with maintenance of carcass composition based on Meishan alleles.
Genetics Research 05/2007; 89(2):65-72. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving pork quality can be done by increasing intramuscular fat (IMF) content. This trait is influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL) sought out in different pig populations. Considering the high IMF content observed in the Duroc pig, it was appealing to determine whether favourable alleles at a major gene or QTL could be found. The detection was performed in an experimental F2 Duroc x Large White population first by segregation analysis, then by QTL mapping using additional molecular information.
Segregation analysis provided evidence for a major gene, with a recessive Duroc allele increasing IMF by 1.8% in Duroc homozygous pigs. However, results depended on whether data were normalised or not. After Box-Cox transformation, likelihood ratio was indeed 12 times lower and no longer significant. The QTL detection results were partly consistent with the segregation analysis. Three QTL significant at the chromosome wide level were evidenced. Two QTL, located on chromosomes 13 and 15, showed a high IMF Duroc recessive allele with an overall effect slightly lower than that expected from segregation analysis (+0.4 g/100 g muscle). The third QTL was located on chromosome 1, with a dominant Large White allele inducing high IMF content (+0.5 g/100 g muscle). Additional QTL were detected for muscular fatty acid composition.
The study presented results from two complementary approaches, a segregation analysis and a QTL detection, to seek out genes involved in the higher IMF content observed in the Duroc population. Discrepancies between both methods might be partially explained by the existence of at least two QTL with similar characteristics located on two different chromosomes for which different boars were heterozygous. The favourable and dominant allele detected in the Large White population was unexpected. Obviously, in both populations, the favourable alleles inducing high IMF content were not fixed and improving IMF by fixing favourable alleles using markers can then be applied both in Duroc and LW populations. With QTL affecting fatty acid composition, combining an increase of IMF content enhancing monounsaturated fatty acid percentage would be of great interest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new multiple trait strategy based on discriminant analysis was studied for efficient detection of linked QTL in outbred sib families, in comparison with a multivariate likelihood technique. The discriminant analysis technique describes the segregation of a linear combination of the traits in a univariate likelihood. This combination is calculated for each pair of positions depending on the inheritance of the pairs of QTL haplotypes in the progeny. The gains in power and accuracy for position estimations of multiple trait methods in grid searches were evaluated in reference to single trait detections of linked QTL. The methods were applied to simulated designs with two correlated traits submitted to various effects from the linked QTL. Multiple trait strategies were generally more powerful and accurate than the single trait technique. Linked QTL were distinguished when they were separated enough to identify informative recombinations: at least two genetic markers and 25 cM between the QTL under the simulated conditions. Except in a particular case, discriminant analysis was at least as powerful as the multivariate technique and its implementation was five times faster. Combining the advantages from both methodologies, we finally propose a complete strategy for rapid and efficient systematic multivariate detections in outbred populations.