Hein J Verberne

Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (74)287.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Understanding how leukocytes impact atherogenesis contributes critically to our concept of atherosclerosis development and the identification of potential therapeutic targets. Objectives The study evaluates an in vivo imaging approach to visualize peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of cardiovascular (CV) patients using hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Methods At baseline, CV patients and healthy controls underwent 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to assess arterial wall inflammation and dimensions, respectively. For in vivo trafficking, autologous PBMCs were isolated, labeled with technetium-99m, and visualized 3, 4.5, and 6 h post-infusion with SPECT/CT. Results Ten CV patients and 5 healthy controls were included. Patients had an increased arterial wall inflammation (target-to-background ratio [TBR] right carotid 2.00 ± 0.26 in patients vs. 1.51 ± 0.12 in controls; p = 0.022) and atherosclerotic burden (normalized wall index 0.52 ± 0.09 in patients vs. 0.33 ± 0.02 in controls; p = 0.026). Elevated PBMC accumulation in the arterial wall was observed in patients; for the right carotid, the arterial-wall-to-blood ratio (ABR) 4.5 h post-infusion was 2.13 ± 0.35 in patients versus 1.49 ± 0.40 in controls (p = 0.038). In patients, the ABR correlated with the TBR of the corresponding vessel (for the right carotid: r = 0.88; p < 0.001). Conclusions PBMC accumulation is markedly enhanced in patients with advanced atherosclerotic lesions and correlates with disease severity. This study provides a noninvasive imaging tool to validate the development and implementation of interventions targeting leukocytes in atherosclerosis.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2014; 64(10):1019–1029. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of basal stenosis resistance index (BSR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) for stenosis-specific myocardial ischaemia identified by means of a combined reference standard of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and the hyperaemic stenosis resistance index. Methods and results: BSR and FFR were determined for 299 coronary stenoses, iFR was determined for 85 coronary stenoses (iFR cohort). The discriminative value for stenosis-specific myocardial ischaemia was compared by means of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC). Classification agreement with the reference standard was determined according to ROC curve-derived ischaemic cut-off values, as well as according to clinical cut-off values, equivalent to the 0.80 FFR cut-off. Across all stenoses, the discriminative value of BSR and FFR was equivalent (AUC: 0.90 and 0.91, respectively, p=0.46). In the iFR cohort, the discriminative value was equivalent for BSR, iFR, and FFR (AUC: 0.88, 0.84, and 0.88, respectively; p≥0.20 for all). At both ischaemic as well as clinical cut-off values, classification agreement with the reference standard was equivalent for BSR and FFR across all stenoses, as well as for BSR, iFR, and FFR in the iFR cohort. Conclusions: BSR, iFR, and FFR have equivalent diagnostic accuracy for the detection of ischaemia-generating coronary stenoses.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac imaging now provides a range of anatomical and functional information with some overlap in the ability of individual techniques to guide diagnosis and management. This report summarizes the conclusions of a panel of cardiac imagers who assembled to discuss the current state of the field. It focuses principally on options for nuclear cardiology, the choice between individual techniques, and areas where further advances would benefit patient management.
    European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: It has been argued that hyperaemic microvascular resistance (HMR), defined as the ratio of mean distal coronary pressure to flow velocity, is overestimated in the presence of a coronary stenosis compared to actual microvascular resistance (MR), due to neglecting collateral flow. We aimed to test the hypothesis that HMR allows accurate identification of microvascular functional abnormalities by evaluating the association between high or low HMR and the presence of myocardial ischaemia on non-invasive stress testing. Methods and results: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed in 228 patients, with 299 lesions to identify reversible myocardial ischaemia. Intracoronary distal pressure and flow velocity were assessed during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (20-40 µg, intracoronary) to determine hyperaemic stenosis resistance (HSR) and HMR. HMR >1.9 mmHg/cm/s was defined as high. The diagnostic odds ratio (OR) for myocardial ischaemia for lesions associated with high compared to low HMR was 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.4; p<0.001) overall, 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2-9.0; p=0.02) for lesions with HSR >0.8 mmHg/cm/s, and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.6-2.9; p=0.52) for lesions with HSR ≤0.8 mmHg/cm/s. Conclusions: The increased risk of myocardial ischaemia in the presence of high HMR, uncorrected for collateral flow, demonstrates that HMR is reflective of an increase in actual MR, identifying pertinent pathophysiological alterations in the microvasculature.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 04/2014; 9(12):1423-31. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) aims to identify the extent of epicardial disease, but may be obscured by involvement of the coronary microvasculature. We documented the impact of hyperaemic stenosis resistance (HSR) and hyperaemic microvascular resistance (HMR) on FFR, and its relationship with myocardial ischaemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. We evaluated 255 coronary arteries with stenoses of intermediate severity by means of intracoronary pressure and flow measurements to determine FFR, HSR and HMR. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) was performed to identify inducible myocardial ischaemia. In 178 patients, HMR was additionally determined in a reference coronary artery. Target vessel HMR was stratified according to reference vessel HMR tertiles. The diagnostic OR for inducible ischaemia on MPS of a positive compared with a negative FFR was significantly higher only in the presence of a high HMR (at the 0.75 and 0.80 FFR cut-off). Among stenoses with a positive FFR, the prevalence of ischaemia was significantly higher when HMR was high despite equivalent FFR across the HMR groups. This was paralleled by a concomitant significant increase in HSR with increasing HMR across groups. The relation between FFR and HSR (r(2)=0.54, p<0.001) was modulated by the magnitude of HMR, and improved substantially after adjustment for HMR (adjusted-r(2)=0.73, p<0.001), where, for epicardial disease of equivalent severity, FFR increased with increasing HMR. Identification of epicardial disease severity by FFR is partly obscured by the microvascular resistance, which illustrates the necessity of combined pressure and flow measurements in daily practice.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 04/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for the optimal perfusion of the heart and its vasculature. NO may be insufficient in surgical patients because its precursor arginine is decreased, and the inhibitor of NO synthesis asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is increased. Besides arginine, the presence of other amino acids essential for the proper metabolism of cardiac cells may be decreased too. Supplementation of these amino acids with enteral and parenteral nutrition before, during, and after surgery may augment the myocardial and plasma arginine:ADMA ratio and availability of amino acids. Myocardial glucose metabolism and nutritional conditioning may result in a reduction of cardiac injury and support rapid recovery after major surgery. We investigated the effect of nutrition before, during, and after surgery on amino acids and the myocardial arginine:ADMA ratio and its relation to myocardial glucose metabolism. In this trial, 33 patients who were undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were randomly assigned between enteral, parenteral, or no nutrition (control) from 2 d before, during, and until 2 d after surgery. Both enteral and parenteral solutions were prepared with commercial available products and included proteins or amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and minerals. Concentrations of amino acids including ADMA were analyzed in myocardial tissue and plasma samples. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed before and after surgery to assess myocardial glucose metabolism. The myocardial arginine:ADMA ratio increased during surgery and was significantly higher in the enteral and parenteral groups than in the control group [median (IQR): 115.0 (98.0-142.2) (P = 0.012), 116.9 (100.3-135.3) (P = 0.004), and 93.3 (82.7-101.1), respectively]. Furthermore, the change in the preoperative to postoperative plasma arginine:ADMA ratio correlated with the change in myocardial glucose metabolism in positron emission tomography (r = 0.427, P = 0.033). Enteral or parenteral nutrition before, during, and after CABG may positively influence myocardial glucose metabolism by increasing the plasma and myocardial arginine:ADMA ratio. This trial was registered at http://www.trialregister.nl as NTR2183.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2014; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate prognostic endpoint for myocardial (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) based on aggregate results from multiple studies published in the past decade. Original individual late (3-5 h) heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio data of 636 CHF patients were retrieved from six studies from Europe and the USA. All-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, arrhythmic events, and heart transplantation were investigated to determine which provided the strongest prognostic significance for the MIBG imaging data. The majority of patients was male (78%), had a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (31.1 ± 12.5%), and a mean late H/M of 1.67 ± 0.47. During follow-up (mean 36.9 ± 20.1 months), there were 83 deaths, 67 cardiac deaths, 33 arrhythmic events, and 56 heart transplants. In univariate regression analysis, late H/M was a significant predictor of all event categories, but lowest hazard ratios (HRs) were for the composite endpoint of any event (HR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.46), all-cause (HR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.53), and cardiac mortality (HR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.14-0.55). In multivariate analysis, late H/M was an independent predictor for all event categories, except for arrhythmias. This pooled individual patient data meta-analysis showed that, in CHF patients, the late H/M ratio is not only useful as a dichotomous predictor of events (high vs. low risk), but also has prognostic implication over the full range of the outcome value for all event categories except arrhythmias.
    European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this multicenter retrospective study was to evaluate the contribution of F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of patients with inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). In addition, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were assessed as possible predictors for the outcome of F-FDG PET/CT. Inflammation of unknown origin was defined as prolonged and perplexing inflammation, with repeated CRP levels more than 20 mg/L or erythrocyte sedimentation rate more than 20 mm/h, body temperature of less than 38.3°C, and without a diagnosis after a variety of conventional diagnostic procedures.A total of 140 patients with IUO (67 men, 73 women; mean age, 64.2 years; age range, 18-87 years) underwent F-FDG PET/CT. F-FDG PET/CT was considered helpful when the imaging findings led to a diagnosis, either confirmed by histopathology, microbiological assays, clinical and imaging follow-up, or response to treatment. In 104 patients (73%), a final diagnosis could be established as follows: infection in 35 patients, malignancy in 18 patients, noninfectious inflammatory disease in 44 patients, and a variety of uncommon conditions in 7 patients. F-FDG PET/CT was true positive in 95 patients, true negative in 30 patients (ie, self-limiting conditions), false positive in 6 patients, and false negative in 9 patients (predominantly systemic diseases). In this population, the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 94%, 77%, and 89%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, CRP was the only independent predictor for the outcome of F-FDG PET/CT. F-FDG PET/CT correctly identified or excluded a causal explanation in approximately 90% of patients with IUO. However, a negative F-FDG PET/CT is indicative for a self-limiting condition only after systemic diseases are excluded by other diagnostic tests.
    Clinical nuclear medicine 03/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High intensity systematic physical training leads to myocardial morphophysiological adaptations. The goal of this study was to investigate if differences in training were correlated with differences in cardiac sympathetic activity. 58 males (19-47 years), were divided into three groups: strength group (SG), (20 bodybuilders), endurance group (EG), (20 endurance athletes), and a control group (CG) comprising 18 healthy non-athletes. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by planar myocardial (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy using the early and late heart to mediastinal (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR). Left ventricular mass index was significantly higher both in SG (P < .001) and EG (P = .001) compared to CG without a statistical significant difference between SG and EG (P = .417). The relative wall thickness was significantly higher in SG compared to CG (P < .001). Both left ventricular ejection fraction and the peak filling rate showed no significant difference between the groups. Resting heart rate was significantly lower in EG compared to CG (P = .006) and SG (P = .002). The late H/M ratio in CG was significantly higher compared to the late H/M for SG (P = .003) and EG (P = .004). However, WR showed no difference between the groups. There was no significant correlation between the parameters of myocardial sympathetic innervation and parameters of left ventricular function. Strength training resulted in a significant increase in cardiac dimensions. Both strength and endurance training seem to cause a reduction in myocardial sympathetic drive. However, myocardial morphological and functional adaptations to training were not correlated with myocardial sympathetic activity.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 03/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals of south Asian origin have a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with white Caucasians. We aimed to assess volume and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is thought to have a role in energy metabolism by combusting fatty acids and glucose to produce heat and might contribute to the difference in incidence of type 2 diabetes between ethnic groups. We enrolled Dutch nationals with south Asian ancestry and matched Caucasian participants at The Rijnland Hospital (Leiderdorp, Netherlands). Eligible participants were healthy lean men aged 18-28 years, and we matched groups for BMI. We measured BAT volume and activity with cold-induced (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET CT scans, and assessed resting energy expenditure, non-shivering thermogenesis, and serum parameters. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number 2473. Between March 1, 2013, and June 1, 2013, we enrolled 12 participants in each group; one Caucasian participant developed hyperventilation after (18)F-FDG administration, and was excluded from all cold-induced and BAT measurements. Compared with Caucasian participants, south Asian participants did not differ in age (mean 23·6 years [SD 2·8] for south Asians vs 24·6 years [2·8] for Caucasians) or BMI (21·5 kg/m(2) [2·0] vs 22·0 kg/m(2) [1·6]), but were shorter (1·74 m [0·06] vs 1·85 m [0·04]) and lighter (65·0 kg [8·5] vs 75·1 kg [7·2]). Thermoneutral resting energy expenditure was 1297 kcal per day (SD 123) in south Asian participants compared with 1689 kcal per day (193) in white Caucasian participants (difference -32%, p=0·0008). On cold exposure, shiver temperature of south Asians was 2·0°C higher than Caucasians (p=0·0067) and non-shivering thermogenesis was increased by 20% in white Caucasians (p<0·0001) but was not increased in south Asians. Although the maximum and mean standardised uptake values of (18)F-FDG in BAT did not differ between groups, total BAT volume was lower in south Asians (188 mL [SD 81]) than it was in Caucasians (287 mL [169]; difference -34%, p=0·04). Overall, BAT volume correlated positively with basal resting energy expenditure in all assessable individuals (β=0·44, p=0·04). Lower resting energy expenditure, non-shivering thermogenesis, and BAT volumes in south Asian populations might underlie their high susceptibility to metabolic disturbances, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Development of strategies to increase BAT volume and activity might help prevent and treat such disorders, particularly in south Asian individuals. Dutch Heart Foundation (2009T038) and Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation (2012.11.1500).
    The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 03/2014; 2(3):210-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study was to assess the impact of mediastinal region of interest (ROI) definition on intra- and inter-observer variability in relation to collimator type. Thirty-five subjects with CHF (80% men, mean age 66 ± 9 years, NYHA 2.4 ± 0.5, LVEF 29 ± 8.4%) were enrolled. 15 minutes and 4 hours post-injection (p.i.) of (123)I-MIBG, planar images were sequentially acquired with low energy high energy (LEHR) and medium energy (ME) collimators. In the first analysis, observer-defined mediastinal ROI was used. In the second analysis, a predefined mediastinal ROI was used. Intra- and inter-observer variability of late H/M was assessed using Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC). There was substantial agreement between all three observers using predefined mediastinum ROI. LCCs for LEHR were 0.98, 0.96, and 0.95, for ME 0.98, 0.97, and 0.97. However, observer-defined mediastinal ROI resulted in poor-moderate agreement. LCCs for LEHR were 0.82, 0.94, and 0.70, for ME 0.77, 0.91, and 0.80. Intra-observer analysis using predefined mediastinal ROI showed substantial agreement. LCC was 0.97 for LEHR and 0.96 for ME. Predefined mediastinal ROI results in low intra- and inter-observer variability of late H/M and is, therefore, to be preferred over observer-defined mediastinal ROI. Intra- and inter-observer variability of late H/M is not influenced by collimator choice.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 02/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is an increasingly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by acute reversible apical ventricular dysfunction, commonly preceded by exposure to severe physical or emotional stress. In this review, we give a short overview on clinical presentation and treatment of TCM and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of TCM and the role of various non-invasive imaging modalities in TCM with a focus on the potential role of (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Currently, the dominating hypothesis on the pathophysiology of TCM postulates that high levels of the neurotransmitter epinephrine may trigger a change in intracellular signaling in ventricular myocytes. More specific, epinephrine stimulates G-protein coupled β2 adenoreceptors (β2AR) which are located on ventricular myocytes. Normal levels of this neurotransmitter predominantly stimulate the intracellular G-protein, and induce a positive inotropic effect. However, with significant increasing levels of epinephrine, the predominance of stimulation is shifted from G-stimulating to the G-inhibitor protein coupling, which leads to a negative inotropic effect. Interestingly, this negative inotropic effect is the largest in the apical myocardium where the β2AR:β1AR ratio is the highest within the heart. Echocardiography and ventriculography are essential to diagnose TCM, but new imaging tools are promising to diagnose TCM and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance can be used to differentiate TCM from other myocardial diseases, such as myocarditis. (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy can be used to assess ventricular adrenergic activity and may guide optimization of individual (pharmacological) therapy. These new insights into the possible pathophysiological mechanisms and novel diagnostic imaging modalities can be used as starting point for the development of international guidelines of TCM which may increase the awareness, and optimize the treatment of TCM.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98822. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Hypoglycemia is associated with increased heat production and, despite of this, hypothermia. Heat production is likely to be mediated by sympathetic innervation. Brown adipose tissue is activated by cold exposure and stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. We therefore examined the effect of hypoglycemia on uptake of the labeled glucose analogue 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in brown adipose tissue using positron emission tomography and computer tomography. Methods In nine healthy adults 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake as measure of brown adipose tissue activity was assessed in a cold environment (17 °C) during euglycemia (blood glucose 4.5 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (2.5 mmol/L) using a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp. Results Brown adipose tissue activity was observed in all participants. No difference was observed in the median (range) maximal standardized uptake values of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in brown adipose tissue between euglycemia and hypoglycemia: 4.2 (1.0-7.7) versus 3.1 (2.2-12.5) g/mL (p = 0.7). Similarly there were no differences in mean standardized 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake values or total brown adipose tissue volume between euglycemia and hypoglycemia. Body temperature dropped by 0.6 °C from baseline during the hypoglycemic condition and remained unchanged during the euglycemic condition. There was no correlation between the maximal standardized uptake values of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in brown adipose tissue and levels of counterregulatory hormones. Conclusions This study shows that there is a similar amount of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in brown adipose tissue during hypoglycemia when compared to euglycemia, which makes a role for systemic catecholamines in brown adipose tissue activation and a role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypoglycemia associated hypothermia unlikely. Future studies in humans should determine whether hypoglycemia indeed increases energy expenditure, and if so which alternative source can explain this increase.
    Metabolism. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-blocker, may be more effective than the selective β-blocker metoprolol in reducing the risk of thromboembolic events in heart failure. The aim of this study was, first, to assess whether there is a differential response in cardiac sympathetic activity by (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) imaging when either β-blocker is used. Second, we assessed whether that response correlates with levels of various serum factors that serve as markers for coagulability. In this prospective, randomized, open-label crossover study with masked outcome assessments, stable heart failure patients (left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%) homozygous for the Arg16/Gln27 (n = 13) or Gly16/Glu27 haplotype (n = 8) of the β2-receptor were randomized to equipotent dosages of carvedilol or metoprolol for two 6-wk periods. Primary outcome was sympathetic activity as measured by (123)I-MIBG myocardial washout. Secondary outcomes included markers of hemostasis. (123)I-MIBG cardiac washout was lower during carvedilol than metoprolol treatment (12.9% ± 3.9% vs. 22.1% ± 2.8%, respectively, P = 0.003), irrespective of β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype. In addition, treatment with carvedilol resulted in a lower von Willebrand factor than did metoprolol (149% ± 13% vs. 157% ± 13%, respectively, P = 0.01), irrespective of β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype. Compared with metoprolol, carvedilol resulted in greater reduction of sympathetic activity after 6 wk of treatment and lower von Willebrand factor concentrations in both Arg16/Gln27 and Gly16/Glu27 individuals. Therefore, carvedilol may reduce the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with heart failure, irrespective of β2-receptor haplotype status.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2013; · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: ABNORMALITIES IN THE CORONARY MICROCIRCULATION ARE INCREASINGLY RECOGNIZED AS AN ELEMENTARY COMPONENT OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE, WHICH CAN BE ACCURATELY ASSESSED BY CORONARY FLOW VELOCITY RESERVE IN REFERENCE VESSELS (REFCFVR). WE STUDIED THE PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF REFCFVR FOR LONG-TERM MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE.METHODS AND RESULTS: WE INCLUDED PATIENTS WITH STABLE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE WHO UNDERWENT INTRACORONARY PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1 CORONARY LESION OF INTERMEDIATE SEVERITY BETWEEN APRIL 1997 AND SEPTEMBER 2006. REFCFVR WAS ASSESSED IF A CORONARY ARTERY WITH 30% IRREGULARITIES WAS PRESENT. REFCFVR 2.7 WAS CONSIDERED NORMAL. PATIENTS UNDERWENT REVASCULARIZATION OF ALL ISCHEMIA-CAUSING LESIONS. LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP WAS PERFORMED TO DOCUMENT THE OCCURRENCE OF (CARDIAC) MORTALITY. REFCFVR WAS DETERMINED IN 178 PATIENTS. KAPLANMEIER ESTIMATES OF 12-YEAR ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY WERE 16.7% WHEN REFCFVR 2.7 AND 39.6% WHEN REFCFVR 2.7 (P0.001), WHEREAS KAPLANMEIER ESTIMATES FOR CARDIAC MORTALITY WERE 7.7% WHEN REFCFVR 2.7 AND 31.6% WHEN REFCFVR 2.7 (P0.001). AFTER MULTIVARIABLE ADJUSTMENT, REFCFVR 2.7 WAS ASSOCIATED WITH A 2.24-FOLD INCREASE IN ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY HAZARD (HAZARD RATIO, 2.24; 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, 1.134.44; P=0.020) AND A 3.32-FOLD INCREASE IN CARDIAC MORTALITY HAZARD (HAZARD RATIO, 3.32; 95% CONFIDENCE INTERVAL, 1.278.67; P=0.014). IMPAIRMENT OF REFCFVR ORIGINATED FROM SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER BASELINE FLOW VELOCITY IN THE PRESENCE OF SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER REFERENCE VESSEL BASELINE MICROVASCULAR RESISTANCE (P0.001), INDICATING IMPAIRED CORONARY AUTOREGULATION AS ITS CAUSE.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, impaired refCFVR, resulting from increased baseline flow velocity indicating impaired coronary autoregulation, is associated with a significant increase in fatal events at long-term follow-up.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2013; · 6.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a disease modifying, device-driven treatment that can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. According to the current guidelines, the indication for CRT is only based on QRS duration and functional class of heart failure. However, a substantial amount of patients do not respond to therapy. In addition, CRT is accompanied by significant cost and potential morbidity. It is therefore vital to improve patient selection for CRT to improve patient outcome and minimize therapy-related complications. In this regard, cardiac sympathetic innervation may be of interest. This review addresses the currently available literature, 9 studies with a total number of 225 patients, on CRT and cardiac innervation scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.
    Heart Failure Reviews 06/2013; · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. Extensive efforts have focused on developing compounds for augmenting the growth of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis). Nonetheless, clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of these compounds resulted in disappointing outcomes. Previous studies focused on developing compounds that stimulated collateral vessel growth by enhancing monocyte survival and activity. The limited success of these compounds in clinical studies, led to a paradigm shift in arteriogenesis research. Recent studies have shown genetic heterogeneity between CAD patients with sufficient and insufficient collateral vessels. The genetic predispositions in patients with poorly developed collateral vessels include overexpression of arteriogenesis inhibiting signaling pathways. New directions of arteriogenesis research focus on attempting to block such inhibitory pathways to ultimately promote arteriogenesis. Methods to detect collateral vessel growth are also critical in realizing the therapeutic potential of newly developed compounds. Traditional invasive measurements of intracoronary derived collateral flow index remain the gold standard in quantifying functional capacity of collateral vessels. However, advancements made in hybrid diagnostic imaging modalities will also prove to be advantageous in detecting the effects of pro-arteriogenic compounds.
    Current Cardiology Reviews 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become a focus of research in the hope of finding a new target to fight obesity. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Furthermore, the sympathetic innervation of BAT can be visualized with the radiolabeled norepinephrine analog (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG). We aimed to determine whether (123)I-MIBG SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT identify the same anatomic regions as active BAT in adult humans. Furthermore, we investigated whether the magnitude of BAT activity measured by these techniques correlated. Finally, we tried to establish the optimal time interval between (123)I-MIBG administration and subsequent SPECT/CT acquisition to visualize sympathetic stimulation of BAT. METHODS: Ten lean (body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)), healthy Caucasian men (age, 18-32 y) underwent one (18)F-FDG PET/CT and two (123)I-MIBG-SPECT/CT scans within a 2-wk interval. On 2 separate occasions, the subjects were exposed to mild cold (17°C) for 2 h after an overnight fast. After 1 h of cold exposure, (18)F-FDG (one occasion) or (123)I-MIBG (other occasion) was administered. (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed at 1 h after (18)F-FDG administration, and (123)I-MIBG-SPECT/CT was performed at 4 and 24 h after (123)I-MIBG injection. RESULTS: (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT was observed in 8 of 10 subjects, whereas (123)I-MIBG uptake was observed in 7 of 10 subjects in both the SPECT/CT scans acquired at 4 h after (123)I-MIBG administration and the SPECT/CT scans acquired at 24 h after (123)I-MIBG administration. All subjects who showed (123)I-MIBG uptake in BAT also showed (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. There was no statistically significant correlation between maximal standardized uptake value of (18)F-FDG and semiquantitative uptake of (123)I-MIBG at 4 h after administration. However, a positive correlation was found between the maximal standardized uptake value of (18)F-FDG and semiquantitative uptake of (123)I-MIBG at 24 h after administration (r = 0.64, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: (123)I-MIBG SPECT/CT, as a marker of sympathetic activity, and (18)F-FDG PET/CT, as a marker of metabolic activity, identified the same anatomic regions as active BAT. Moreover, when (123)I-MIBG SPECT/CT was performed at 24 h after (123)I-MIBG administration, the magnitude of BAT activity measured with these techniques correlated strongly. This finding not only supports that BAT activity in humans is sympathetically influenced but also identifies (123)I-MIBG SPECT/CT, when performed 24 h after (123)I-MIBG injection, as a method to visualize and quantify sympathetic stimulation of BAT.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2013; · 5.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

730 Citations
287.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis
      • Department of Cardiology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006–2012
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010
    • Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France