Hajo I J Wildschut

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (67)154.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare the costs of induction of labor and expectant management in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). DesignEconomic analysis based on a randomized clinical trial. SettingObstetric departments of eight academic and 52 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. PopulationWomen with PPROM near term who were not in labor 24 hours after PPROM. MethodsA cost- minimization analysis was done from a health care provider perspective, using a bottom-up approach to estimate resource utilization, valued with unit-costs reflecting actual costs. Main outcome measuresPrimary health outcome was the incidence of neonatal sepsis. Direct medical costs were estimated from start of randomization to hospital discharge of mother and child. Results: Induction of labor did not significantly reduce the probability of neonatal sepsis (2.6% vs. 4.1%, relative risk 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.25-1.6)). Mean costs per woman were € 8094 for induction and € 7340 for expectant management (difference € 754; 95% confidence interval € -335-€1802). This difference predominantly originated in the postpartum period, where the mean costs were € 5669 for induction versus € 4801 for expectant management. Delivery costs were higher in women allocated to induction than in women allocated to expectant management (€1777 vs. €1153 per woman). Ante partum costs in the expectant management group were higher because of longer ante partum maternal stays in hospital. Conclusions In women with pregnancies complicated by PPROM near term, induction of labor does not reduce neonatal sepsis, but increases medical costs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 01/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2012; 40(S1). · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present, there is insufficient evidence to guide appropriate management of women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) near term. We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial in 60 hospitals in The Netherlands, which included non-laboring women with >24 h of PPROM between 34(+0) and 37(+0) wk of gestation. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to induction of labor (IoL) or expectant management (EM) using block randomization. The main outcome was neonatal sepsis. Secondary outcomes included mode of delivery, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and chorioamnionitis. Patients and caregivers were not blinded to randomization status. We updated a prior meta-analysis on the effect of both interventions on neonatal sepsis, RDS, and cesarean section rate. From 1 January 2007 to 9 September 2009, 776 patients in 60 hospitals were eligible for the study, of which 536 patients were randomized. Four patients were excluded after randomization. We allocated 266 women (268 neonates) to IoL and 266 women (270 neonates) to EM. Neonatal sepsis occurred in seven (2.6%) newborns of women in the IoL group and in 11 (4.1%) neonates in the EM group (relative risk [RR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25 to 1.6). RDS was seen in 21 (7.8%, IoL) versus 17 neonates (6.3%, EM) (RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.67 to 2.3), and a cesarean section was performed in 36 (13%, IoL) versus 37 (14%, EM) women (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.64 to 1.50). The risk for chorioamnionitis was reduced in the IoL group. No serious adverse events were reported. Updating an existing meta-analysis with our trial results (the only eligible trial for the update) indicated RRs of 1.06 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.76) for neonatal sepsis (eight trials, 1,230 neonates) and 1.27 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.65) for cesarean section (eight trials, 1,222 women) for IoL compared with EM. In women whose pregnancy is complicated by late PPROM, neither our trial nor the updated meta-analysis indicates that IoL substantially improves pregnancy outcomes compared with EM. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29313500
    PLoS Medicine 04/2012; 9(4):e1001208. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promotion of a healthy pregnancy is a top priority of the health care policy in many European countries. Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of the success of this policy. Recently, it was shown that the Netherlands has relatively high perinatal death rates when compared to other European countries. This is in particular true for large cities where perinatal mortality rates are 20-50% higher than elsewhere. Consequently in the Netherlands, there is heated debate on how to tackle these problems. Without the introduction of measures throughout the entire perinatal health care chain, pregnancy outcomes are difficult to improve. With the support of health care professionals, the City of Rotterdam and the Erasmus University Medical Centre have taken the initiative to develop an urban perinatal health programme called 'Ready for a Baby'. The main objective of this municipal 10-year programme is to improve perinatal health and to reduce perinatal mortality in all districts to at least the current national average of l0 per 1000. Key elements are the understanding of the mechanisms of the large health differences between women living in deprived and non-deprived urban areas. Risk guided care, orientation towards shared-care and improvement of collaborations between health care professionals shapes the interventions that are being developed. Major attention is given to the development of methods to improve risk-selection before and during pregnancy and methods to reach low-educated and immigrant groups.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 08/2011; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the content of decision-relevant knowledge needed for informed decision-making about (non-) participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome (DS), in order to develop a knowledge questionnaire for routine application in large-scale programme evaluations. A generic list of content domains for knowledge about screening was extracted from the literature. Items reflecting specific knowledge domains were constructed. An expert group of professionals and pregnant women expressed whether domains and items represented decision-relevant information. All presented domains were scored as (very) important. Options when receiving an 'increased probability for DS' test result, the meaning of this result, the aim of the screening, and voluntary nature of the test were scored as most important. The condition being screened for, prevalence, and the screening procedure were scored as relatively less important, with a high amount of expert consensus. A knowledge measure for prenatal screening for DS was developed, based on domains and items acquired by expert consensus. This measure of decision-relevant knowledge can be used in routine, large-scale evaluations of the procedure for offering information about prenatal screening for DS.
    Patient Education and Counseling 08/2011; 84(2):265-70. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a 20% downward shift in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) concentration on the test performance of first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) following a flaw in the production of PAPP-A kits on FTS for DS. A retrospective re-evaluation of PAPP-A in stored sera. Inclusion criteria were a maternal weight-corrected PAPP-A multiple of the median value ≥ 0.9 and a biochemical risk of DS ≤ 1:200 at the time of testing. Of the 3100 women, 473 (15%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After combining the biochemical risk based on the incorrect PAPP-A values with nuchal translucency findings, an increased risk for DS was initially found in 107 women [false positive rate (FPR): 3.1]. Eighty-two (77%) of the 107 women opted for invasive testing. Following re-analysis of PAPP-A, the biochemical risk and the combined risk were statistically significantly different from the initial risk estimates (p < 0.001.). We noticed that 25 women (30%) had invasive testing, while this was unjustified given the re-analysed PAPP-A. Erroneous PAPP-A kits resulted in an increase in the FPR by 1.2%. There were no reports of iatrogenic miscarriage. The occurrence of this problem reaffirms the importance of continuous monitoring of quality in FTS.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 06/2011; 31(8):821-6. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In all, 80% of antenatal karyotypes are generated by Down's syndrome screening programmes (DSSP). After a positive screening, women are offered prenatal foetus karyotyping, the gold standard. Reliable molecular methods for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)) can detect common aneuploidies, and are faster and less expensive than karyotyping.In the UK, RAD is recommended as a standalone approach in DSSP, whereas the US guidelines recommend that RAD be followed up by karyotyping. A cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of RAD in various DSSP is lacking. There is a debate over the significance of chromosome abnormalities (CA) detected with karyotyping but not using RAD. Our objectives were to compare the CE of RAD versus karyotyping, to evaluate the clinically significant missed CA and to determine the impact of detecting the missed CA. We performed computer simulations to compare six screening options followed by FISH, PCR or karyotyping using a population of 110948 pregnancies. Among the safer screening strategies, the most cost-effective strategy was contingent screening with QF-PCR (CE ratio of $24084 per Down's syndrome (DS) detected). Using karyotyping, the CE ratio increased to $27898. QF-PCR missed only six clinically significant CA of which only one was expected to confer a high risk of an abnormal outcome. The incremental CE ratio (ICER) to find the CA missed by RAD was $66608 per CA. These costs are much higher than those involved for detecting DS cases. As the DSSP are mainly designed for DS detection, it may be relevant to question the additional costs of karyotyping.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2011; 19(1):3-9. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study had two objectives. The first was to determine the contents of relevant knowledge needed for informed decision-making (IDM) in second-trimester ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies, with the goal of developing a knowledge measure for use in large-scale program evaluations. The second was to compare the contents of decision-relevant knowledge for second-trimester ultrasound screening with those for first-trimester screening for Down syndrome using the combined test. A generic list of content domains for knowledge about screening was extracted from the literature. Items reflecting specific knowledge domains for second-trimester ultrasound screening were constructed. An expert group of professionals and pregnant women expressed whether domains and items represented decision-relevant knowledge. Regarding second-trimester ultrasound screening, the experts scored all knowledge domains as (very) important. The meaning of an abnormal test result, the disorders being screened for, and the purpose of the screening were rated as very important for IDM, along with the voluntary nature of the test. All knowledge domains were included in the final measure. Importance ratings of knowledge domains for first-trimester Down syndrome screening and for second-trimester ultrasound screening were highly correlated (Pearson's r = 0.71). The domain 'consequences of a positive test result' was considered more important in first-trimester Down syndrome screening than in second-trimester ultrasound screening. We have developed a knowledge measure for second-trimester ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies for use in routine, large-scale program evaluations.
    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2010; 37(6):649-57. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2010; 36(S1):61. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess ethnic differences in participation in prenatal screening for Down syndrome in the Netherlands. Participation in prenatal screening was assessed for the period 1 January 2009 to 1 July 2009 in a defined postal code area in the southwest of the Netherlands. Data on ethnic origin, socio-economic background and age of participants in prenatal screening were obtained from the Medical Diagnostic Centre and the Department of Clinical Genetics. Population data were obtained from Statistics Netherlands. Logistic regression models were used to assess ethnic differences in participation, adjusted for socio-economic and age differences. The overall participation in prenatal screening was 3865 out of 15 093 (26%). Participation was 28% among Dutch women, 15% among those from Turkish ethnic origin, 8% among those from North-African origin, 15% among those from Aruban/Antillean origin and 26% among women from Surinamese origin. Compared to Dutch women, those from Turkish, North-African, Aruban/Antillean and other non-Western ethnic origin were less likely to participate in screening. It was unexpected that women from Surinamese origin equally participated. It should be further investigated to what extent participation and non-participation in these various ethnic groups was based on informed decision-making.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 10/2010; 30(10):988-94. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess ethnic and socio-economic differences in the uptake of maternal age-based prenatal diagnostic testing for Down's syndrome by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. The study population consisted of 12,340 women aged 36 years or over, who lived in a geographically defined region in the Southwest of The Netherlands and who gave birth to a live born infant in the period 2000-2004. Data were obtained from the Department of Clinical Genetics Erasmus MC and Statistics Netherlands. Logistic regression analyses were done to assess ethnic and socio-economic differences in uptake. The overall uptake of prenatal diagnostic tests was 28.5%. Women of Turkish and Caribbean origin participated in prenatal diagnostic tests equally or more often than Dutch women. Women of North-African origin and women from low socio-economic background had a lower uptake than others. Ethnic differences in uptake could not be attributed to differences in socio-economic background. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic tests for Down's syndrome in The Netherlands was low and varied among ethnic and socio-economic groups of advanced maternal age. The finding that women of Turkish and Caribbean origin participated in prenatal diagnostic tests equally or more often than Dutch women was unexpected. The low uptake among Dutch women may be related to the Dutch pregnancy culture. The finding that women of North-African origin and women from low socio-economic background had a lower uptake may be related to barriers in access to prenatal diagnostic tests.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 08/2010; 151(2):158-62. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish how different methods of estimating gestational age (GA) affect reliability of first-trimester screening for Down syndrome. Retrospective single-center study of 100 women with a viable singleton pregnancy, who had first-trimester screening. We calculated multiples of the median (MoM) for maternal-serum free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), derived from either last menstrual period (LMP) or ultrasound-dating scans. In women with a regular cycle, LMP-derived estimates of GA were two days longer (range -11 to 18), than crown-rump length (CRL)-derived estimates of GA whereas this discrepancy was more pronounced in women who reported to have an irregular cycle, i.e., six days (range -7 to 32). Except for PAPP-A in the regular-cycle group, all differences were significant. Consequently, risk estimates are affected by the mode of estimating GA. In fact, LMP-based estimates revealed ten "screen-positive" cases compared to five "screen-positive" cases where GA was derived from dating-scans. Provided fixed values for nuchal translucency are applied, dating-scans reduce the number of screen-positive findings on the basis of biochemical screening. We recommend implementation of guidelines for Down syndrome screening based on CRL-dependent rather than LMP-dependent parameters of GA.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 05/2010; 38(3):305-9. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential relationship between daily physical activity and pregnancy outcome remains unclear because of the wide variation in study designs and physical activity assessment measures. We sought to prospectively quantify the potential effects of the various domains of physical activity on selected birth outcomes in a large unselected population. The sample consisted of 11,759 singleton pregnancies from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Information on daily physical activity was collected by postal questionnaire for self-report measures. Main outcome measures were birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth and survival. After controlling for confounders, a sedentary lifestyle and paid work during the second trimester of pregnancy were found to be associated with a lower birth weight, while 'bending and stooping' and 'working night shifts' were associated with a higher birth weight. There was no association between physical exertion and duration of gestation or survival. Repetitive boring tasks during the first trimester was weakly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50). 'Bending and stooping' during the third trimester was associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84). Demanding physical activities do not have a harmful effect on the selected birth outcomes while a sedentary lifestyle is associated with a lower birth weight. In the absence of either medical or obstetric complications, pregnant women may safely continue their normal daily physical activities should they wish to do so.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 05/2010; 25(6):421-9. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) combined with fetal karyotyping versus karyotyping only on maternal anxiety and health-related quality of life. Women choosing to undergo amniocentesis were selected into group 1, i.e. receiving a karyotype result only (n = 132) or to group 2, i.e. receiving both the result of RAD and karyotyping (n = 181). There were no systematic differences in time of RAD combined with karyotyping versus karyotyping only in terms of anxiety (P = 0.91), generic physical health (P = 0.76, P = 0.46), generic mental health (P = 0.52, P = 0.72), personal perceived control (P = 0.91) and stress (P = 0.13). RAD combined with karyotyping reduced anxiety and stress two weeks earlier compared to karyotyping only. RAD as add-on to karyotyping reduces anxiety and stress in the short term but it does not influence overall anxiety, stress, personal perceived control, and generic mental and physical health when compared to a karyotype-only strategy.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 03/2010; 30(5):425-33. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate ethnic differences in considerations whether or not to participate in prenatal screening for Down syndrome and to relate these to differences in participation. The study population consisted of 270 pregnant women from Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese (African and South Asian) ethnic origin, attending midwifery or obstetrical practices in the Netherlands. Women were interviewed after booking for prenatal care. Considerations were assessed by one open-ended question and 18 statements that were derived from focus group interviews. Actual participation was assessed several months later. Women from ethnic minorities were less likely to participate in prenatal screening, which could be attributed to differences in age and religious identity. They more often reported acceptance of 'what God gives', low risk of having a child with Down syndrome and costs of screening as considerations not to participate in prenatal screening. They also reported many considerations in favour of participation, which did not differ from those of Dutch women but were less often consistent with actual participation in screening. Women from ethnic minorities should not be stereotyped as being uninterested in prenatal screening, but should be better informed about the consequences of prenatal screening and Down syndrome.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 10/2009; 29(13):1262-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess ethnic variations in informed decision-making about prenatal screening for Down's syndrome and to examine the contribution of background and decision-making variables. Pregnant women of Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese origin were recruited between 2006 and 2008 from community midwifery or obstetrical practices in The Netherlands. Each woman was personally interviewed 3 weeks (mean) after booking for prenatal care. Knowledge, attitude and participation in prenatal screening were assessed following the 'Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice' that has been developed and applied in the UK. In total, 71% of the Dutch women were classified as informed decision-makers, compared with 5% of the Turkish and 26% of the Surinamese women. Differences between Surinamese and Dutch women could largely be attributed to differences in educational level and age. Differences between Dutch and Turkish women could mainly be attributed to differences in language skills and gender emancipation. Women from ethnic minority groups less often made an informed decision whether or not to participate in prenatal screening. Interventions to decrease these ethnic differences should first of all be aimed at overcoming language barriers and increasing comprehension among women with a low education level. To further develop diversity-sensitive strategies for counselling, it should be investigated how women from different ethnic backgrounds value informed decision-making in prenatal screening, what decision-relevant knowledge they need and what they take into account when considering participation in prenatal screening.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 09/2009; 64(3):262-8. · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • P C J I Schielen, H I J Wildschut, J G Loeber
    Prenatal Diagnosis 02/2009; 29(2):190-2. · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • E Thomée, M. F. Wildhagen, H.I.J. Wildschut
    Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Obstetrie & Gynaecologie. 01/2009; 122(mei 2009):123-126.
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing number of pregnancies are presumed being terminated following prenatal detection of orofacial cleft during structural ultrasound.After examining the data and literature on this topic it is concluded that the reported cases are merely incidents. For the interpretation of prenatal detection rates a distinction should be made between isolated orofacial cleft and the frequently occurring associated form of orofacial cleft which is usually characterized by other, often major structural or chromosome anomalies. The ultrasound detection rate of the isolated form is low and varies in the literature between 18 and 56%. Together with all Dutch centres of prenatal medicine a care plan was adopted for the management of prenatally detected orofacial cleft including diagnosis (detailed ultrasound examination and karyotyping), medical support (genetic consultations, plastic surgery and psychosocial counselling) and treatment (obstetric and neonatal management). In the presence of associated major congenital anomalies termination of pregnancy may be considered before the 24th week of pregnancy.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2009; 153:B316.
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    ABSTRACT: To provide an inventory of the reported late terminations of pregnancy because ofa severe anomaly of the unborn child, i.e. termination after 24 weeks of pregnancy, in The Netherlands for the period 2004-2007. Inventory and descriptive. A description is given of the various assessment procedures for the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks. A distinction is made between abortion for lethal foetal abnormalities (category 1) and severe functional impairments with a limited chance for survival of the unborn (category 2). The level of caution exercised in decision making and performing category 1 terminations is assessed by the professional group, namely by the assessment committee for Late Pregnancy Termination of the Dutch Association for Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Since 15 March 2007, late pregnancy terminations that fall under category 2 have by law been assessed by a national central committee of experts. An overview of the reported cases of late terminations of pregnancy in the Netherlands for the period 2004-2007 is given. The number of reported terminations of pregnancy after 24 weeks (n = 72) has declined considerably since the early 1990s. A possible explanation is that due to increasing technological improvements and the implementation of prenatal screening in early preg-nancy, an abortion can be performed before the 24th week of pregnancy if any severe abnormalities are observed.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 12/2008; 152(48):2632-5.

Publication Stats

499 Citations
154.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Erasmus MC
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Research Group for Public Health
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004–2012
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands