[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
Community functioning is a core component of the functional deficits in schizophrenia, yet little systematic research on the origins of these functional deficits has been performed.
To examine 3 key domains of community functioning-social activity, independent behavior, and functioning in school or work-before first hospitalization for schizophrenia and to determine whether these domains are familial.
Design, setting, and participants:
In this population-based, prospective study that included a sibling-control comparison, data from the Israeli National Draft Board Registry were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry. The merged file included data for all male adolescents who visited the draft board and were followed up for as much as 25.4 years from draft board assessment (through the end of 2010). The 3 functional domains for cases, their unaffected siblings, and controls were compared by time between assessment and time to hospitalization. Analyses were conducted from March 13, 2014, to October 19, 2014.
Main outcomes and measures:
The trajectories and familiality of 3 key components of community functioning-social activity, independent behavior, and functioning in school or work-in the years preceding hospitalization for schizophrenia.
Participants included 723 316 Israeli male adolescents who underwent a mandatory behavioral assessment to determine eligibility for military service. Linkage identified 3929 individuals hospitalized for schizophrenia. Data for 338 550 sibling pairs, 1659 hospitalized with schizophrenia, were similarly ascertained. Among those with schizophrenia, impairments in social activity (effect size [d], 0.55) and functioning in school or work (d = 0.37) were recognizable up to 15 years before hospitalization. Independent behavior seemed preserved until the few years before first admission. For social activity, differences between cases and controls were progressively greater for patients admitted closer to time of testing (F = 115.33, P < .001). Unaffected siblings had small impairments compared with controls in social activity (F = 28.25, P < .001) and functioning in school or work scales (F = 14.77, P < .001). Group familial (sibling) correlations were relatively high for social activity (r = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.41) and functioning in school or work (r = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.49-0.51) but nil for independent behavior (r = 0; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.01). Impairments in siblings had no progressive increase and were unrelated to their affected sibling's time of illness onset (time trend: social activity: F = 5.463, P = .02; independent behavior: F = 0.908, P = .34; and functioning in school or work: F = 1.386, P = .24).
Conclusions and relevance:
Various components of impaired community functioning in schizophrenia followed different developmental trajectories. Our results indicate that impairments in social activity and functioning in school or work are familial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge.
Schizophrenia Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.10.006 · 3.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The Jerusalem study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM) was established to examine the prevalence of common mental and physical health issues in mid-adulthood in the inner city of Jerusalem, and to examine their association with lifespan psychosocial factors of vulnerability and resilience.
Participants were 811 randomly selected individuals from 7000 individuals who were born and grew up in inner-Jerusalem. Participants were 34-44 years old during first wave of STREAM assessment. Initial telephone surveys took place in 2007-2008 and participants were followed-up for a second survey 1 year later. Upon funding, a new wave is planned for 2017-2018. Survey topics comprised common health problems (e.g., type 2 diabetes/migraine), health markers (e.g., BMI), and psychiatric vulnerabilities (e.g., anxiety, post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, psychosis). Other measures included socioeconomic status, creativity, life style behavior (e.g., smoking, exercise), social contact and adaptation to change. Survey data were retrospectively merged with data of national registry sources that included adverse psychosocial factors, psychiatric and social measures assessed across all developmental stages through midlife. This includes data available on birth factors, school achievement and adjustment, cognitive and behavioral functioning during young adulthood, psychiatric hospitalizations, immigration and socioeconomic status.
Results on health outcomes of the first STREAM wave indicate that prevalence rates of health problems are comparable to recent World Mental Health Surveys.
Apart from measures on adverse psychosocial factors, STREAM provides a cohort to examine resilience to developing health problems and having a poor health and functional outcome.
Social Psychiatry 10/2015; 50(12). DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1126-y · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Research studies exploring the determinants of disease require sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful effects. Sample size is often increased through centralized pooling of disparately located datasets, though ethical, privacy and data ownership issues can often hamper this process. Methods that facilitate the sharing of research data that are sympathetic with these issues and which allow flexible and detailed statistical analyses are therefore in critical need. We have created a software platform for the Virtual Pooling and Analysis of Research data (ViPAR), which employs free and open source methods to provide researchers with a web-based platform to analyse datasets housed in disparate locations.
Database federation permits controlled access to remotely located datasets from a central location. The Secure Shell protocol allows data to be securely exchanged between devices over an insecure network. ViPAR combines these free technologies into a solution that facilitates 'virtual pooling' where data can be temporarily pooled into computer memory and made available for analysis without the need for permanent central storage.
Within the ViPAR infrastructure, remote sites manage their own harmonized research dataset in a database hosted at their site, while a central server hosts the data federation component and a secure analysis portal. When an analysis is initiated, requested data are retrieved from each remote site and virtually pooled at the central site. The data are then analysed by statistical software and, on completion, results of the analysis are returned to the user and the virtually pooled data are removed from memory.
ViPAR is a secure, flexible and powerful analysis platform built on open source technology that is currently in use by large international consortia, and is made publicly available at [http://bioinformatics.childhealthresearch.org.au/software/vipar/].
International Journal of Epidemiology 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv193 · 9.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 June 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) overlap in their phenomenological features and often co-occur in affected individuals and families. Understanding how these disorders cluster in families provides important clinical information and is an important step in understanding the causes of these disorders.
To determine familial recurrence for TS/CT and OCD using a national epidemiologic sample.
We performed a population-based study of national health registries in Denmark, including all individuals (n = 1 741 271) born in Denmark from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2007, and followed up through December 31, 2013. We identified those with TS/CT and/or OCD.
The prevalence of TS/CT and OCD and relative recurrence risk (RRR) for TS/CT or OCD among individuals with an oldest sibling or a parent diagnosed as having TS/CT or OCD compared with individuals without an affected oldest sibling or an affected parent.
In this sample, 5596 individuals were diagnosed as having TS/CT; 6191, OCD; and 412, both disorders. The overall cohort prevalence of TS/CT was 0.42% (95% CI, 0.41%-0.43%) and of OCD, 0.84% (95% CI, 0.81%-0.87%). The mean sibling recurrence risk for TS/CT across all birth years was 9.88% (95% CI, 8.02%-12.16%) and for OCD, 4.01% (95% CI, 2.78%-5.76%). The sibling RRR for TS/CT was 18.63 (95% CI, 15.34-22.63). In contrast, the sibling RRR for OCD was 4.89 (95% CI, 3.45-6.93). The parent-offspring RRR for TS/CT was 61.02 (95% CI, 44.43-83.82), whereas the parent-offspring RRR for OCD was 6.25 (95% CI, 4.82-8.11). The sibling and parent-offspring cross-disorder risks were also significant, ranging from 3.20 (95% CI, 2.22-4.62) to 10.27 (95% CI, 5.17-20.39).
Tourette syndrome/CT and OCD cluster in families. The familial aggregation of TS/CT is profound and substantially higher than the familial aggregation for OCD. The recurrence risk estimates provide an important clinical framework for identifying individuals at risk and provide insights into the causes of these disorders.