G Simonneau

Hôpital Bicêtre (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud), Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (574)3615.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) have been identified in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). However, their target antigens remain poorly identified. Sera from 24 patients with SSc without PAH, 20 patients with SSc with PAH, 30 with iPAH and 12 healthy controls were collected. Target antigens were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting in protein extracts of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Targeted antigens were identified by mass spectrometry. Serum immunoglobulin G from patients with SSc with or without PAH and patients with iPAH specifically recognised 110, 82 and 37 protein spots, respectively. Among others, target antigens of AECAs included lamin A/C, tubulin β-chain and vinculin. One-dimension immunoblotting experiments confirmed the identification of lamin A/C and tubulin β-chain. In conclusion, our results confirm the presence of AECA in patients with systemic sclerosis with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension and in those with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and provide evidence for the identification of target antigens of these autoantibodies including lamin A/C and tubulin β-chain.
    European Respiratory Journal 10/2011; 39(6):1405-14. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurring in a patient with Cowden syndrome with a mutation in the phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene, in the context of exposure to the appetite suppressant dexfenfluramine. Anorexigen exposure is known to be a risk factor for PAH. However, the role of PTEN in cell function and the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling and histopathologic signs of PAH in mice with a Pten depletion in smooth muscle cells suggest that the association of PAH and Cowden syndrome may be relevant. In this case report, we hypothesize that PTEN mutations may be a predisposing factor for the development of PAH, with anorexigen exposure as a potential trigger.
    Chest 10/2011; 140(4):1066-8. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Involvement of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension (PH) has previously been demonstrated and recently, immune-modulating dendritic cells (DCs) infiltrating arterial lesions in patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and in experimental monocrotaline-induced PH have been reported. Occurrence of perivascular inflammatory cells could be linked to local increase of oxidative stress (OS), as it has been shown for systemic atherosclerosis. The impact of OS on vascular remodeling in PH is still to be determined. We hypothesized, that augmented blood-flow could increase OS and might thereby contribute to DC/inflammatory cell-recruitment and smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation. We applied a monocrotaline-induced PH-model and combined it with permanent flow-challenge. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to following groups: control, monocrotaline-exposure (MCT), monocrotaline-exposure/pneumonectomy (MCT/PE). Hemodynamic exploration demonstrated most severe effects in MCT/PE, corresponding in histology to exuberant medial and adventitial remodeling of pulmonary muscular arteries, and intimal remodeling of smaller arterioles; lung-tissue PCR evidenced increased expression of DCs-specific fascin, CD68, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, RANTES, fractalkine) in MCT/PE and to a lesser extent in MCT. Major OS enzyme NOX-4 was maximal in MCT/PE. Antioxidative stress enzymes Mn-SOD and glutathion-peroxidase-1 were significantly elevated, while HO-1 showed maximal expression in MCT with significant decrease in MCT/PE. Catalase was decreased in MCT and MCT/PE. Expression of NOX-4, but also of MN-SOD in MCT/PE was mainly attributed to a highly increased number of interstitial and perivascular CXCR4/SDF1 pathway-recruited mast-cells. Stress markers malonedialdehyde and nitrotyrosine were produced in endothelial cells, medial smooth muscle and perivascular leucocytes of hypertensive vasculature. Immunolabeling for OX62, CD68 and actin revealed adventitial and medial DC- and monocyte-infiltration; in MCT/PE, medial smooth muscle cells were admixed with CD68+/vimentin+ cells. Our experimental findings support a new concept of immunologic responses to increased OS in MCT/PE-induced PAH, possibly linking recruitment of dendritic cells and OS-producing mast-cells to characteristic vasculopathy.
    Respiratory research 09/2011; 12:119. · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • M Humbert, G Simonneau, A T Dinh-Xuan
    European Respiratory Journal 09/2011; 38(3):510-1. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe, life-limiting complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Guidelines recommend early detection and management of SSc-PAH. However, little is known about the impact of detection programs on patients with SSc-PAH. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical characteristics of patients with SSc-PAH at diagnosis and their long-term outcomes. Two incident cohorts of patients with SSc-PAH from the same management era (2002/2003) were studied. The first cohort (designated the routine practice cohort) included consecutive adult patients with symptomatic SSc in whom a diagnosis of PAH was made by right-sided heart catheterization (RHC) at the time of recruitment into the French PAH Registry. The second cohort (designated the detection cohort) comprised consecutive patients with SSc who entered a systematic PAH detection program and were subsequently found to have PAH on RHC. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of PAH and subsequent 8-year mortality were compared between the cohorts. There were 16 patients in each cohort. At the time of PAH diagnosis, patients in the detection cohort had less advanced pulmonary vascular disease compared with patients in the routine practice cohort, as evidenced by more patients being in New York Heart Association class I and class II, a lower mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index, and a higher cardiac output. Patients in the detection cohort were less likely to receive diuretics and warfarin, but there was no difference in exposure to PAH-specific therapies between the cohorts. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 75%, 31%, 25%, and 17%, respectively, in the routine practice cohort compared with 100%, 81%, 73%, and 64%, respectively, in the detection cohort (P = 0.0037). Compared with patients in routine clinical practice, PAH detection programs in SSc are able to identify patients with milder forms of the disease, allowing earlier management.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 07/2011; 63(11):3522-30. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mean pulmonary artery pressure (P(pa)) achieved on mild-to-moderate exercise is age related and its haemodynamic correlates remain to be documented in patients free of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Our retrospective study involved patients free of PH investigated in our centre for possible pulmonary vascular disease between January 1, 2007 and October 31, 2009 who underwent right heart catheterisation at rest and during supine exercise up to 60 W. The 38 out of 99 patients aged <50 yrs were included and a P(pa) of 30 mmHg was considered the upper limit of normal on exercise. The 24 subjects who developed P(pa)>30 mmHg on exercise had higher resting P(pa) (19±3 versus 15±4 mmHg) and indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRi; 3.4±1.5 versus 2.2±1.1 WU·m(2); p<0.05) than the remaining 14 subjects. Resting P(pa) >15 mmHg predicted exercise P(pa) >30 mmHg with 88% sensitivity and 57% specificity. The eight patients with resting P(pa) 22-24 mmHg all had exercise P(pa) >30 mmHg. In subjects aged <50 yrs investigated for possible pulmonary vascular disease and free of PH, patients with mild-to-moderate exercise P(pa) >30 mmHg had higher resting PVRi and higher resting P(pa), although there was no resting P(pa) threshold value that could predict normal response on mild-to-moderate exercise. The clinical relevance of such findings deserves further long-term follow-up studies.
    European Respiratory Journal 07/2011; 39(2):313-8. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and characteristics of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease have not been clearly established. In this prospective study, we evaluated 398 outpatients with sickle cell disease (mean age, 34 years) at referral centers in France. All patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, with measurement of tricuspid-valve regurgitant jet velocity. Right heart catheterization was performed in 96 patients in whom pulmonary hypertension was suspected on the basis of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of at least 25 mm Hg. The prevalence of a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second was 27%. In contrast, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as confirmed on catheterization was 6%. The positive predictive value of echocardiography for the detection of pulmonary hypertension was 25%. Among the 24 patients with confirmed pulmonary hypertension, the pulmonary-capillary wedge pressure was 15 mm Hg or less (indicating precapillary pulmonary hypertension) in 11 patients. Patients with confirmed pulmonary hypertension were older and had poorer functional capacity and higher levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide than other patients. In contrast, patients who had a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of at least 2.5 m per second without pulmonary hypertension and patients with a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of less than 2.5 m per second had similar clinical characteristics. In this study of adults with sickle cell disease, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension as confirmed on right heart catheterization was 6%. Echocardiographic evaluation alone had a low positive predictive value for pulmonary hypertension. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00434902.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/2011; 365(1):44-53. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Endothelin is a key mediator in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its effects are mediated through the activation of two associated receptor subtypes, termed A and B. Therapeutic strategies that modulate the activity of endothelin are, therefore, of interest to improve the functional status of patients with PAH. AREAS COVERED: The rationale for the use of endothelin receptor antagonists as a therapeutic class in PAH and pertinent data from important clinical studies are presented in this review. Areas for future research are also suggested. EXPERT OPINION: The availability of the endothelin receptor antagonist class of agents represents a significant addition to the therapeutic armamentarium which is available for the treatment of PAH. Comparative studies are warranted to establish whether selective endothelin-A receptor antagonism is more advantageous than dual receptor antagonism. Future studies of endothelin receptor antagonists will increasingly focus on the potential of a combination of different PAH therapeutic classes and will employ 'harder' clinical end points. This is of crucial importance to ensure that future developments are both worthwhile and acceptable to patients, physicians, health system payers and regulatory authorities.
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 07/2011; 12(10):1585-96. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term safety and tolerability of sildenafil treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) were assessed. Two hundred fifty-nine of 277 randomized and treated patients completed a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (SUPER-1 [Sildenafil Use in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension]) of oral sildenafil in treatment-naive patients with PAH (96% functional class II/III) and entered an open-label uncontrolled extension study (SUPER-2) that continued until the last patient completed 3 years of sildenafil treatment. Patients titrated to sildenafil 80 mg tid; one dose reduction for tolerability was allowed during the titration phase. The median duration of sildenafil treatment across SUPER-1 and SUPER-2 was 1,242 days (range, 1-1,523 days); 170 patients (61%) completed both studies, and 89 patients discontinued from SUPER-2. After 3 years, 87% of 183 patients on treatment were receiving sildenafil 80 mg tid. Of patients remaining under follow-up, 3%, 10%, and 18% were receiving a second approved PAH therapy at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. At 3 years post-SUPER-1 baseline, 127 patients had an increased 6-min walk distance (6MWD); 81 improved and 86 maintained functional class. Most adverse events were of mild or moderate severity. At 3 years, 53 patients had died (censored, n = 37). Three-year estimated survival rate was 79%; if all censored patients were assumed to have died, 3-year survival rate was 68%. No deaths were considered to be treatment related. Long-term treatment of PAH initiated as sildenafil monotherapy was generally well tolerated. After 3 years, the majority of patients (60%) who entered the SUPER-1 trial improved or maintained their functional status, and 46% maintained or improved 6MWD.
    Chest 05/2011; 140(5):1274-83. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). It can occur in isolation (pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH]) or in association with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, the outcomes and efficacy of PAH therapies in patients with SSc-related PH complicating ILD (PH-ILD) remain unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate our experience with PH-ILD with regard to the efficacy and safety of PAH therapies in this patient cohort. We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive SSc patients from 2 large referral centers who had PH-ILD confirmed by right-sided heart catheterization and who received targeted PAH therapies. World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, 6-minute walk distance, and hemodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and after a mean ± SD of 7.7 ± 6.2 months of treatment for PAH. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze survival and to identify prognostic factors. Seventy patients were included in the study. No significant changes were observed in WHO functional class, 6-minute walk distance, or hemodynamic parameters after therapy. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival estimates were 71%, 39%, and 21%, respectively. In the multivariate model, worsening oxygenation during followup and reduced renal function were the only significant risk factors for death. This study represents the largest series to date in which the impact of PAH therapies in SSc-related PH-ILD was examined. In this cohort, PAH therapies were associated with no clear benefits. Deterioration in oxygenation was an important determinant of long-term survival. Prospective clinical trials focusing on this group of patients are warranted.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2011; 63(8):2456-64. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which codes for tumor suppressor neurofibromin. NF1 is transmitted as an autosomal dominant and fully penetrant trait with no sex predominance. Precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of NF1, initially described in patients with advanced parenchymal lung disease, which may complicate the course of NF1. We conducted this study to describe clinical, functional, radiologic, and hemodynamic characteristics and outcome of patients with NF1-associated PH. We identified 8 new cases of NF1-associated PH in patients carrying a NF1 gene mutation. No bone morphogenic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) point mutation or large size rearrangements were identified. Seven female patients and 1 male patient were reported, suggesting a possible female predominance. PH occurred late in the course of the disease (median age, 62 yr; range, 53-68 yr). Dyspnea and signs of right heart failure were the major symptoms leading to the diagnosis of PH. At diagnosis, patients had severe hemodynamic impairment with low cardiac index (median, 2.3 L/min per m2; range, 1.9-4.7) and elevated indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (median, 15.1 mm Hg/L/min per m2; range, 4.5-25.9). All patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III with severe exercise limitation (median 6-min walk distance, 180 m; range, 60-375 m). Most patients had associated parenchymal lung disease, but some had no or mild lung involvement with disproportionate pulmonary vascular disease. Overall, the impact of PH therapy was limited and outcomes were poor. In conclusion, PH represents a rare but severe complication of NF1, characterized by female predominance, late onset in the course of NF1, and severe functional and hemodynamic impairment. Because of poor outcome and limited impact of specific PH therapy, eligible patients require early referral for lung transplantation. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiology and the role, if any, of neurofibromin in NF1-associated PH.
    Medicine 05/2011; 90(3):201-11. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-II signaling and pulmonary vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats for potential reversal of PAH at late time-points. Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and dexamethasone-treated rats (5 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹, 1.25 mg·kg⁻¹ and 2.5 mg·kg⁻¹·48 h⁻¹) were evaluated at day 28 and day 35 following MCT for haemodynamic parameters, right ventricular hypertrophy, morphometry, immunohistochemistry, and IL6 and BMPR2 expression. Dexamethasone improved haemodynamics and pulmonary vascular remodelling, preventing PAH development at early (day 1-14 and 1-28) and reversing PAH at late (day 14-28 and 21-35) time-points following MCT, as well as improving survival in MCT-exposed rats compared with controls. Both MCT-induced pulmonary IL6 overexpression and interleukin (IL)-6-expressing adventitial inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced with dexamethasone. This was associated with pulmonary BMPR2 downregulation following MCT, which was increased with dexamethasone, in whole lung and control pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone also reduced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. Experimental PAH can be prevented and reversed by dexamethasone, and survival is improved. In this model, mechanisms may involve reduction of IL-6-expressing inflammatory cells, restoration of pulmonary BMPR2 expression and reduced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
    European Respiratory Journal 04/2011; 37(4):813-22. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current treatment strategies for pulmonary arterial hypertension, outlined in the ERS/ESC guidelines published in 2009, have led to improvements in life expectancy and patient quality of life. However, a cure for the disease remains elusive. In order to improve the prognosis for patients with PAH, future research will focus on development of new therapeutic agents, identification of novel targets and studies involving combinations of existing treatments An important goal is to refine the efficacy and tolerability of agents that target NO, endothelin and prostacyclin signaling pathways. Novel targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors that directly act on the abnormal proliferation of pulmonary vascular cells, are under active investigation. Finally, clinical trials evaluating combinations of treatments have shown encouraging results.
    La Presse Médicale 04/2011; 40 Suppl 1:1S54-60. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary endarterectomy is a curative surgical treatment option for the majority of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The current surgical management and postoperative outcome of patients enrolled in an international registry on chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were investigated. The registry included newly diagnosed (≤6 months) consecutive patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension from February 2007 to January 2009. A total of 679 patients were registered from 1 Canadian and 26 European centers, of whom 386 (56.8%) underwent surgery. The median age of patients undergoing surgery was 60 years, and 54.1% were male. Previous pulmonary embolism was confirmed for 79.8% of patients. Perioperative complications occurred in 189 patients (49.2%): infection (18.8%), persistent pulmonary hypertension (16.7%), neurologic (11.2%) or bleeding (10.2%) complications, pulmonary reperfusion edema (9.6%), pericardial effusion (8.3%), need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (3.1%), and in-hospital mortality due to perioperative complications (4.7%). Documented 1-year mortality was 7%. Preoperative exercise capacity was predictive of 1-year mortality. Postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance predicted in-hospital and 1-year mortality. In patients evaluated within 1 year after surgery, the median pulmonary vascular resistance had decreased from 698 to 235 dyn x s x cm(-5) (95% confidence limit, 640-874 and 211-255, respectively, n = 70) and the median 6-minute walk distance had increased from 362 to 459 m (95% confidence limit, 340-399 and 440-473, respectively, n = 168). New York Heart Association functional class improved with most patients progressing from class III/IV to class I/II. Pulmonary endarterectomy is associated with a low in-hospital mortality rate and improvements in hemodynamics and exercise capacity.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2011; 141(3):702-10. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • European Heart Journal 02/2011; 32(4):386-7. · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • European Respiratory Journal 02/2011; 37(2):475-6. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disease that has undergone a dramatic improvement in therapeutic management over the past 20 years. Among the new therapeutic options, surgery has the potential to dramatically improve or, in some cases, cure PAH. Surgical treatment of PAH includes pulmonary endarterectomy which can cure PAH when the cause is obstruction of the pulmonary arteries by fibrous tissue resulting from pulmonary embolism, by tumours as angiosarcomas, and echinococcus cysts. Transplantation is required in end-stage PAH after failure of medical treatment. Atrial septostomy and Potts procedure are palliative surgical procedures that can delay transplantation. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is the latest surgical improvement, not only as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage PAH but also during recovery after transplantation or pulmonary endarterectomy. Surgery is part of the therapeutic management of PAH. Dialogue between physicians and surgeons is a prerequisite for any reasoned therapeutic decision.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 02/2011; 28(2):139-51. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-kit(+) cells, including bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitors and mast cells, may participate in vascular remodelling. Because recent studies suggest that c-kit may be a target for innovative therapies in experimental pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the contribution of c-kit(+) cells in human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). To investigate the contribution of c-kit(+) cells in human IPAH. Single c-kit, CXCL12/SDF-1α, CXCR4, CD34, and multiple c-kit, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tryptase immunostainings were performed in IPAH lungs. C-kit mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in microdissected pulmonary arteries from patients with IPAH and control subjects. Phenotype and function of circulating progenitors were analyzed by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble c-kit and CXCL12/SDF-1α were measured by ELISA. Infiltration of c-kit(+) cells in pulmonary arterial lesions was associated with an increase in c-kit mRNA expression (P < 0.01 compared with control subjects). Both c-kit(+)/tryptase(+) mast cells and c-kit(+)/tryptase(-) BM-derived cells were increased in pulmonary arteries of patients with IPAH compared with control subjects (106.6 ± 54.5 vs. 28 ± 16.8/mm(2) and 143.8 ± 101.1 vs. 23.3 ± 11.9/mm(2); all P<0.01). Plasma-soluble c-kit was increased in IPAH compared with control subjects (27.4 ± 12.4 vs. 19.5 ± 5.8 ng/ml; P<0.05). Two populations of circulating BM-derived cells (lin-CD34(high)CD133(high) [c-kit(high)CXCR4(low)] and lin-CD34(low)CD133(-) [c-kit(low)CXCR4(high)]) were increased in IPAH compared with control subjects (P=0.01). Pulmonary arterial lesions were associated with vasa vasorum expansion expressing CXL12/SDF-1α that may recruit c-kit(+) cells. In IPAH, c-kit(+) cells infiltrate pulmonary arterial lesions and may participate to vascular remodeling. Therefore, c-kit may represent a potential target for innovative PAH therapy.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2011; 184(1):116-23. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disease that has undergone a dramatic improvement in therapeutic management over the past 20 years. Among the new therapeutic options, surgery has the potential to dramatically improve or, in some cases, cure PAH. Background Surgical treatment of PAH includes pulmonary endarterectomy which can cure PAH when the cause is obstruction of the pulmonary arteries by fibrous tissue resulting from pulmonary embolism, by tumours as angiosarcomas, and ecchinococcus cysts. Transplantation is required in end-stage PAH after failure of medical treatment. Atrial septostomy and Potts procedure are palliative surgical procedures that can delay transplantation. Viewpoint Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is the latest surgical improvement, not only as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage PAH but also during recovery after transplantation or pulmonary endarterectomy. Conclusions Surgery is part of the therapeutic management of PAH. Dialogue between physicians and surgeons is a prerequisite for any reasoned therapeutic decision.
    Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires - REV MAL RESPIR. 01/2011; 28(2):139-151.
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder characterized by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature that results in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. Although no cure exists for PAH, improved understanding of the pathobiological mechanisms of this disease has resulted in the development of effective therapies that target specific aberrant pathways. Agents that modulate abnormalities in the prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide pathways have been shown in randomized, controlled studies to confer improvements in functional status, pulmonary hemodynamics, and possibly even slow disease progression. Several additional pathways believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH have been identified as potentially useful therapeutic targets and a number of investigative approaches focusing on these targets are in active development. In this Review, we highlight the pharmacological agents currently available for the treatment of PAH and discuss potential novel strategies.
    Nature Reviews Cardiology 01/2011; 8(9):526-38. · 10.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

23k Citations
3,615.65 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2014
    • Hôpital Bicêtre (Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute, France
      Bretigny, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991–2014
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Service de Pneumologie
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2013
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      Papworth, England, United Kingdom
    • Institut Cochin
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006–2013
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1988–2013
    • Hôpital Antoine-Béclère – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud
      Clamart, Île-de-France, France
  • 2012
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
    • University of Lille Nord de France
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2002–2012
    • University of Bologna
      • Institute of Cardiology
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Universitätsklinikum Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
  • 1990–2012
    • Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue
      Plessis-Robinson, Île-de-France, France
  • 2001–2011
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille
      • Division of Internal Medicine
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2009–2010
    • Université Libre de Bruxelles
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Hospices Civils de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Palmelit Francia
      Montferrier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brest
      Brest, Brittany, France
  • 2006–2010
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      • • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2005
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (Hôpital Laval)
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
    • Hôtel-Dieu de Paris – Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié salpêtrière - Charles Foix
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • Institute Mutualiste Montsouris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • The University of Sheffield
      • Medical School
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Niguarda Ca' Granda
      • Department of Pneumology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy