Ricardo Santos Simões

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (85)80.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to quantify the sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the endometria of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of the 18 patients recruited for this study, 10 patients with PCOS comprised the PCOS group (PCOSG), and eight patients with regular and ovulatory menstrual cycles comprised the control group (CG). The clinical, biochemical, morphological and endometrial data from both groups were analyzed. Biopsies were performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle for the CG and during the persistent proliferative phase for the PCOSG (all women were amenorrheic). In the PCOSG, there was a significant increase in the endometrial concentration levels of heparan sulfate (p = 0.03), but no difference in the concentrations of chondroitin sulfate was determined between the two groups (p = 0.77). Period of time without menstruation (p = 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) correlated directly and positively with heparan sulfate concentration. There was no association between heparan sulfate levels and basal insulin values (p = 0.08). High levels of endometrial heparan sulfate in women with PCOS indicate an interference with maternal-fetal recognition, which contributes to infertility; thus, endometrial heparan sulfate may be a predictive marker of future neoplasia risk.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 12/2014; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: We evaluated whether genistein or oestrogen treatment has the same effect when administered immediately or late to rats induced with menopause using ovariectomy (OVx). Methods: Sixty adult female rats were divided into six treatment groups: GI= vehicle immediately after OVx; GII= vehicle 30 days after Ovx; GIII= genistein immediately after OVx; GIV= genistein 30 days after OVx; GV= oestrogen immediately after OVx; and GVI= oestrogen 30 days after OVx. All animals were treated for 30 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, part of the uteri was removed for subsequent histological studies and another part was used to evaluate oestrogen receptor (Esr1, Esr2), cell proliferation (Ccna1, Ccna2, Ccnd1, Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn2a, Mki67) and angiogenesis (Vegfa) gene expression. Results: Late treatment after castration in rats results in more developed endometrium, enhanced cell proliferation and oestrogen-signalling pathways, particularly the cyclin-related genes Ki67 and VEGF-A, compared to early treatment. Interestingly, these same effects were less intense to genistein compared to those induced by oestrogen, especially when genistein was late administered. Conclusion: Our data show that isoflavone renders a lower risk of cancer when compared to oestrogen in treatments.
    Climacteric 09/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis 08/2014; 20:1424. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones extract (ISO) in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance in the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Twenty 3-month-old adult female Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups: GI- Sham-operated (estrous phase); GII- control OVX; GIII- OVX treated with genistein (50 µg/kg/day) by gavage; GIV- OVX subcutaneously treated with estrogen (E2) (10µg/Kg/day). After thirty consecutive days of treatment, the rats were euthanized and the uterus removed. The distal third of the uterine horns were processed for histomorphometric analyses of endometrial and myometrial thickness and glandular area. Other uteri regions were kept in liquid nitrogen and subsequently processed for analysis of reactive species quantification (DCF), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid oxidation status (TBARS). Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). Results: GII and GIII exhibited lower endometrial thickness, glandular area and myometrial thickness than GI and GIV, while a higher myometrial thickness was observed in GIV compared to the other groups. Moreover, ISO treated group showed lower DCF and TBARS compared to GII, and also an improvement of TAC compared to GI and GIV. Despite the significant decrease in TBARS, no significant difference in DCF or a decrease in TAC were observed in GIV when compared to GII. Conclusion: Our data show that isoflavones improve antioxidant status and counteract oxidative stress, without promoting trophic effect in the uterus of rats.
    Climacteric 08/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < 0,05). Results: morphological results showed evidence of interstitial cells originating from the inner theca cells of degenerating ovarian cysts in PCOS. Immunoexpression of Ki-67 was higher in the granulosa cells in GCtrl, and the theca interna cells in PCOS, while cleaved caspase-3 was higher in granulosa cells of ovarian cysts from PCOS and in the theca interna cells of GCtrl. Immunoreactivity of CYP11A1 in the theca interna, granulosa and interstitial cells was similar between the two groups, while CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were higher in the granulosa and interstitial cells in the PCOS group. Conclusion: the results indicate that the interstitial cells are derived from the theca interna and that enzymatic changes occur in the theca interna and interstitial cells in ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.
    Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 07/2014; 60(4):349-356. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Literature data indicate that the infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not only attributed to anovulation but also to endometrial dysfunction. Endometrial biopsies were performed in the proliferative and secretory phases of women with normal cycle and in women with PCOS before and after oral treatment with micronized progesterone. After the treatment, the endometrium of the women with PCOS exhibited a lower number of glands and thicker luminal epithelium compared to the normal women in the secretory phase. In addition, the PCOS group exhibited reduced integrin and MECA-79 immunoexpression during the secretory phase. The expression of E-cadherin was higher in the PCOS and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was lower in PCOS, during the secretory and proliferative phases, respectively. Also, there is a negative correlation with MECA-79 and integrin expression and body mass index. Conventional doses of progesterone may not be enough to correct the changes of endometrial histomorphology and the receptive markers of PCOS-bearing women. The obesity may be a factor that interferes with this response.
    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 01/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of copaiba oil ointment (Copaifera langsdorffii) on dorsal skin flaps in rats. Adult male rats (n=30) were distributed into three groups of ten animals each, as follows: GC - control; GCA - absolute control and GT - treated with copaiba ointment. The rats were subjected to dorsal cutaneous skin flap surgery and the animals from the GC and GT received post-operative treatment for eight consecutive days. The animals from the GCA group did not receive treatment while the animals from the GC group received daily topical treatment of ointment without the active ingredient and the animals from the GT group were daily treated with 10% copaiba oil ointment. At the end of each experimental period the lesions were evaluated according to the percentage of necrotic area. Then, fragments from cranial, median and caudal parts were fixed in Boüin's solution and processed for paraffin embedding. The morphology of histological sections (5µm) was evaluated and the number of leucocytes, fibroblasts and blood vessels was also analyzed. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA test complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). The necrotic area was lower in the group treated with copaiba ointment when compared to the control groups (GCA>GC and GT), while the morphology showed larger granulation tissue with bulky fibroblasts and collagen fibers more arranged in the GT group. The morphometry showed a significant higher number of blood vessels in the median and caudal parts (GT>GCA and GC), leucocytes in the cranial part (GT>GC>GCA), and also fibroblasts in the median (GT and GC> GCA) and caudal parts (GT>GC and GCA) (p<0.05). The copaiba oil ointment favors angiogenesis and accelerates the viability of random skin flaps in rats.
    Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 12/2013; 28(12):863-9. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each): control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.
    Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 09/2013; 68(9):1239-46. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of hyperprolactinemia on the sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of the murine uterus. Experimental research. University biochemistry laboratory. Eighty female mice were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and treated with 0.2 mL of saline solution (controls, Ctr) and 200 μg of metoclopramide (experimental, HPrl). Treatments lasted for 50 consecutive days. The animals were divided into four subgroups of 10 animals each per treatment (Ctr and HPrl) and sacrificed according to the phase of the estrous cycle. The uterine horns were removed for biochemical analyses, and blood samples were collected for hormone measurements. Induced hyperprolactinemia. To quantify the sulfated GAGs, and PRL and sex steroid levels. The endometrium during the estrus phase was significantly thicker in the HPrl animals than in the Ctr mice. The levels of chondroitin and dermatan sulfate were significantly increased in the HPrl group than in the Ctr group during all phases except metestrus. The amounts of heparan sulfate were lower during estrus and diestrus and higher in the metestrus phase in HPrl than in Ctr animals. Serum PRL levels were increased whereas the levels of E2 and P were decreased in all phases in the HPrl group than in the Ctr group. The hyperprolactinemia changed the amounts of uterine sulfated GAGs. Our data suggest that these changes may not be correlated with ovarian steroid levels.
    Fertility and sterility 08/2013; · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) of the pelvic floor on the urethra of female rats. Forty adult rats were divided at random into four groups of ten animals each: Ctrl - without intervention; Sham - not submitted to ES, but with an electrode inserted into the vagina; Exp6 - submitted to six sessions of ES of the pelvic floor, and Exp12 - submitted to 12 sessions of ES of the pelvic floor. At the end of the experiment, all animals were anesthetized and the middle third of the urethra was removed, fixed in Bouin's fluid and processed for histomorphometric study. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric description, and others were stained with picrosirius red for the quantitation of total collagen. The thicknesses of the muscle layer and of the epithelium were determined, in 4 quadrants of the urethra, by performing 20 measurements per animal. The number of blood vessels present in the lamina propria was counted in the four quadrants over an area of 10³ µm² per quadrant and the images were obtained using the image analysis program AxioVision® REL 4.3 (Carl Zeiss). The collagen and muscle fiber ratios in the urethrae were calculated from two images per quadrant of every slice stained with picrosirius red, employing the Imagelab® Program. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test (p<0.05). The morphometry of the collagen, number of blood vessels and thickness of the epithelium showed no significant changes; however, the thickness of the periurethral muscle tissue increased significantly in Exp12 group, compared to the other groups (Exp12*>Exp6==Ctrl==Sham; *p<0.05). Prolonged functional electric stimulation of the pelvic floor induced an increase in periurethral muscle thickness in rats.
    Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 04/2013; 35(4):159-63.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) ointment on skin wound healing in rats. Adult male rats (n=20) were divided into four groups of five animals each, as follows: G4, G7, G14 and G21, which corresponds to 4th, 7th, 14th and 21th days postoperatively. Each animal were made two incisions on the skin, including the subcutaneous tissue, in the right and left sides of thoracic region, separated by a distance of two inches. The right lesion was treated with base ointment (vaseline, lanolin); the left one was treated with base ointment containing 5% of aroeira oil. At the end of each experimental period the lesions were evaluated for the contraction degree. Then held the collection of fragments that were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for paraffin embedding. In the histological sections (5μm) was evaluated the morphology and quantified the collagen and blood vessels. The data obtained were submitted to ANOVA test complemented by Tukey-Kramer test (p<0.05). The contraction of the lesions was higher in wounds treated with aroeira oil than in controls at 7th and 14th days (p<0.01), whereas in the 21st day all lesions were already completely healed. The morphology showed granulation tissue more developed, with fibroblasts more bulky and collagen fibers more arranged in the experimental group at 4th, 7th and 14th days. The morphometry showed a significant increase in the quantification of collagen fibers in the experimental group at 7th and 14th days (p<0.05). The aroeira oil accelerates the healing process of wounds as a macroscopic, morphological and morphometrical analysis.
    Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 03/2013; 28(3):202-9. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies show that there is a decreased amount of T and B lymphocytes, as well as the cytotoxic effects of natural killer cells (NK), due to the sharp decrease in the concentration of circulating estrogens, which occurs in the menopausal and post-menopausal period. Thus, there is a direct relationship between senescence and immune system deficiency, resulting in the increase of tumors, infectious, degenerative chronic diseases, as well as the chronic inflammation. So to prevent or lessen the immunosenescence, resulting in prevention of various diseases in this part of the population, studies show that there is a normalization of the immune response after hormonal replacement therapy, becoming an important factor in controlling these diseases. Thus, hormone replacement therapy becomes important not only to minimize the alterations that occurs in the post-menopausal period, but also in fighting and preventing immune diseases, such as tumors.
    Reproducao & Climaterio. 01/2013; 28(1):30–35.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors write a review showing the action of melatonin on the cartilaginous tissue and relate its chemical structure, site of synthesis, and receptors. They report that low levels of melatonin in menopause may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, since its replacement in rats leads to an increase in bone mineral density and the thickness of articular cartilage. It is also suggested a possible beneficial effect of melatonin in the prevention of articular cartilage lesions, which could be related to the blockade of oxidative stress, since products of this stress, in addition to tyrosine residues, are observed in the cartilage tissue degradation in joint diseases. Furthermore, it is related that melatonin enhances cartilage matrix synthesis. These facts indicate that melatonin may be beneficial to the integrity of cartilaginous tissue, since there is a reduced secretion of melatonin with advancing age, which is related to increased incidence of osteoarthritis.
    Reproducao & Climaterio. 01/2013; 28(1):24–29.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate expression of BcL-2, FAS, FAS ligand (FASL) and cleaved caspase-3 in the endometrial tissue of women with idiopathic infertility (with two consecutive failed cycles of in vitro fertilization) and women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group consisted of fertile women. STUDY DESIGN: Endometrial tissue samples from fertile women (n=25), women with idiopathic infertility (n=25) and women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (n=25) were collected on the seventh or eighth postovulatory day of their menstrual cycles for evaluation. Expression of BcL-2, FAS, FASL and cleaved caspase-3 was assessed using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: Expression of BcL-2 and FAS was significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the women with idiopathic infertility than in the other groups (p<0.01). Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly lower in the women with idiopathic infertility than in the other groups (p<0.01). Expression of FASL was similar in all three groups. CONCLUSION: Disturbances in endometrial apoptosis may be a contributing factor in patients with idiopathic infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 12/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histomorphometry and expression of Ki-67 and c-kit in ovarian follicles of pinealectomized or melatonin-treated pinealectomized rats. STUDY DESIGN: Forty adult rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals: Group I - control; Group II - sham-pinealectomized; Group III - pinealectomized (Px), and Group IV - Px treated with melatonin (10μg/night, per animal). After two months' treatment, on the night of proestrous, the animals were placed in metabolic cages for night urine collection and subsequent measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT). The rats were anesthetized, blood samples were taken for estrogen and progesterone determinations, and they were then euthanized. The ovaries were dissected out for further histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Data were first submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented with the Tukey-Kramer test for multiple comparisons (P<0.05). RESULTS: The urinary levels of 6-SMT and serum progesterone were lower in the Px group (GIII). Exogenous melatonin treatment restored both blood melatonin and 6-SMT urinary levels. The histomorphometric data in Group III revealed a significant increase of degenerating antral and non-antral follicles with regard to the other groups. In addition no corpora lutea were observed in this group. No significant differences were noticed regarding the number of corpora lutea among the other groups (I, II and IV), but the number of cells and the thickness of the theca interna of Px animals (Group III) were higher than in the other groups. Conversely, the density of progesterone receptors (fmol/g) in the ovaries of Group III was significantly lower than in the other groups. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that melatonin exerts a role on the maintenance of a proper follicular function, and is thus important for ovulation and progesterone production.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 10/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of the angico extract (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil) on the healing of rat skin. Twenty adult rats were divided into four groups of five animals each, the G4, G7, G14 and G21, which corresponds to the respective postoperative days. Each group received two incisions on skin and subcutaneous tissue in the right and left antimere of the thoracic region, separated by a distance of 2 cm. The right lesion was treated daily with saline and the left with the angico alcoholic extract (5%). At the end of each experimental period, animals were euthanized and fragments of the wound area, together with the edges were removed, fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and processed for paraffin embedding. In the histological sections with 5 µm of thickness, were carried out immunohistochemical methods for detection of blood vessels (VEGF) and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphological analysis. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Morphological analysis showed larger fibroblasts and a higher concentration of collagen fibers in days 7 and 14 in wounds treated with the angico extract. Morphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the number of blood vessels in both the seventh and 14th days (p<0.01) in wounds treated with the angico extract. The angico alcoholic extract (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil) induces the acceleration of wound healing in skin wounds of rats.
    Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 10/2012; 27(10):655-70. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the histomorphometry of cardiomyocytes and collagen present in the myocardium of rats treated with a concentrated extract of soy or 17β-estradiol (E2). Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: GCtrl - estrus phase; GOvx - ovariectomized (Ovx) and receiving vehicle; GIso - Ovx and treated with soy extract (150 mg/kg per day); GE2 - Ovx and treated with E2 (10 µg/kg per day). The drugs and vehicle (0.2 mL propylene glycol) were administered for 30 consecutive days after ovariectomy. On the last day the animals were anesthetized, the hearts removed, submerged in 10% formaldehyde and fragments of the ventricles underwent histological procedures, and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius-red. Histomorphometric analysis (number and volume of nuclei and quantification of collagen) was performed under a light microscope with AxioVision Rel. 4.2 software, and collagen fibers were quantified using IMAGELAB-2000 software. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). We observed a higher number of cardiomyocyte nuclei in animals of the Ovx and Iso groups than in GE2 and GCtrl animals (GOvx=121.7±20.2=GIso=92.8±15.4>GE2=70.5±14,8=GCtrl=66.3±9.6; p <0.05), while the nuclear volume was greater in the Ctrl and E2 groups (GE2=35.7±4.8 GCtrl=29.9±3.6=>GIso=26.5±4.5=GOvx=22.4±2.9; p <0.05). Collagen concentration was higher in the Ovx group (GOvx=5.4±0.1>GCtrl=4.0±0.1=GIso=4.4±0.08=GE2=4.3±0.5; p <0.05). Estrogen may prevent the reduction of the nuclear volume of cardiomyocytes and collagen deposition between heart muscle fibers, while the administration of isoflavones only prevents the deposition of collagen, which can preserve the mechanical properties of cardiac fibers.
    Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrićia: revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 10/2012; 34(10):447-52.
  • International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 10/2012; 119:S547. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CE) alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the cervix and horns of the rat uterus. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty days after ovariectomy, adult rats were randomly divided into four groups: GI, control (treated with drug vehicle); GII, CE (50μg/kg per day); GIII, MPA (0.2mg/kg per day), and GIV, CE+MPA (doses as in GII and GIII). Drugs and vehicle were given by gavage during 28 days. Afterwards the animals were anesthetized, the cervix and uterine horns were dissected out and the middle portion fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution; other portions were fixed in acetone for histological examination and glycosaminoglycan quantification, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used for sulfated GAG analyses, and hyaluronic acid was assayed with an ELISA-like method. Statistical analysis was done by the Student's t test and the Tukey-Kramer test (P<0.05). RESULTS: The cervix and uterine horn structures presented signs of atrophy in the control group (GI). The other groups, mainly groups III and IV, had histological aspects of proliferation. In all groups the concentration of sulfated GAGs (especially dermatan sulfate) was higher than that of non-sulfated GAGs, both in cervix and in uterine horns. Estrogens increased sulfated GAG concentration at the cervix and the horn, whereas in uterine horns the amounts of sulfated GAGs were decreased after estrogens plus MPA treatment. The concentration of hyaluronic acid in uterine horns was higher than in cervices. CONCLUSIONS: The profiling and amounts of glycosaminoglycans in the two portions of the rat uterus are uneven. Dermatan sulfate occurs in higher concentrations in both cervix and uterine horns. Sulfated GAGs in rat cervix were increased by estrogens plus MPA, but were decreased by MPA alone in uterine horns.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 09/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Brazil, the increase in the reported cases of degenerative diseases of articular cartilage is 20% per year, meaning that 200,000 Brazilians develop degenerative joint diseases every year, which have a negative impact on bone mass. This study shows evidence that hormone production of sexual steroids (estrogens, progestogens, and androgens) have an influence on cartilage quality, as well as on bone mass. Therefore, this review aimed to analyze literature data on the molecular and genic action of sexual steroids on hyaline cartilage and bone physiology, as well as osteoarthritis interference on the quality of these structures.
    Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 08/2012; 58(4):493-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

145 Citations
80.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • University of São Paulo
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Faculty of Medicine (FM)
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2013
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 2004–2013
    • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
      • • Departamento de Ginecologia
      • • Departamento de Morfologia e Genética
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Senac São Paulo
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2010
    • Universidade José do Rosário Vellano – UNIFENAS
      Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil