[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms located in type I interferon (IFN)-induced genes, genes belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, and genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the response to IFN-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
In a first or screening phase of the study, 384 polymorphisms were genotyped in 830 patients with MS classified into IFN-β responders (n = 416) and nonresponders (n = 414) according to clinical criteria. In a second or validation phase, the most significant polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response were genotyped in an independent validation cohort of 555 patients with MS (281 IFN-β responders and 274 nonresponders).
Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the screening phase for further validation: rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.0006), rs6597 (STUB1; p = 0.019), rs3747517 (IFIH1; p = 0.010), rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.017), rs10958713 (IKBKB; p = 0.003), rs2834202 (IFNAR1; p = 0.030), and rs4422395 (CXCL1; p = 0.017). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with IFN-β response when genotyped in an independent cohort of patients. Combined analysis of these SNPs in all patients with MS (N = 1,385) revealed 2 polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response: rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.008) and rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.006).
These findings do not support an association between polymorphisms located in genes related to the type I IFN or TLR pathways or genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the clinical response to IFN-β. Nevertheless, additional genetic and functional studies of PELI3 and GABRR3 are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between brain volume loss during the first year of interferon treatment and clinical outcome at 4 years.
Patients with multiple sclerosis initiating interferon β were clinically evaluated every 6 months for the presence of relapses and assessment of global disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). MRI scans were performed at baseline and after 12 months, and the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC), brain parenchymal volume change (BPVc%), gray matter volume change (GMVc%), and white matter volume change (WMVc%) were estimated. Patients were divided based on the cutoff values for predicting confirmed EDSS worsening obtained by receiver operating characteristic analysis for all atrophy measurements. Survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression to predict disability worsening at last observation were applied, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and radiologic variables.
Larger PBVC and WMVc% decreases were observed in patients with disability worsening at 4 years of follow-up, whereas no differences were found in BPVc% or GMVc%. Cutoff points were obtained for PBVC (-0.86%; sensitivity 65.5%, specificity 71.4%) and WMVc% (-2.49%; sensitivity 85.3%, specificity 43.8%). Patients with decreases of PBVC and WMVc% below cutoff values were more prone to develop disability worsening (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.875, p = 0.005; HR 4.246, p = 0.004, respectively). PBVC (HR 4.751, p = 0.008) and the interaction of new T2 lesions with WMVc% (HR 1.086, p = 0.005) were found to be independent predictors of disability worsening in the multivariate analysis.
At the patient level, whole-brain and white matter volume changes in the first year of interferon β therapy are predictive of subsequent clinical evolution under treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Natalizumab is a drug used in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its main side effect is the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Since this is potentially fatal or disabling, treatment must be stopped immediately if it is suspected, taking into account the possible later development of immune reconstitution syndrome or renewed exacerbation of MS.
We report a case of initially asymptomatic PML within the context of treatment with natalizumab in a female patient with MS. High antibody titers to the John Cunningham virus (JCV) and over two years' treatment were established as risk factors. The polymerase chain reaction for the JCV in cerebrospinal fluid was negative in two determinations. The interval between the radiological diagnosis and the onset of the clinical features was two months. During the course of the disease, the patient developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and relapses, or renewed exacerbation, of her MS. She responded well after beginning treatment with fingolimod, once the PML had become stabilised.
This case indicates the importance of close clinico-radiological monitoring in patients with MS treated with natalizumab, especially when they present risk factors for the development of PML, as well as its potential incidence on survival and final functional status.
Revista de neurologia 02/2015; 60(4):164-8. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to single out multiple sclerosis (MS) cases with poor outcome after natalizumab withdrawal and to identify predictive variables. We ascertained 47 withdrawals, and compared their pre- and post-natalizumab periods. We objectively defined significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal as a 2-step increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We performed regression models. As a group, post-natalizumab annualized relapse rate (ARR) was lower in the post-natalizumab period, and there were no differences in the mean number of gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions between pre- and post-natalizumab magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Corticosteroid treatment did not change the outcomes. Eight patients (19%) presented significant clinical worsening after natalizumab withdrawal, which was predicted by a higher baseline EDSS and a 1-step EDSS increase while on natalizumab.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: A pseudoatrophy effect has been held responsible for the lack of net impact of natalizumab on brain volume outcomes in 2-year trials, but no data are available beyond 24 months. Objective: We aimed to investigate brain volume dynamics in natalizumab-treated patients in up to 3 years after therapy initiation with clinical correlations. Methods: Patients on natalizumab for at least 3 years were clinically assessed 3-monthly. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at baseline and yearly. Brain volume changes were obtained with SIENA. Multivariate models were used to investigate the association between baseline inflammation and changes in brain volume and disability. Results: Sixty-two patients with multiple sclerosis were analysed. Mean age and disease duration were 34.7 (SD: 8.3) and 10.4 (SD: 6.6) years. Presence of gadolinium enhancement at baseline was not associated with Expanded Disability Status Scale changes (p=0.468), but was associated with larger brain volume decreases (p=0.005) in the first (p=0.024) and second year (p=0.019) but not in the third year (p=0.863). Brain volume changes at 12 and 36 months were marginally associated with disability status at month 12 (p=0.094) and 36 (p=0.084), respectively. Conclusions: Baseline inflammation affects brain volume measures up to 24 months after natalizumab initiation. A marginal association of brain volume changes with disability is present.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: At a trial level, the effect of MS therapies on brain volume loss, in addition to new lesion accrual, has been correlated with their effect on disability progression.
Objectives: To investigate the association between global and regional (gray and white matter) brain volume loss during the first year of interferon treatment and clinical outcome at 2 and 4 years.
Methods: We selected 105 naïve MS patients started on interferon-β (brain MRI scans performed in the 3 months prior and 12 months after therapy onset), and followed-up for at least 48 months. Presence of attacks and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were assessed every 6 months. The percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was assessed with SIENA (all patients); percentage changes in gray matter (GMVc%) and white matter (WMVc%) volumes were determined by SPM8 (due to segmentation errors data from 84 subjects were finally considered). Subjects were grouped into having (R+) or not (R-) further attacks and having (P+) or not sustained (P-) disability progression at 2 or 4 years of follow-up. Cutoff values for the presence of sustained disability progression were obtained for all brain volume measurements. Survival curves of time to sustained progression for each cutoff group were compared, and 2 models of Cox
regression were applied to adjust the cutoff values for demographic and clinical parameters and number of new T2 lesions at follow-up scan (NL).
Results: No statistically significant differences for any global or tissue-specific measures were found between R-/R+ at 2 and 4 years of follow-up, nor in P-/P+ at 2 years of follow-up. However, P+ after 4 years of follow-up had statistically larger decreases in PBVC (P-, n 87, mean:-0.683%, SD: 1.030; P+, n 16, mean:-1.618%, SD:1.395; p=0.004) and WMVc% (P-, n 70, mean:0.126%, SD:2.505; P+, n 12, mean:-1.791, SD:2.776; p=0.032) than P-. Cutoff points for PBVC and WMVc% were -0.86% and -2.49%, respectively. Subjects below the cutoff were more prone to develop sustained disability progression (unadjusted HR: PBVC HR 3.875; p=0.005; WMVc% 4.246; p=0.004); PBVC and WMVc% were found to be independent predictors of
sustained disability progression in the multivariate analysis (HR: PBVC 5.437; p=0.011; interaction WMVc%*NL 1.086; p=0.005).
Conclusions: At a patient-level, first-year global and white matter volume loss in interaction with NL are predictive of mid-term sustained disability progression in patients on interferon therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is a major mechanism regulating immune tolerance by the elimination of autoreactive T lymphocytes. A failure of activation induced cell-death (AICD) has been described in T lymphocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate AICD in T lymphocytes from patients with MS and healthy controls, and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the deregulation observed in apoptosis induction. PHA-induced AICD was reduced in T lymphocytes from patients with relapsing-remitting MS compared with controls. This finding was associated with a diminished expression of Fas and a failure in caspase 3 activation.
Journal of neuroimmunology 07/2014; 272(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.04.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant interferon β (IFNβ) is a first-line therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), with a proven effect on the inflammatory activity. Neutralising antibodies against IFNβ (NAbs) promote a loss of IFNβ bioactivity in a titre-dependent way and their development was associated with certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. We investigated the contribution conferred by HLA alleles on the development of NAbs in independent cohorts of Southern Europe.
Serum NAbs from 610 MS patients with HLA-genotype data were evaluated by cytopathic effect assay: negative tests included at least one negative result (NAb titres<20 NU/mL) after 1 year treatment; NAb-titres ≥20 NU/mL were positive tests and NAb titres ≥150 NU/mL in any test were classified as high-titre positives.
The combined presence of DRB1*07/DQA1*02 with A*26 or B*14 was found in 20% of patients with NAbs at high titres, but only in 5.4% of NAb-negative patients (p=0.00052, OR (95% CI) 4.34 (1.85 to 10.13)). The DRB1*04:01 allele was also more frequently carried by patients with high titres of NAbs (10% vs 4.5%; p=0.046, OR (95% CI) 2.38 (0.93 to 5.92)). The alleles carried at a significantly lower frequency in patients with high persistent NAbs corresponded to the A*11 allele (3.3% vs 13.8%; p=0.023, OR (95% CI) 0.22 (0.02 to 0.87)), as well as the DRB1*03/DQA1*05/DQB1*02 haplotype (16.3% vs 26.8%; p=0.02, OR (95% CI) 0.53 (0.27 to 1.03)) and the DRB1*13/DQA1*01:03/DQB1*06:03 haplotype (2.5% vs 9.1%; p=0.045, OR (95% CI) 0.25 (0.03 to 1.02)).
50% of the studied MS patients carried some of the five independently associated HLA allele/allele combinations described in this work. This relevant percentage of patients could benefit a therapeutic decision.
Journal of Medical Genetics 04/2014; 51(6). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2014-102348 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), a scoring system based on new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) active lesions, relapses and sustained disability progression after a 1-year treatment with IFNβ predicted patient disability progression over time; however, this score had not been tested in patients receiving glatiramer acetate (GA).
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether this previous scoring system can also be applied to patients treated with GA.
This was a prospective, longitudinal study of 151 RRMS patients treated with GA. Their scores were constructed, based on the clinical and MRI activity after 1 year of therapy. Regression analysis was performed, in order to identify the response variables.
The total possible score range was 0-3. Patients with a score of ≥ 2 and those with clinical activity (with or without MRI activity) during their first year of treatment were at increased risk of continuing with relapses and/or sustained disability in the next 2 years (odds ratio (OR): 38.8; p < 0.0001 and OR: 7.8; p < 0.009, respectively).
In RRMS patients treated with GA, a combination of clinical activity measures may have prognostic value for identifying patients with disease activity in the next 2 years of therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Inducible heat shock protein (HSP)70 (HSP70-1A and HSP70-1B proteins) is a chaperone responsible for assisting proper protein folding. Following stress conditions, HSP70 is highly up-regulated to mediate cytoprotective functions. In addition, HSP70 is able to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses that promote the immune recognition of antigens and to act as a cytokine when it is released. The data in the literature are controversial with regard to expression studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the present study, we aimed to examine if alterations of HSP70-1A/B expression are involved in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We determined both mRNA and protein expression in PBMCs of MS patients and healthy donors (HDs). We found a baseline increased expression of the HSPA1A gene in PBMCs from MS patients compared with HDs. Gene expression findings were associated with an increased protein expression of HSP70-1A/B in T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) and monocytes from MS patients under basal conditions that may reflect the immunological activation occurring in MS patients. We also provided evidence that heat shock (HS) stimulus induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in HDs and MS patients, and that HS-induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in monocytes correlated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline in MS patients. However, after lipopolysaccharide inflammatory stimulus, monocytes from MS patients failed to induce HSP70-1A/B protein expression. Our data hint at altered immune responses in MS and may indicate either a state of chronic stress or increased vulnerability to physiological immune responses in MS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the ability of natalizumab (NTZ)-treated patients to assume treatment-associated risks and the factors involved in such risk acceptance.
From a total of 185 patients, 114 patients on NTZ as of July 2011 carried out a comprehensive survey. We obtained disease severity perception scores, personality traits' scores, and risk-acceptance scores (RAS) so that higher RAS indicated higher risk acceptance. We recorded JC virus status (JCV+/-), prior immunosuppression, NTZ treatment duration, and clinical characteristics. NTZ patients were split into subgroups (A-E), depending on their individual PML risk. Some 22 MS patients on first-line drugs (DMD) acted as controls.
No differences between treatment groups were observed in disease severity perception and personality traits. RAS were higher in NTZ than in DMD patients (p<0.01). Perception of the own disease as a more severe condition tended to predict higher RAS (p=0.07). Higher neuroticism scores predicted higher RAS in the NTZ group as a whole (p=0.04), and in high PML-risk subgroups (A-B) (p=0.02). In low PML-risk subgroups (C-E), higher RAS were associated with a JCV+ status (p=0.01). Neither disability scores nor pre-treatment relapse rate predicted RAS in either group.
Risk acceptance is a multifactorial phenomenon, which might be partly explained by an adaptive process, in light of the higher risk acceptance amongst NTZ-treated patients and, especially, amongst those who are JCV seropositive but still have low PML risk, but which seems also intimately related to personality traits.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82796. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082796 · 3.23 Impact Factor