[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease (GD) is due to deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is panethnic, but its presentation reveals ethnicity-specific characteristics.
We evaluated the distribution, and clinical and genetic characteristics of GD patients in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). We analysed geographical distribution, demographic, genetic and clinical data, age at diagnosis, type, and years of therapy in 436 GD patients from the IP.
The prevalence of GD was 1/149,000 inhabitants; 88.3% were type 1, 6.7% type 2, and 5.0% type 3. The mean age at diagnosis in type 1 was 28.7 years. A total of 72.7% were classified as having mild forms, 25.5% moderate, and 1.7% severe. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 56% and 55%, respectively. Bone disease and hepatomegaly were reported in 62% and 68%, respectively, and were more likely in asplenic than in non-splenectomized patients. Sixty-nine mutant alleles were identified, and five mutations accounted for 75% of the GBA alleles. Several patients described in our series had interesting phenotypes. A total of 58.7% of patients had received enzyme replacement therapy and 12.6% were treated with miglustat.
A broad spectrum of GBA mutations is present in the IP, with 98.2% of type 1 GD being mild and 23.0% never treated. These data highlight genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities among geographic populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Canals I, Elalaoui SC, Pineda M, Delgadillo V, Szlago M, Jaouad IC, Sefiani A, Chabás A, Coll MJ, Grinberg D, Vilageliu L. Molecular analysis of Sanfilippo syndrome type C in Spain: seven novel HGSNAT mutations and characterization of the mutant alleles.
The Sanfilippo syndrome type C [mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC (MPS IIIC)] is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene, encoding an enzyme involved in heparan sulphate degradation. We report the first molecular study on several Spanish Sanfilippo syndrome type C patients. Seven Spanish patients, one Argentinean and three Moroccan patients were analysed. All mutant alleles were identified and comprised nine distinct mutant alleles, seven of which were novel, including four missense mutations (p.A54V, p.L113P, p.G424V and p.L445P) and three splicing mutations due to two point mutations (c.633+1G>A and c.1378-1G>A) and an intronic deletion (c.821-31_821-13del). Furthermore, we found a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (c.564-98T>C). The two most frequent changes were the previously described c.372-2A>G and c.234+1G>A mutations. All five splicing mutations were experimentally confirmed by studies at the RNA level, and a minigene experiment was carried out in one case for which no fibroblasts were available. Expression assays allowed us to show the pathogenic effect of the four novel missense mutations and to confirm that the already known c.710C>A (p.P237Q) is a non-pathogenic SNP. Haplotype analyses suggested that the two mutations (c.234+1G>A and c.372-2A>G) that were present in more than one patient have a common origin, including one (c.234+1G>A) that was found in Spanish and Moroccan patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A/B are both caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase and display autosomal recessive inheritance. These two types of the disease were described according to the presence (type A) or absence (type B) of neurological symptoms. We present a molecular analysis of 19 Spanish NPD A/B patients and two from Maghreb. Eight of the patients had type A and 13 had type B NPD. All mutant SMPD1 alleles were identified, including 17 different mutations, 10 of which were novel. The only frequent mutations in the 21 NPD patients were c.1823_1825delGCC (p.R608del) (38%) and c.1445C>A (p.A482E) (9%). Genotype-phenotype correlations were established for most of the mutations and, in particular, the p.R608del-type B association was confirmed. This mutation accounts for 61.5% of the mutant alleles in the type B subgroup of patients. Expression studies performed on six of the identified mutations confirmed them to be disease-causing due to their low enzyme activity. An allele with a mutation affecting a noncanonical donor splice site produced only aberrant mRNAs, corresponding to previously reported nonfunctional SMPD1 minor transcripts. This study is the first exhaustive mutational analysis of Spanish Niemann-Pick A/B disease patients.
Human Mutation 03/2009; 30(7):1117-22. DOI:10.1002/humu.21018 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by the accumulation of glucosylceramide in lysosomes of mononuclear phagocyte system, attributable to acid beta-glucosidase deficiency. The main consequences of this disease are hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal lesions and, sometimes, neurological manifestations. At sub-inhibitory concentrations, several competitive inhibitors act as chemical chaperones by inducing protein stabilization and increasing enzymatic activity. Here we tested two iminosugars (NB-DNJ and NN-DNJ) and four aminocyclitols with distinct degrees of lipophilicity as pharmacological chaperones for glucocerebrosidase (GBA). We report an increase in the activity of GBA using NN-DNJ, NB-DNJ and aminocyclitol 1 in stably transfected cell lines, and an increment with NN-DNJ and aminocyclitol 4 in patient fibroblasts. These results on specific mutations validate the use of chemical chaperones as a therapeutic approach for Gaucher disease. However, the development and analysis of new compounds is required in order to find more effective therapeutic agents that are active on a broader range of mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI; Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB), which is required for the degradation of dermatan sulfate. We recently reported mutational screening of 12 Spanish and 4 Argentinian MPS VI patients. In the present study, seven missense mutations (c.245T>G [p.L82R], c.413A>G [p.Y138C], c.719C>T [p.S240F], c.922G>A [p.G308R], c.937C>G [p.P313A], c.1340G>T [p.C447F] and c.1415T>C [p.L472P]) were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells and 4-sulfatase activity was measured in cell extracts. All mutations resulted in less than 6% of wild-type enzyme activity, in most cases undetectable. Mutations were expressed in their original haplotype context with respect to two non-synonymous polymorphisms present in the ARSB protein, p.V358M and p.S384N. The three less frequent haplotype combinations yielded an ARSB activity of 16%, 57% and 70%, when compared to the most frequent haplotype (p.358V and p.384S). Western blot analyses showed that the expressed mutations significantly reduced the amount of mature protein. Sub-cellular localization studies of mutant ARSB proteins in fibroblasts of MPS VI patients were performed. RNA analysis confirmed that nonsense-mediated RNA decay had taken place for all mutant alleles (c.1143-1G>C, c.1143-8T>G, p.W322X, c.427delG and c.1142+2T>A) which were candidates for causing RNA degradation by this mechanism. In summary, all the ARSB mutations studied had a significant effect on enzyme activity, protein processing and/or mRNA stability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease that is mainly due to mutations in the GBA gene. Most of the mutant alleles described so far bear a single mutation. However, there are a few alleles bearing two or more DNA changes. It has been reported that patients homozygous for the [D409H;H255Q] double mutant allele (HGVS-approved nomenclature, p.[D448H;H294Q]) present a more severe phenotype than patients homozygous for the relatively common D409H mutation. In this study, we confirmed the detrimental cumulative effect of these two mutations at the enzymatic activity level by the heterologous expression of the single and double mutant alleles. Additionally, we found a high frequency of the [D409H;H255Q] allele in patients from the Balkans and the Adriatic area of Italy. This prompted us to perform a haplotype analysis, using five microsatellite polymorphisms close to the GBA gene, to determine the origin of this allele. The results of the 37 chromosomes analysed showed that most of them share a common haplotype and are consistent with a single origin in the Balkans and the Adriatic area of Italy for the [D409H;H255Q] allele.
Human Mutation 06/2008; 29(6):E58-67. DOI:10.1002/humu.20776 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are lysosomal storage disorders caused by beta-galactosidase deficiency attributable to mutations in the GLB1 gene. On reaching the endosomal-lysosomal compartment, the beta-galactosidase protein associates with the protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) and neuraminidase proteins to form the lysosomal multienzyme complex (LMC). The correct interaction of these proteins in the complex is essential for their activity. More than 100 mutations have been described in GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients, but few have been further characterized. We expressed 12 mutations suspected to be pathogenic, one known polymorphic change (p.S532G), and a variant described as either a pathogenic or a polymorphic change (p.R521C). Ten of them had not been expressed before. The expression analysis confirmed the pathogenicity of the 12 mutations, whereas the relatively high activity of p.S532G is consistent with its definition as a polymorphism. The results for p.R521C suggest that this change is a low-penetrant disease-causing allele. Furthermore, the effect of these beta-galactosidase changes on the LMC was also studied by coimmunoprecipitations and Western blotting. The alteration of neuraminidase and PPCA patterns in several of the Western blotting analyses performed on patient protein extracts indicated that the LMC is affected in at least some GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients.
The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2007; 48(10):2275-82. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M700308-JLR200 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage disease type II is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism due to deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. We present the molecular and enzymatic analyses of 22 Spanish GSD II patients. Molecular analyses revealed nine novel mutations. The most common defects were mutations c.-32-13T>G (25%) and c.1076-1G>C (14%) and we report the first homozygous patient for c.1076-1G>C mutation presenting with an infantile form. Alleles bearing mutation c.-32-13T>G are associated with the same haplotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term 'pseudodeficiency' is used in lysosomal storage diseases to denote the situation in which individuals show greatly reduced enzyme activity but remain clinically healthy. Pseudodeficiencies have been reported for several lysosomal hydrolases. GM1 gangliosidosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by beta-galactosidase hydrolase deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLB1 gene. Until now, two variants altering the beta-galactosidase activity have been described, p.Arg521Cys and p.Ser532Gly. Here we report the new variant p.Arg595Trp in the GLB1 gene, which markedly reduces beta-galactosidase activity when expressed in COS-1 cells. The variant was identified in the healthy father of a girl with GM1 gangliosidosis. He was a heterozygous compound with p.Arg595Trp in trans with one of the disease-causing mutations identified in his daughter; in leukocytes and plasma he showed lower beta-galactosidase activity than that observed in GM1 gangliosidosis carriers. As this family originated from the Basque Country in the north of Spain, we decided to analyse individuals of Basque and non-Basque origin, finding the p.Arg595Trp allele in 3.2% of Basque and in 0.8% of non-Basque alleles. The detection of the presence of alterations resulting in pseudodeficient activity in leukocytes and plasma is important for the correct diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI), is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase or arylsulfatase B (ARSB). We aimed to analyze the spectrum of mutations responsible for the disorder in Spanish and Argentinian patients, not previously studied. We identified all the ARSB mutant alleles, nine of them novel, in 12 Spanish and 4 Argentinian patients. The new changes were as follows: six missense mutations: c.245T>G [p.L82R], c.413A>G [p.Y138C], c.719C>T [p.S240F], c.922G>A [p.G308R], c.1340G>T [p.C447F] and c.1415T>C [p.L472P]; one nonsense mutation: c.966G>A [p.W322X]; and two intronic changes involving splice sites: c.1142+2T>A, in the donor splice site of intron 5, which promotes skipping of exon 5, and c.1143-1G>C, which disrupts the acceptor site of intron 5, resulting in skipping of exon 6. We also report 10 previously described mutations as well as several non-pathogenic polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis indicated a common origin for most of the mutations found more than once. Most of the patients were compound heterozygotes, whereas only four of them were homozygous. These observations confirm the broad allelic heterogeneity of the disease, with 19 different mutations in 16 patients. However, the two most frequent mutations, c.1143-1G>C and c.1143-8T>G, present in both populations, accounted for one-third of the mutant alleles in this group of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GM1 gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the absence or reduction of lysosomal beta-galactosidase activity because of mutations in the GLB1 gene. Three major clinical forms have been established: type I (infantile), type II (late infantile/juvenile) and type III (adult). A mutational analysis was performed in 19 patients with GM1 gangliosidosis from South America, mainly from Argentina. Two of them were of Gypsy origin. Main clinical findings of the patients are presented. All 38 mutant alleles were identified: of the 22 different mutations found, 14 mutations are described here for the first time. Among the novel mutations, five deletions were found. Four of them are relatively small (c.435_440delTCT, c.845_846delC, c.1131_1145del15 and c.1706_1707delC), while the other one is a deletion of 1529 nucleotides that includes exon 5 and is caused by an unequal crossover between intronic Alu sequences. All the described patients with GM1 gangliosidosis were affected by the infantile form, except for four unrelated patients classified as type II, III, and II/III (two cases). The two type II/III patients bore the previously described p.R201H mutation, while the adult patient bore the new p.L155R. The juvenile patient bore two novel mutations: p.S434L and p.G554E. The two Gypsy patients are homozygous for the p.R59H mutation as are all Gypsy patients previously genotyped.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) is a recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the PMM2 gene and characterized by a defect in the synthesis of N-glycans. The clinical presentation ranges from very severe multi-organ failure to mild neurological problems. A plethora of PMM2 mutations has been described and the vast majority are missense mutations. This selection reflects the requirement of a minimal phosphomannomutase activity to be compatible with life. We describe the characterization of two unusual truncating mutations in two CDG-Ia patients. The first patient is compound heterozygous for the PMM2 mutation p.V231M (c.691G>A) and a deep intronic point mutation (c.639-15.479C>T). The latter variant activates a cryptic splice site which results in an in-frame insertion of a pseudoexon of 123 bp between exon 7 and 8. The second patient is compound heterozygous for the mutation p.V44A (c.131T>C) and an Alu retrotransposition mediated complex deletion of approximately 28 kb encompassing exon 8. These types of mutations have not been described before in CDG-Ia patients. Their detection stresses the importance to combine PMM2 mutation screening on genomic DNA with analysis of the transcripts and/or with the enzymatic analysis of the phosphomannomutase activity. Next to the exonic deletions, which already receive more attention than before, it is likely that deep intronic mutations represent an increasingly important category of mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency is a lysosomal disorder with clinically very different infantile and adult forms. To date, 12 patients from eight families are known. Neuroaxonal dystrophy or moderate psychomotor retardation, without visceral involvement, have been reported in the infantile form. We describe a new Spanish patient with Schindler disease who presented with hepatomegaly and cardiomyopathy, traits not previously associated with this disease. There was no dysmorphism or neurological involvement in the patient, who died at the age of 8 months. alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase activity was reduced in fibroblasts and liver to 1.6% and 0.57% of controls, respectively. Several lysosomal enzyme activities associated with infantile cardiomyopathy were found in the normal ranges. The patient was a compound heterozygote for the novel mutation p.D217N (c.649G>A) in exon 6 and the already reported mutation p.E325K (c.973G>A) in exon 8. The description of this new case broadens the clinical spectrum of the infantile forms and indicates that Schindler disease should be considered in the diagnosis of metabolic cardiomyopathies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaucher disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder, is principally caused by malfunction of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA), a 497-amino acid membrane glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide to ceramide and glucose in the presence of an essential 84-residue activator peptide named saposin C (SapC). Knowledge of the GBA structure, a typical (beta/alpha)(8) TIM barrel, explains the effect of few mutations, directly affecting or located near the catalytic site. To identify new regions crucial for proper GBA functionality, we analyzed the interactions of the enzyme with a second (substrate) and a third (cofactor) partner. We build 3D docking models of the GBA-SapC and the GBA-ceramide interactions, by means of methodologies that integrate both evolutive and structural information. The GBA-SapC docking model confirm the implication of three spatially closed regions of the GBA surface (TIM barrel-helix 6 and helix 7, and the Ig-like domain) in binding the SapC molecule. This model provides new basis to understand the pathogenicity of several mutations, such as the prevalent Leu444Pro, and the additive effect of Glu326Lys in the double mutant Glu326Lys-Leu444Pro. Overall, 39 positions in which amino acid changes are known to cause Gaucher disease were localized in the GBA regions identified in this work. Our model is discussed in relation to the phenotype (pathogenic effect) of these mutations, as well as to the enzymatic activity of the recombinant proteins when available. Both data fully correlates with the proposed model, which will provide a new tool to better understand Gaucher disease and to design new therapy strategies.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 02/2007; 70(3):882-91. DOI:10.1002/prot.21554 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A patient with atypical infantile Pompe disease suffered acute respiratory insufficiency at the age of 8 years which resulted in complete immobilization and dependence on assisted ventilation. Shortly after initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, she regained her mobility and, after 20 months of treatment, she now leads an almost normal life with limited restrictions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of beta-mannosidase. Thirteen families with cases of beta-mannosidosis have been described including one case previously reported by our group. We present clinical and biochemical data in a new adult case, and the molecular analyses in both this new case and the one previously reported. We detected four novel mutations: p.R182W, p.G392E, p.W466X and c.1848delA. Discrepancies between genomic DNA and cDNA results when detecting this last deletion suggested a nonsense-mediated decay cell process (NMD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by beta-galactosidase deficiency due to mutations in the GLB1 gene. Three major clinical forms of GM1-gangliosidosis have been established on the basis of age of onset and severity of symptoms: infantile, late infantile/juvenile, and adult. We performed mutation analysis on 30 GM1-gangliosidosis and five Morquio B patients, mainly of Spanish origin, and all the causative mutations were identified. Thirty different mutations were found, 21 of which were novel. With the exception of two adults and one juvenile patient, all the GM1-gangliosidosis patients were affected by the infantile form. Clinical findings are presented for all patients. We report the association of the novel mutations p.T420K and p.L264S with the adult form and the juvenile form, respectively. In addition, the novel mutation p.Y83C was associated with Morquio B disease. Among the 30 GM1-gangliosidosis patients, 6 were of Gypsy origin (Roma). Moreover, those six Gypsy patients shared not only the same mutation (p.R59H) but also a common haplotype. This observation indicates a possible founder effect in this group and suggests that screening of the p.R59H mutation may be appropriate in GM1-gangliosidosis patients of Gypsy origin. This is the first exhaustive mutational analysis performed in a large group of Iberian GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients.
Human Mutation 11/2006; 27(10):1060. DOI:10.1002/humu.9451 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small interference RNAs (siRNAs) have recently been used in various experimental settings to silence gene expression. In some of them, chemically synthesized or in vitro transcribed siRNAs have been transfected into cells. In others, siRNAs have been expressed endogenously from siRNA expression vectors. Enzyme replacement and substrate deprivation therapies are currently used to treat Gaucher disease. Although good results have been reported, there are several limitations and side effects that make necessary to search for new alternatives. We present a new approach based on the inhibition of the GCS gene using siRNAs as a potential therapeutic strategy for Gaucher disease. We have designed four siRNAs for the human GCS gene and transfected them into HeLa cells. A clear reduction of GCS RNA levels and enzyme activity was obtained using two of the four siRNAs. Furthermore, a reduction in glucosylceramide synthesis was also observed. Similar results were obtained when plasmids expressing shRNAs (targeting the same sequences) were transfected into the cells. The inhibition of the mouse homolog Ugcg gene was also achieved, using a siRNA that targeted both human and mouse sequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygosity for D409H has been associated with a unique type III subtype of the disease with a phenotype dominated by severe cardiovascular involvement, whereas neurological findings, if present, are restricted to oculomotor apraxia and features such as visceromegaly are either minimal or absent. Using PCR amplification followed by restriction enzyme analysis, 3 patients (1 Greek, 2 Albanians) were IDentified with the D409H/D409H genotype. All shared a very severe early-onset neurological phenotype that classified them as type II. Amplification and sequencing of the full coding region of the GBA gene revealed that all three patients were homozygous not only for D409H but also for H255Q. Both mutations were present on the same allele, as shown by analysis of the parental DNA. The double D409H+H255Q allele was found in heterozygosity in Greek, Bulgarian and Argentinian patients but was not IDentified in any Spanish patients carrying the D409H mutation.