[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional symbiotic interactions require the housing of large numbers of microbial symbionts, which produce essential compounds for the growth of the host. In the legume-rhizobium nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, thousands of rhizobium microsymbionts, called bacteroids, are confined intracellularly within highly specialized symbiotic host cells. In Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) legumes such as Medicago spp., the bacteroids are kept under control by an arsenal of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, which induce the bacteria in an irreversible, strongly elongated, and polyploid state. Here, we show that in Aeschynomene spp. legumes belonging to the more ancient Dalbergioid lineage, bacteroids are elongated or spherical depending on the Aeschynomene spp. and that these bacteroids are terminally differentiated and polyploid, similar to bacteroids in IRLC legumes. Transcriptome, in situ hybridization, and proteome analyses demonstrated that the symbiotic cells in the Aeschynomene spp. nodules produce a large diversity of NCR-like peptides, which are transported to the bacteroids. Blocking NCR transport by RNA interference-mediated inactivation of the secretory pathway inhibits bacteroid differentiation. Together, our results support the view that bacteroid differentiation in the Dalbergioid clade, which likely evolved independently from the bacteroid differentiation in the IRLC clade, is based on very similar mechanisms used by IRLC legumes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unicellular pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. This vector-borne disease is transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly of the group Glossina palpalis, including the subspecies G. p. gambiensis, in which the parasite completes its developmental cycle. Sleeping sickness control strategies can therefore target either the human host or the fly vector. Indeed, suppression of one step in the parasite developmental cycle could abolish parasite transmission to humans, with consequences on the spreading of the disease. In order to develop this type of approach, we have identified, at the proteome level, events resulting from the tripartite interaction between the tsetse fly G. p. gambiensis, its microbiome, and the trypanosome. Proteomes were analyzed from four biological replicates of midguts from flies sampled three days post-feeding on either a trypanosome-infected (stimulated flies) or a non-infected (non-stimulated flies) bloodmeal. Over 500 proteins were identified in the midguts of flies from both feeding groups, thirteen of which were shown to be differentially expressed in trypanosome-stimulated versus non-stimulated flies. Functional annotation revealed that several of these proteins have important functions that could be involved in modulating the fly infection process by trypanosomes (and thus fly vector competence), including anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic, cellular detoxifying, trypanosome agglutination, and immune stimulating or depressive effects. The results show a strong potential for diminishing or even disrupting fly vector competence, and their application holds great promise for improving the control of sleeping sickness.
Frontiers in Microbiology 05/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00444 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydraulic conductivity of plant roots (Lpr ) is determined in large part by the activity of aquaporins. Mechanisms occurring at the post-translational level, in particular phosphorylation of aquaporins of the Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein 2 (PIP2) sub-family, are thought to be of critical importance for regulating root water transport. However, knowledge of protein kinases and phosphatases acting on aquaporin function is still scarce. In the present work, we investigated the Lpr of knock-out Arabidopsis plants for four Ca(2+) -dependent protein kinases. cpk7 plants showed a 30% increase in Lpr due to a higher aquaporin activity. A quantitative proteomic analysis of wild-type and cpk7 plants revealed that PIP gene expression and PIP protein quantity were not correlated and that CPK7 has no effect on PIP2 phosphorylation. In contrast, CPK7 exerts a negative control on the cellular abundance of PIP1s, which likely accounts for the higher Lpr of cpk7. In addition, this study revealed that the cellular amount of a few additional proteins including membrane transporters is controlled by CPK7. The overall work provides evidence for CPK7-dependent stability of specific membrane proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An excess of NaCl in the soil is detrimental for plant growth. It interferes with mineral nutrition and water uptake and leads to accumulation of toxic ions in the plant. Understanding the response of roots to NaCl stress may facilitate the development of crops with increased tolerance to this and other stresses. Since controls achieved at the post-translational level are of critical importance for regulating protein function, the present work used a robust label-free quantitative proteomic methodology to quantify phosphorylation events that affect root membrane proteins in Arabidopsis, in response to short term (up to 2h) NaCl treatments. This work identified 302 proteotypic phosphopeptides including 77 novel phosphorylated sites. NaCl treatment significantly altered the abundance of 74 phosphopeptides, giving novel insights into the regulation of major classes of membrane proteins including ATPases, sodium transporters and aquaporins. The data provide a unique access to phosphorylation reprogramming of ionic equilibrium in plant cells under NaCl stress. The use of predictive bioinformatic tools for kinase motifs suggested that root membrane proteins are substrates of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and protein kinase C (PKC) families, also called AGC kinases, arguing for an important role of lipid signaling in abiotic stress responses. It also pointed to cross-talks between protein kinase families during NaCl stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During its life cycle, the protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani is exposed to contrasting environments inside insect vector and vertebrate host, to which the parasite must adapt for extra- and intracellular survival. Combining null mutant analysis with phosphorylation site-specific mutagenesis and functional complementation we genetically tested the requirement of the Leishmania donovani chaperone cyclophilin 40 (LdCyP40) for infection. Targeted replacement of LdCyP40 had no effect on parasite viability, axenic amastigote differentiation, and resistance to various forms of environmental stress in culture, suggesting important functional redundancy to other parasite chaperones. However, ultra-structural analyses and video microscopy of cyp40-/- promastigotes uncovered important defects in cell shape, organization of the subpellicular tubulin network and motility at stationary growth phase. More importantly, cyp40-/- parasites were unable to establish intracellular infection in murine macrophages and were eliminated during the first 24h post infection. Surprisingly, cyp40-/- infectivity was restored in complemented parasites expressing a CyP40 mutant of the unique S274 phosphorylation site. Together our data reveal non-redundant CyP40 functions in parasite cytoskeletal remodeling relevant for the development of infectious parasites in vitro independent of its phosphorylation status, and provide a framework for the genetic analysis of Leishmania-specific phosphorylation sites and their role in regulating parasite protein function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains a matter of great concern in oncology/haematology, intensive care units and organ transplantation departments. Despite the availability of various diagnostic tools with attractive features, new markers of infection are required for better medical care. We therefore looked for potential pulmonary biomarkers of aspergillosis, by carrying out two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis comparing the proteomes of bronchial-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from infected rats and from control rats presenting non-specific inflammation, both immunocompromised. A bioinformatic analysis of the 2D-maps revealed significant differences in the abundance of 20 protein spots (ANOVA P-value<0.01; q-value<0.03; power>0.8). One of these proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, was considered of potential interest: inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain (ITIH4), characterised for the first time in this infectious context. Western blotting confirmed its overabundance in all infected BALF, particularly at early stages of murine aspergillosis. Further investigations were carried on rat serum, and confirmed that ITIH4 levels increased during experimental aspergillosis. Preliminary results in human samples strengthened this trend. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the involvement of ITIH4 in aspergillosis.
International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 12/2013; 304(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2013.11.015 · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, aquaporins play a crucial role in regulating root water transport in response to environmental and physiological cues. Controls achieved at the post-translational level are thought to be of critical importance for regulating aquaporin function. To investigate the general molecular mechanisms involved, we performed, using the model species Arabidopsis, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of root aquaporins in a large set of physiological contexts. We identified nine physiological treatments which modulate root hydraulics, in time frames of minutes (NO and H2O2 treatments), hours (mannitol and NaCl treatments, exposure to darkness and reversal with sucrose, phosphate supply to phosphate-starved roots) or days (phosphate or nitrogen starvation). All treatments induced inhibition of root water transport, except for sucrose supply to dark-grown plants or phosphate resupply to phosphate-starved plant which had opposing effects. Using a robust label-free quantitative proteomic methodology, we identified 12 over 13 Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIP) aquaporin isoforms, 4 of the 10 Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIP) isoforms, and a diversity of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, methylation, deamidation and acetylation. A total of 55 aquaporin peptides displayed significant changes according to treatments and enabled to identify specific and as yet unknown patterns of response to stimuli. The data show that regulation of PIP and TIP abundance was involved in response to a few treatments (i.e. NaCl, NO and nitrate starvation) whereas changes in phosphorylation status of PIP aquaporins was positively correlated to changes in root hydraulic conductivity on the whole set of treatments. The identification of in vivo deamidated forms of aquaporins, and their stimulus-induced changes in abundance, may reflect a new mechanism of aquaporin regulation. The overall work provides deep insights into the in vivo post-translational events triggered by environmental constraints and their possible role in regulating the plant water status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The water status of plant leaves depends on the efficiency of the water supply, from the vasculature to inner tissues. This process is under hormonal and environmental regulation and involves aquaporin water channels. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the rosette hydraulic conductivity (Kros) is higher in darkness than it is during the day. Knockout plants showed that three plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) sharing expression in veins (PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;6) contribute to rosette water transport, and PIP2;1 can fully account for Kros responsiveness to darkness. Directed expression of PIP2;1 in veins of a pip2;1 mutant was sufficient to restore Kros. In addition, a positive correlation, in both wild-type and PIP2;1-overexpressing plants, was found between Kros and the osmotic water permeability of protoplasts from the veins but not from the mesophyll. Thus, living cells in veins form a major hydraulic resistance in leaves. Quantitative proteomic analyses showed that light-dependent regulation of Kros is linked to diphosphorylation of PIP2;1 at Ser-280 and Ser-283. Expression in pip2;1 of phosphomimetic and phosphorylation-deficient forms of PIP2;1 demonstrated that phosphorylation at these two sites is necessary for Kros enhancement under darkness. These findings establish how regulation of a single aquaporin isoform in leaf veins critically determines leaf hydraulics.
The Plant Cell 03/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1105/tpc.112.108456 · 9.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rennet-induced coagulation of bovine milk is a complex mechanism in which chymosin specifically hydrolyzes κ-casein, the protein responsible for the stability of the casein micelle. In equine milk, this mechanism is still unclear, and the protein targets of chymosin are unknown. To reveal the proteins involved, the rennetability of equine milk by calf chymosin was examined using gel-free and gel-based proteomic analysis and compared to bovine milk. RP-HPLC analysis of bovine and equine milks showed the release of several peptides following chymosin incubation. The hydrolyses of equine and bovine casein by chymosin were different, and the major peptides produced from equine milk were identified by mass spectrometry as fragments of β-casein. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, equine β-casein was confirmed as the main target of calf chymosin over 24 h at 30 °C and pH 6.5. The gel-based analysis of equine milk discriminated between the different individual proteins and provided information on the range of isoforms of each protein as a result of post-translational modifications, as well as positively identified for the first time several isoforms of κ-casein. In comparison to bovine milk, κ-casein isoforms in equine milk were not involved in chymosin-induced coagulation. The intensity of equine β-casein spots decreased following chymosin addition, but at a slower rate than bovine κ-casein.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2013; 61(11). DOI:10.1021/jf3045846 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Genome-wide statistics established that long intrinsically disordered regions (over 30 residues) are predicted in a large part of proteins in all eukaryotes, with a higher ratio in trans-membrane proteins. At functional level, such unstructured and flexible regions were suggested for years to favour phosphorylation events. In plants, despite increasing evidence of the regulation of transport and signalling processes by phosphorylation events, only few data are available without specific information regarding plasma membrane proteins, especially at proteome scale.
Using a dedicated phosphoproteomic workflow, 75 novel and unambiguous phosphorylation sites were identified in Arabidopsis plasma membrane. Bioinformatics analysis showed that this new dataset concerned mostly integral proteins involved in key functions of the plasma membrane (such as transport and signal transduction, including protein phosphorylation). It thus expanded by 15% the directory of phosphosites previously characterized in signalling and transport proteins. Unexpectedly, 66% of phosphorylation sites were predicted to be located outside long intrinsically disordered regions. This result was further corroborated by analysis of publicly available data for the plasma membrane.
The new phosphoproteomics data presented here, with published datasets and functional annotation, suggest a previously unexpected topology of phosphorylation in the plant plasma membrane proteins. The significance of these new insights into the so far overlooked properties of the plant plasma membrane phosphoproteome and the long disordered regions is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secreted proteins play a key role in cell signaling and communication. We recently showed that ionizing radiations induced a delayed cell death of breast cancer cells, mediated by the death receptor pathways through the expression of soluble forms of "death ligands." Using the same cell model, the objective of our work was the identification of diffusible factors, secreted following cell irradiation, potentially involved in cell death signaling. Differential proteomic analysis of conditioned media using 2DE resulted in detection of numerous spots that were significantly modulated following cell irradiation. The corresponding proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS approaches. Interestingly, five isoforms of cyclophilin A were observed as increased in conditioned medium of irradiated cells. These isoforms differed in isoelectric points and in accumulation levels. An increase of cyclophilin A secretion was confirmed by Western blotting of conditioned media of irradiated or radiosentive mammary cells. These isoforms displayed an interesting pattern of protein maturation and post-translational modifications, including an alternating removal of N-terminal methionine, associated with a combination of acetylations and methylations. The role of the protein is discussed in relation with its potential involvement in the mechanisms of intercells relationships and radiosensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate chromosome segregation relies upon a mitotic checkpoint that monitors kinetochore attachment toward opposite spindle poles before enabling chromosome disjunction . The MPS1/TTK protein kinase is a core component of the mitotic checkpoint that lies upstream of MAD2 and BubR1 both at the kinetochore and in the cytoplasm [2, 3]. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of MPS1 kinase, we undertook the identification of Xenopus MPS1 phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. We mapped several phosphorylation sites onto MPS1 and we show that phosphorylation of S283 in the noncatalytic region of MPS1 is required for full kinase activity. This phosphorylation potentiates MPS1 catalytic efficiency without impairing its affinity for the substrates. By using Xenopus egg extracts depleted of endogenous MPS1 and reconstituted with single point mutants, we show that phosphorylation of S283 is essential to activate the mitotic checkpoint. This phosphorylation does not regulate the localization of MPS1 to the kinetochore but is required for the recruitment of MAD1/MAD2, demonstrating its role at the kinetochore. Constitutive phosphorylation of S283 lowers the number of kinetochores required to hold the checkpoint, which suggests that CDK-dependent phosphorylation of MPS1 is essential to sustain the mitotic checkpoint when few kinetochores remain unattached.
Current biology: CB 02/2012; 22(4):289-95. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2011.12.048 · 9.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant membranes bear a variety of transporters belonging to multigene families that are affected by environmental and nutritional conditions. In addition, they often display high-sequence identity, making difficult in-depth investigation by current shot-gun strategies. In this study, we set up a targeted proteomics approach aimed at identifying and quantifying within single experiments the five major proton pumps of the autoinhibited H(+) ATPases (AHA) family, the 13 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) water channels (PIPs), and ten members of ammonium transporters (AMTs) and nitrate transporter (NRT) families. Proteotypic peptides were selected and isotopically labeled heavy versions were used for technical optimization and for quantification of the corresponding light version in biological samples. This approach allowed to quantify simultaneously nine PIPs in leaf membranes and 13 PIPs together with three autoinhibited H(+) ATPases, two ammonium transporters, and two NRTs in root membranes. Similarly, it was used to investigate the effect of a salt stress on the expression of these latter 20 transporters in roots. These novel isoform-specific data were compared with published transcriptome information and revealed a close correlation between PIP isoforms and transcripts levels. The obtained resource is reusable and can be expanded to other transporter families for large-scale profiling of membrane transporters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human pathogenic protozoa of the genus Leishmania undergo various developmental transitions during the infectious cycle that are triggered by changes in the host environment. How these parasites sense, transduce, and respond to these signals is only poorly understood. Here we used phosphoproteomic approaches to monitor signaling events in L. donovani axenic amastigotes, which may be important for intracellular parasite survival. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of IMAC-enriched phosphoprotein extracts identified 445 putative phosphoproteins in two independent biological experiments. Functional enrichment analysis allowed us to gain insight into parasite pathways that are regulated by protein phosphorylation and revealed significant enrichment in our data set of proteins whose biological functions are associated with protein turn-over, stress response, and signal transduction. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of TiO(2)-enriched phosphopeptides confirmed these results and identified 157 unique phosphopeptides covering 181 unique phosphorylation sites in 126 distinct proteins. Investigation of phosphorylation site conservation across related trypanosomatids and higher eukaryotes by multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis revealed L. donovani-specific phosphoresidues in highly conserved proteins that share significant sequence homology to orthologs of the human host. These unique phosphorylation sites reveal important differences between host and parasite biology and post-translational protein regulation, which may be exploited for the design of novel anti-parasitic interventions.