[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies with sPLA(2) Group X, and cPLA(2) α gene-targeted mice suggest that absence of sPLA(2) Group X results in protection from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart, and absence of cPLA(2) α Group IV is protective in the brain. Although latter studies might suggest a similar deleterious role for cPLA(2) α in I/R injury in the heart, the pathophysiology of stroke is intricately related to excitotoxicity and cannot necessarily be extrapolated to the heart. We report here that unlike findings in the brain, cPLA(2) α((-/-)) mice have exaggerated injury following I/R in vivo. In contrast, there is no difference in injury induced by simulated ischemia in cardiomyocytes isolated from cPLA(2) α((-/-)) versus cPLA(2) α((+/+)) mice. This suggests that cPLA(2) α does not have an important cardiomyocyte autonomous effect on ischemic injury. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) levels are significantly reduced in the hearts of the cPLA(2) α((-/-)) mice, and the enhanced injury is ameliorated by treatment with the PGE analog, misoprostol. We demonstrate that cPLA(2) α is cardioprotective in vivo, and this is likely via cPLA(2) α-mediated production of cardioprotective eicosanoids. These studies are the first to identify a protective role for cPLA(2) in I/R injury in any organ and raise concerns over long-term inhibition of cPLA(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin domain 2 (TIM2) belongs to the receptor family of cell surface molecules expressed on kidney, liver, and T cells. Previous studies have revealed that TIM2-deficient mice (TIM2(-/-)) are more susceptible to the Th2-mediated immune response in an airway inflammation model. Here, we investigated the phenotypic response of TIM2(-/-) mice to cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity. A lethality study in male BALB/c wild-type (TIM2(+/+)) and TIM2(-/-) mice, administered with 20 mg/kg cisplatin ip, resulted in 80% mortality of TIM2(-/-) mice as compared with 30% mortality in the TIM2(+/+) group by day 5. The TIM2(-/-) mice showed approximately fivefold higher injury as estimated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine at 48 h that was confirmed by significantly increased proximal tubular damage assessed histologically (H & E staining). A significantly higher expression of Th2-associated cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TGFβ, with a significant reduction of Th1-associated cytokines, RANTES and MCP-1, by 72 h was observed in the TIM2(-/-) mice as compared with TIM2(+/+) mice. A higher baseline protein expression of caspase-3 (approximately twofold) coupled with an early onset of p53 protein activation by 48 h resulted in an increased apoptosis by 48-72 h in TIM2(-/-) compared with TIM2(+/+). In conclusion, the increased expression of the proinflammatory and proapoptotic genes, with a higher number of apoptotic cells, and a pronounced increase in injury and mortality of the TIM2-deficient mice collectively suggest a protective role of TIM2 in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRIP-Br proteins are a novel family of transcriptional coregulators involved in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression. Three of the four mammalian members of TRIP-Br family, including TRIP-Br1, are known oncogenes. We now report the identification of the Balpha regulatory subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a novel TRIP-Br1 interactor, based on an affinity binding assay coupled with mass spectrometry. A GST-TRIP-Br1 fusion protein associates with catalytically active PP2A-ABalphaC holoenzyme in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation confirms this association in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining with a monoclonal antibody against TRIP-Br1 reveals that endogenous TRIP-Br1 and PP2A-Balpha colocalize mainly in the cytoplasm. Consistently, immunoprecipitation followed by immunodetection with anti-phosphoserine antibody suggest that TRIP-Br1 exists in a serine-phosphorylated form. Inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid or transcriptional silencing of the PP2A catalytic subunit by small interfering RNA results in downregulation of total TRIP-Br1 protein levels but upregulation of serine-phosphorylated TRIP-Br1. Overexpression of PP2A catalytic subunit increases TRIP-Br1 protein levels and TRIP-Br1 co-activated E2F1/DP1 transcription. Our data support a model in which association between PP2A-ABalphaC holoenzyme and TRIP-Br1 in vivo in mammalian cells represents a novel mechanism for regulating the level of TRIP-Br1 protooncoprotein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The products of arachidonic acid metabolism are key mediators of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system, and yet we do not know the mechanisms of their regulation. The phospholipase A(2) enzymes are sources of cellular arachidonic acid, and the enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) are essential for the synthesis of inflammatory PGE(2) in the brain. These studies seek to determine the function of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) in inflammatory PGE(2) production in the brain. We wondered whether cPLA(2)alpha functions in inflammation to produce arachidonic acid or to modulate levels of COX-2 or mPGES-1. We investigated these questions in the brains of wild-type mice and mice deficient in cPLA(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha(-/-)) after systemic administration of LPS. cPLA(2)alpha(-/-) mice had significantly less brain COX-2 mRNA and protein expression in response to LPS than wild-type mice. The reduction in COX-2 was most apparent in the cells of the cerebral blood vessels and the leptomeninges. The brain PGE(2) concentration of untreated cPLA(2)alpha(-/-) mice was equal to their wild-type littermates. After LPS treatment, however, the brain concentration of PGE(2) was significantly less in cPLA(2)alpha(-/-) than in cPLA(2)alpha(+/+) mice (24.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 49.3 +/- 11.6 ng/g). In contrast to COX-2, mPGES-1 RNA levels increased equally in both mouse genotypes, and mPGES-1 protein was unaltered 6 h after LPS. We conclude that cPLA(2)alpha regulates COX-2 levels and modulates inflammatory PGE(2) levels. These results indicate that cPLA(2)alpha inhibition is a novel anti-inflammatory strategy that modulates, but does not completely prevent, eicosanoid responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological investigations suggest that chronic lung inflammation increases lung cancer risk. Pharmacologic and genetic evidence in mouse models indicates that lipid mediators released during pulmonary inflammation enhance lung tumor formation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) catalyzes arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids. AA can then lead to the synthesis of several classes of lipid mediators, including prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. We investigated a role for cPLA2 in mouse lung tumorigenesis by using mice genetically deficient in cPLA2. After multiple urethane injections into cPLA2 null mice and wild-type littermates, the number of lung tumors was determined. cPLA2 null mice developed 43% fewer tumors (from 16 +/- 2 to 9 +/- 2 tumors/mouse; P < 0.05) than wild-type littermates. cPLA2, COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES), examined by immunohistochemistry, are present in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelia and in alveolar macrophages in lungs from naive mice and tumor-bearing mice. Tumors express higher levels of each of these four enzymes than control lungs, as determined by immunoblotting. No differences were detected in the contents of COX-1, COX-2 and mPGES between wild-type and cPLA2 null mice. Although the steady-state levels of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin I2 in lung tissue extracts prepared from wild-type or cPLA2 (-/-) mice were not significantly different, both prostaglandins markedly increased in tumors from wild-type mice, an increase that was significantly blunted in tumors from cPLA2 (-/-) mice. These results demonstrate a role for cPLA2 in mouse lung tumorigenesis that may be mediated by decreased prostaglandin synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that exogenously added human group V phospholipase A2 (hVPLA2) could elicit leukotriene B4 biosynthesis in human neutrophils through the activation of group IVA phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) (Kim, Y. J., Kim, K. P., Han, S. K., Munoz, N. M., Zhu, X., Sano, H., Leff, A. R., and Cho, W. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 36479-36488). In this study, we determined the functional significance and mechanism of the exogenous hVPLA2-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthesis in isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils. As low a concentration as 10 nm exogenous hVPLA2 was able to elicit the significant release of AA and LTC4 from unstimulated eosinophils, which depended on its ability to act on phosphatidylcholine membranes. hVPLA2 also augmented the release of AA and LTC4 from eosinophils activated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe + cytochalasin B. A cellular fluorescent PLA2 assay showed that hVPLA2 had a lipolytic action first on the outer plasma membrane and then on the perinuclear region. hVPLA2 also caused the translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nuclear membrane and a 2-fold increase in 5-lipoxygenase activity. However, hVPLA2 induced neither the increase in intracellular calcium concentration nor cPLA2 phosphorylation; consequently, cPLA2 activity was not affected by hVPLA2. Pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2 and the hVPLA2-induced activation of eosinophils derived from the cPLA2-deficient mouse corroborated that hVPLA2 mediates the release of AA and leukotriene in a cPLA2-independent manner. As such, this study represents a unique example in which a secretory phospholipase induces the eicosanoid formation in inflammatory cells, completely independent of cPLA2 activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of arachidonic acid by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) has a fundamental role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that cytosolic PLA2 is a negative regulator of growth, specifically of striated muscle. We find that normal growth of skeletal muscle, as well as normal and pathologic stress-induced hypertrophic growth of the heart, are exaggerated in Pla2g4a-/- mice, which lack the gene encoding cytosolic PLA2. The mechanism underlying this phenotype is that cytosolic PLA2 negatively regulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling. Absence of cytosolic PLA2 leads to sustained activation of the IGF-1 pathway, which results from the failure of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK)-1 to recruit and phosphorylate protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta, a negative regulator of IGF-1 signaling. Arachidonic acid restores activation of PKC-zeta, correcting the exaggerated IGF-1 signaling. These results indicate that cytosolic PLA2 and arachidonic acid regulate striated muscle growth by modulating multiple growth-regulatory pathways.
Nature Medicine 08/2003; 9(7):944-51. DOI:10.1038/nm891 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) has been localized to the nucleus (M. R. Sierra-Honigmann, J. R. Bradley, and J. S. Pober, Lab. Investig. 74:684-695, 1996) and is known to translocate from the cytosolic compartment to the nuclear membrane (S. Glover, M. S. de Carvalho, T. Bayburt, M. Jonas, E. Chi, C. C. Leslie, and M. H. Gelb, J. Biol. Chem. 270:15359-15367, 1995; A. R. Schievella, M. K. Regier, W. L. Smith, and L. L. Lin, J. Biol. Chem. 270:30749-30754, 1995). We hypothesized that nuclear proteins interact with cPLA(2) and participate in the functional effects of this translocation. We have identified a nuclear protein, cPLA(2)-interacting protein (PLIP), a splice variant of human Tip60, which interacts with the amino terminal region of cPLA(2). Like Tip60, PLIP cDNA includes the MYST domain containing a C2HC zinc finger and well-conserved similarities to acetyltransferases. Both PLIP and Tip60 coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize with cPLA(2) within the nuclei of transfected COS cells. A polyclonal antibody raised to PLIP recognizes both PLIP and Tip60. Endogenous Tip60 and/or PLIP in rat mesangial cells is localized to the nucleus in response to serum deprivation. Nuclear localization coincides temporally with apoptosis. PLIP expression, mediated by adenoviral gene transfer, potentiates serum deprivation-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production and apoptosis in mouse mesangial cells from cPLA(2)(+/+) mice but not in mesangial cells derived from cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Thus PLIP, a splice variant of Tip60, interacts with cPLA(2) and potentiates cPLA(2)-mediated PGE(2) production and apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids regulate various cellular functions that are important in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Arachidonic acid is released from membranes by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity. Activated macrophages derived from mice lacking the 85-kDa group IV cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2)) have a markedly reduced release of prostaglandin E(2) and leukotrienes B(4) and C(4). Under basal conditions and after furosemide, urinary prostaglandin E(2) excretion is reduced in cPLA(2)-knockout (cPLA(2)(-/-)) mice. Serum creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) concentrations, glomerular filtration rate, and fractional excretion of Na(+) and K(+) are not different in cPLA(2)(-/-) and cPLA(2)(+/+) mice. Maximal urinary concentration is lower in 48-h water-deprived cPLA(2)(-/-) mice compared with cPLA(2)(+/+) animals (1,934 +/- 324 vs. 3,541 +/- 251 mmol/kgH(2)O). Plasma osmolality is higher (337 +/- 5 vs. 319 +/- 3 mmol/kgH(2)O) in cPLA(2)(-/-) mice that lose a greater percentage of their body weight (20 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 1%) compared with cPLA(2)(+/+) mice after water deprivation. Vasopressin does not correct the concentrating defect. There is progressive reduction in urinary osmolality with age in cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Membrane-associated aquaporin-1 (AQP1) expression, identified by immunocytochemical techniques, is reduced markedly in proximal tubules of older cPLA(2)(-/-) animals but is normal in thin descending limbs. However, Western blot analysis of kidney cortical samples revealed an equivalent AQP1 signal intensity in cPLA(2)(+/+) and cPLA(2)(-/-) animals. Young cPLA(2)(-/-) mice have normal proximal tubule AQP1 staining. Collecting duct AQP2, -3, and -4 were normally expressed in the cPLA(2)(-/-) mice. Thus mice lacking cPLA(2) develop an age-related defect in renal concentration that may be related to abnormal trafficking and/or folding of AQP1 in the proximal tubule, implicating cPLA(2) in these processes.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2001; 280(4):F607-18. · 3.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the isolation of TRIP-Br1, a transcriptional regulator that interacts with the PHD-bromodomain of co-repressors of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-mediated repression, KRIP-1(TIF1) and TIF1, as well as the co-activator/adaptor p300/CBP. TRIP-Br1 and the related protein TRIP-Br2 possess transactivation domains. Like MDM2, which has a homologous transactivation domain, TRIP-Br proteins functionally contact DP-1, stimulating E2F-1/DP-1 transcriptional activity. KRIP-1 potentiates TRIP-Br protein co-activation of E2F-1/DP-1. TRIP-Br1 is a component of a multiprotein complex containing E2F-1 and DP-1. Co-expression of the retinoblastoma gene product (RB) abolishes baseline E2F-1/DP-1 transcriptional activity as well as TRIP-Br/KRIP-1 co-activation, both of which are restored by the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These features suggest that TRIP-Br proteins function at E2F-responsive promoters to integrate signals provided by PHD- and/or bromodomain- containing transcription factors. TRIP-Br1 is identical to the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4)-binding protein p34SEI-1, which renders the activity of cyclin D/cdk4 resistant to the inhibitory effect of p16INK4a during late G1. TRIP-Br1(p34SEI-1) is differentially overexpressed during the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, consistent with a dual role for TRIP-Br1(p34SEI-1) in the regulation of cell cycle progression through sequential effects on the transcriptional activity of E2F-responsive promoters during G1 and S phases.
The EMBO Journal 04/2001; 20(9):2273-2285. DOI:10.1093/emboj/20.9.2273 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) show great promise as therapies for colon cancer, a dispute remains regarding their mechanism of action. NSAIDs are known to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which convert arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandins (PGs). Therefore, NSAIDs may suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting PG synthesis. However, various experimental studies have suggested the possibility of PG-independent mechanisms. Notably, disruption of the mouse group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) locus (Pla2g2a), a potential source of AA for COX-2, increases tumor number despite the fact that the mutation has been predicted to decrease PG production. Some authors have attempted to reconcile the results by suggesting that the level of the precursor (AA), not the products (PGs), is the critical factor. To clarify the role of AA in tumorigenesis, we have examined the effect of deleting the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) locus (Pla2g4). We report that Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(-/-) mice show an 83% reduction in tumor number in the small intestine compared with littermates with genotypes Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(+/-) and Apc(Min/+), cPLA(2)(+/+). This tumor phenotype parallels that of COX-2 knockout mice, suggesting that cPLA(2) is the predominant source of AA for COX-2 in the intestine. The protective effect of cPLA(2) deletion is thus most likely attributed to a decrease in the AA supply to COX-2 and a resultant decrease in PG synthesis. The tumorigenic effect of sPLA(2) mutations is likely to be through a completely different pathway.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2001; 98(7):3935-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.051635898 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two Cys2His2-zinc finger clusters of four and nine zinc fingers at the COOH terminus. It was the first KRAB-zinc finger protein for which a transcriptional repressor activity was demonstrated. Subsequently, the KRAB-A domain was identified as a widespread transcriptional repressor motif. We now present a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein is targeted to the nucleolus and adheres tightly to as yet undefined nucleolar structures, leading eventually to the disintegration of the nucleolus. The tight adherence and nucleolar distribution can be attributed to the larger zinc finger cluster, whereas the KRAB-A domain is responsible for the nucleolar fragmentation. Upon disintegration of the nucleolus, the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor disappears from the nucleolar fragments. In the absence of Kid-1, the KRIP-1 protein, which represents the natural interacting partner of zinc finger proteins with a KRAB-A domain, is homogeneously distributed in the nucleus, whereas coexpression of Kid-1 leads to a shift of KRIP-1 into the nucleolus. Nucleolar run-ons demonstrate that rDNA transcription is shut off in the nucleolar fragments. Our data demonstrate the functional diversity of the KRAB and zinc finger domains of Kid-1 and provide new functional insights into the regulation of the nucleolar structure.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1999; 274(12):7640-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rat Kid-1 gene codes for a 66-kDa protein with KRAB domains at the NH2 terminus and two Cys(2)His(2)-zinc finger clusters of four and nine zinc fingers at the COOH terminus. It was the first KRAB-zinc finger protein for which a transcriptional repressor activity was demonstrated. Subsequently, the KRAB-A domain was identified as a widespread transcriptional repressor motif, We now present a biochemical and functional analysis of the Kid-1 protein in transfected cells. The full-length Kid-1 protein is targeted to the nucleolus and adheres tightly to as yet undefined nucleolar structures, leading eventually to the disintegration of the nucleolus. The tight adherence and nucleolar distribution can be attributed to the larger zinc finger cluster, whereas the KRAB-A domain is responsible for the nucleolar fragmentation, Upon disintegration of the nucleolus, the nucleolar transcription factor upstream binding factor disappears from the nucleolar fragments, In the absence of Kid-1, the KRIP-1 protein, which represents the natural interacting partner of zinc finger proteins with a KRAB-A domain, is homogeneously distributed in the nucleus, whereas coexpression of Kid-1 leads to a shift of KRIP-1 into the nucleolus. Nucleolar run-ons demonstrate that rDNA transcription is shut off in the nucleolar fragments. Our data demonstrate the functional diversity of the KRAB and zinc finger domains of Kid-1 and provide new functional insights into the regulation of the nucleolar structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are critical regulators of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis and can directly modify the composition of cellular membranes. PLA2 enzymes release fatty acids and lysophospholipids, including the precursor of platelet-activating factor, PAF, from phospholipids. Free fatty acids, eicosanoids, lysophospholipids and PAF are potent regulators of inflammation, reproduction and neurotoxicity. The physiological roles of the various forms of PLA2 are not well defined. The cytosolic form, cPLA2, preferentially releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids and is regulated by changes in intracellular calcium concentration. We have now created 'knockout' (cPLA2-/-) mice that lack this enzyme, in order to evaluate its physiological importance. We find that cPLA2-/- mice develop normally, but that the females produce only small litters in which the pups are usually dead. Stimulated peritoneal macrophages from cPLA2-/- animals did not produce prostaglandin E2 or leukotriene B4 or C4. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, cPLA2-/- mice had smaller infarcts and developed less brain oedema and fewer neurological deficits. Thus cPLA2 is important for macrophage production of inflammatory mediators, fertility, and in the pathophysiology of neuronal death after transient focal cerebral ischaemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Krüppel-associated box A (KRAB-A) domain is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressor domain present in approximately one-third of zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel murine protein, KRAB-A interacting protein 1 (KRIP-1) that physically interacts with the KRAB-A region. KRIP-1 is a member of the RBCC subfamily of the RING finger, or Cys3HisCys4, family of zinc binding proteins whose other members are known to play important roles in differentiation, oncogenesis, and signal transduction. The KRIP-1 protein has high homology to TIF1, a putative modulator of ligand-dependent activation function of nuclear receptors. A 3.5-kb mRNA for KRIP-1 is ubiquitously expressed among all adult mouse tissues studied. When a GAL4-KRIP-1 fusion protein is expressed in COS cells with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct with five GAL4 binding sites, there is dose-dependent repression of transcription. Thus, KRIP-1 interacts with the KRAB-A region of C2H2 zinc finger proteins and may mediate or modulate KRAB-A transcriptional repressor activity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1997; 93(26):15299-304. DOI:10.1073/pnas.93.26.15299 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of newly cloned cDNAs in mammalian cell lines is an essential tool for the functional analysis of the proteins encoded by these cDNAs. In many instances, however, evaluation of the protein is difficult because of the difficulty in purification of the expressed protein and/or the lack of specific antibodies which react with the proteins on Western blots or for immunocytochemistry or immunoprecipitation. A number of gene fusion systems have been employed in which a known peptide is fused to the expression product of interest and the fusion protein is purified using affinity chromatography and identified in extracts or by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against the affinity handle peptide. The DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 is widely used to construct fusion proteins with putative transcription factors to evaluate potential trans-acting domains. Because of the lack of commercially available anti-GAL4 antibodies, the further biochemical characterization of these fusion proteins has remained difficult. We describe the construction of two mammalian expression vectors, pMFH/GAL4 and pMFH2/GAL4 (where pMFH stands for pM2, Flag, Histidine tail), which encode the DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4 with a Flag peptide (consisting of the 11-amino-acid leader peptide of the gene 10 product from bacteriophage T7) at the NH2-terminus and a tail of six histidines at the COOH-terminus. Unique restriction sites allow both the construction of fusion proteins with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and the replacement of the GAL4 fragment with another insert.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and partial characterization of Kid-1, a zinc finger-encoding cDNA from the rat kidney. The Kid-1 protein and approximately one-third of all other zinc finger proteins contain a highly conserved region of approximately 75 amino acids at their NH2 terminus named Krüppel-associated box (KRAB), which is subdivided into A and B domains. The evolutionary conservation, wide distribution, and genomic organization of the KRAB domains suggest an important role of this region in the transcriptional regulatory function of zinc finger proteins. The functional significance of the KRAB domain was evaluated by studying transcriptional activities of yeast GAL4-rat Kid-1 fusion proteins containing various regions of the non-zinc-finger domain of Kid-1. Transcriptional repressor activity of GAL4-Kid-1 fusion proteins maps to the KRAB-A domain. The KRAB-A domain of another zinc finger protein, ZNF2, also has repressor activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved amino acids in this motif results in decreased repressor activity. Thus, we have established a functional significance for the KRAB-A domain, a consensus sequence common in zinc finger proteins.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1994; 91(10):4514-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.91.10.4514 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have identified a new putative transcription factor from the rat kidney, termed Kid-1 (for kidney, ischemia and developmentally regulated gene 1). Kid-1 belongs to the C2H2 class of zinc finger genes. Its mRNA accumulates with age in postnatal renal development and is detected predominantly in the kidney. Kid-1 mRNA levels decline after renal injury secondary to ischemia or folic acid administration, two insults which result in epithelial cell dedifferentiation, followed by regenerative hyperplasia and differentiation. The low expression of Kid-1 early in postnatal development, and when renal tissue is recovering after injury, suggests that the gene product is involved in establishment of a differentiated phenotype and/or regulation of the proliferative response. The deduced protein contains 13 C2H2 zinc fingers at the COOH end in groups of 4 and 9 separated by a 32-amino-acid spacer. There are consensus sites for phosphorylation in the NH2 terminus non-zinc finger region as well as in the spacer region between zinc fingers 4 and 5. A region of the deduced protein shares extensive homology with a catalytic region of Raf kinases, a feature shared only with TFIIE among transcription factors. To determine whether Kid-1 can modulate transcription, a chimeric construct encoding the Kid-1 non-zinc finger region (sense or antisense) and the DNA-binding region of GAL4 was transfected into COS and LLC-PK1 cells together with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid containing GAL4 binding sites, driven by either a minimal promoter or a simian virus 40 enhancer. CAT activity was markedly inhibited in cells transfected with the sense construct compared with the activity in cells transfected with the antisense construct. To our knowledge, this pattern of developmental regulation, kidney expression, and regulation of transcription is unique among the C2H2 class of zinc finger-containing DNA-binding proteins.