Kit-Yan Cheng

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States

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Publications (15)60.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The present study is designed to consider a role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the regulation of the endothelin axis in mouse kidney, lung, liver and heart. Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a regulator of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and blood pressure (BP), via activation of both endothelin receptors, ETA and ETB. However, ET-1 mediates many complex events in other tissues. Tissues were collected in the middle of murine rest and active phases, at noon and midnight, respectively. ET-1, ETA and ETB mRNA expression were measured in lung, heart, liver, renal inner medulla and renal cortex of wild type and Per1 heterozygous mice using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of reduced Per1 expression on levels of mRNAs and the time-dependent regulation of expression of the endothelin axis genes appeared to be tissue-specific. In the renal inner medulla and the liver, ETA and ETB exhibited peaks of expression in opposite circadian phases. In contrast, expression of ET-1, ETA and ETB in the lung did not appear to vary with time, but ET-1 expression was dramatically decreased in this tissue in Per1 heterozygous mice. Interestingly, ET-1 and ETA, but not ETB, were expressed in a time-dependent manner in the heart. Per1 appears to regulate expression of the endothelin axis genes in a tissue-specific and time-dependent manner. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the best time of day to deliver endothelin receptor antagonists.
    Life sciences 04/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been well established that blood pressure and renal function undergo circadian fluctuations. We have demonstrated that the circadian protein Per1 regulates multiple genes involved in sodium transport in the collecting duct of the kidney. However, the role of Per1 in other parts of the nephron has not been investigated. The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays a critical role in sodium reabsorption in the nephron. Sodium is reabsorbed in this segment through the actions of the Na-Cl co-transporter (NCC), which is regulated by the with-no-lysine kinases (WNKs). The goal of this study was to test if Per1 regulates sodium transport in the DCT through modulation of NCC and the WNK kinases, WNK1 and WNK4. Pharmacological blockade of nuclear Per1 entry resulted in decreased mRNA expression of NCC and WNK1, but increased expression of WNK4 in the renal cortex of mice. These findings were confirmed by using Per1 siRNA and pharmacological blockade of Per1 nuclear entry in mDCT15 cells, a model of the mouse distal convoluted tubule. Transcriptional regulation was demonstrated by changes in short-lived hnRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated interaction of Per1 and CLOCK with the promoters of NCC, WNK1, and WNK4. This interaction was modulated by blockade of Per1 nuclear entry. Importantly, NCC protein expression and activity, as measured by thiazide-sensitive, Cl-dependent 22Na uptake, were decreased upon pharmacological inhibition of Per1 nuclear entry. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for Per1 in the transcriptional regulation of NCC, WNK1, and WNK4.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The circadian clock plays an important role in the regulation of physiological processes including renal function and blood pressure. We have previously shown that the circadian protein Per1 positively regulates expression of multiple sodium transport genes in the collecting duct including the alpha subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel (αENaC). Consistent with this finding, Per1 KO mice exhibit dramatically lower BP than WT mice. We have also recently demonstrated the potential opposing actions of Cry2 on Per1 target genes. Recent work by others has demonstrated that Cry1/2 regulates aldosterone production through increased expression of the adrenal gland-specific rate-limiting enzyme, 3β-HSD. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Per1 plays a role in the regulation of aldosterone levels and renal sodium retention. Using RNA silencing and pharmacological blockade of Per1 nuclear entry in the NCI-H295R human adrenal cell line, we showed that Per1 regulated 3β-HSD expression in vitro. These results were confirmed in vivo: mice with reduced levels of Per1 had decreased levels of plasma aldosterone and decreased mRNA expression of 3β-HSD. We postulated that mice with reduced Per1 would have a renal sodium retaining defect. Indeed, metabolic cage studies demonstrated that Per1 heterozygotes excreted more urinary sodium compared to WT mice. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that Per1 regulates aldosterone levels and that Per1 plays an integral role in the regulation of sodium retention.
    AJP Renal Physiology 10/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence suggests that the circadian clock plays an integral role in the regulation of many physiological processes including blood pressure, renal function, and metabolism. The canonical molecular clock functions via activation of circadian target genes by Clock/Bmal1 and repression of Clock/Bmal1 activity by Per1-3 and Cry1/2. However, we have previously shown that Per1 activates genes important for renal sodium reabsorption, which contradicts the canonical role of Per1 as a repressor. Moreover, Per1 KO mice exhibit a lowered blood pressure and heavier body weight phenotype similar to Clock KO mice, and opposite that of Cry1/2 KO mice. Recent work has highlighted the potential role of Per1 in repression of Cry2. Therefore, we postulated that Per1 potentially activates target genes through a Cry2-Clock/Bmal1dependent mechanism, in which Per1 antagonizes Cry2, preventing its repression of Clock/Bmal1. This hypothesis was tested in vitro and in vivo. The Per1 target genes αENaC and Fxyd5 were identified as Clock targets in mpkCCDc14 cells, a model of the renal cortical collecting duct. We identified PPARα and DEC1 as novel Per1 targets in the mouse hepatocyte cell line, AML12 and in the liver in vivo. Per1 knockdown resulted in upregulation of Cry2 in vitro and this result was confirmed in vivo in mice with reduced expression of Per1. Importantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cry2 and Per1 demonstrated opposing actions for Cry2 and Per1 on Per1 target genes, supporting the potential Cry2-Clock/Bmal1 dependent mechanism underlying Per1 action in the liver and kidney.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 07/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal function and blood pressure (BP) exhibit a circadian pattern of variation, but the molecular mechanism underlying this circadian regulation is not fully understood. We have previously shown that the circadian clock protein Per1 positively regulates the basal and aldosterone-mediated expression of the alpha subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel (αENaC). The mechanism of this regulation has not been determined however. To further elucidate the mechanism of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and Per1 action, site-directed mutagenesis, DNA pull-down assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methods were used to investigate the coordinate regulation of αENaC by Per1 and MR. Mutation of two circadian response E-boxes in the human αENaC promoter abolished both basal and aldosterone-mediated promoter activity. DNA pull down assays demonstrated the interaction of both MR and Per1 with the E-boxes from the αENaC promoter. These observations were corroborated by ChIP experiments showing increased occupancy of MR and Per1 on an E-box of the αENaC promoter in the presence of aldosterone. This is the first report of an aldosterone-mediated increase in Per1 on a target gene promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrate the novel finding that Per1 and MR mediate the aldosterone response of αENaC through DNA/protein interaction in renal collecting duct cells.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:253.
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that the circadian clock plays an important role in the control of renal function and blood pressure. We previously showed that the circadian clock protein Period (Per)1, positively regulates the expression of the rate limiting subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel (αENaC), which contributes to blood pressure regulation. Casein kinases 1δ and 1ε (CK1δ/ε) are critical regulators of clock proteins. CK1δ/ε must phosphorylate the circadian clock protein Per1 in order for the latter to enter the nucleus. We used a commercially available CK1δ/ε inhibitor, PF670462, to test the effect of CK1δ/ε blockade and inhibited Per1 nuclear entry on αENaC in a model of the renal cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD(c14) cells). CK1δ/ε blockade prevented Per1 and Clock from interacting with an E-box from the αENaC promoter. CK1δ/ε inhibition reduced αENaC mRNA levels by <60%. A similar decrease in αENaC mRNA was observed following siRNA-mediated CK1δ/ε knock-down. Inhibition of CK1δ/ε effectively prevented the transcriptional response of αENaC to aldosterone, suggesting an interaction between the circadian clock and aldosterone-mediated regulation of αENaC. CK1δ/ε inhibition significantly reduced αENaC but increased Caveolin-1 membrane protein levels; transepithelial current, a measure of ENaC activity, was decreased. Importantly, single channel analysis in amphibian renal cells demonstrated a dramatic decrease in the number of patches with observable ENaC current following CK1δ/ε inhibition. The present study shows for the first time that CK1δ/ε inhibition and impaired Per1 nuclear entry results in decreased αENaC expression and ENaC activity, providing further support for direct control of ENaC by the circadian clock.
    AJP Renal Physiology 07/2012; 303(7):F918-27. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The circadian clock protein period 1 (Per1) contributes to the regulation of expression of the α subunit of the renal epithelial sodium channel at the basal level and in response to the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. The goals of the present study were to define the role of Per1 in the regulation of additional renal sodium handling genes in cortical collecting duct cells and to evaluate blood pressure (BP) in mice lacking functional Per1. To determine whether Per1 regulates additional genes important in renal sodium handling, a candidate gene approach was used. Immortalized collecting duct cells were transfected with a nontarget small interfering RNA or a Per1-specific small interfering RNA. Expression of the genes for α-epithelial sodium channel and Fxyd5, a positive regulator of Na, K-ATPase activity, decreased in response to Per1 knockdown. Conversely, mRNA expression of caveolin 1, Ube2e3, and ET-1, all negative effectors of epithelial sodium channel, was induced after Per1 knockdown. These results led us to evaluate BP in Per1 KO mice. Mice lacking Per1 exhibit significantly reduced BP and elevated renal ET-1 levels compared with wild-type animals. Given the established role of renal ET-1 in epithelial sodium channel inhibition and BP control, elevated renal ET-1 is one possible explanation for the lower BP observed in Per1 KO mice. These data support a role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the coordinate regulation of genes involved in renal sodium reabsorption. Importantly, the lower BP observed in Per1 KO mice compared with wild-type mice suggests a role for Per1 in BP control as well.
    Hypertension 04/2012; 59(6):1151-6. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic consumption of a Western-type diet, containing both elevated sugar and fat, results in leptin resistance. We hypothesised that fructose, as part of the sugar component of Western-type diets, is one causative ingredient in the development of leptin resistance and that removal of this component will prevent leptin resistance despite high fat (HF) content. We fed rats a sugar-free (SF), 30 % HF (SF/HF) diet or a 40 % high-fructose (HFr), 30 % HF (HFr/HF) diet for 134 d. The HFr/HF diet resulted in impaired anorexic and body-weight responses to both peripherally (0·6 mg/kg, assessed on day 65 of the diet) and centrally (1·5 μg/d, assessed on days 129-134) administered leptin, whereas SF/HF-fed rats were fully leptin responsive. At day 70, half the HFr/HF-fed animals were switched to the SF/HF diet, reversing the leptin resistance (assessed 18 d after the diet switch). The HFr/HF diet elevated serum leptin and reduced adiponectin, and levels were restored abruptly at day 3 after switching to the SF/HF diet. These data demonstrate that a diet containing both HFr and fat leads to leptin resistance, while an isoenergetic SF/HF diet does not. Moreover, removal of fructose from this diet reverses the leptin resistance and the elevated leptin, suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. These data suggest that fructose is the bioactive component of a HF/high-sugar diet that is essential for the induction of leptin resistance.
    The British journal of nutrition 03/2011; 106(3):390-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are identified in two brain sites, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in brainstem. Earlier pharmacological and POMC gene transfer studies demonstrate that melanocortin activation in either site alone improves insulin sensitivity and reduces obesity. The present study, for the first time, investigated the long-term efficacy of POMC gene transfer concurrently into both sites in the regulation of energy metabolism in aged F344xBN rats bearing adult-onset obesity. Pair feeding was included to reveal food-independent POMC impact on energy expenditure. We introduced adeno-associated virus encoding either POMC or green fluorescence protein to the two brain areas in 22-month-old rats, then recorded food intake and body weight, assessed oxygen consumption, serum leptin, insulin and glucose, tested voluntary wheel running, analysed POMC expression, and examined fat metabolism in brown and white adipose tissues. POMC mRNA was significantly increased in both the hypothalamus and NTS region at termination. Relative to pair feeding, POMC caused sustained weight reduction and additional fat loss, lowered fasting insulin and glucose, and augmented white fat hormone-sensitive lipase activity and brown fat uncoupling protein 1 level. By wheel running assessment, the POMC animals ran twice the distance as the Control or pair-fed rats. Thus, the dual-site POMC treatment ameliorated adult-onset obesity effectively, involving a moderate hypophagia lasting ∼60 days, enhanced lipolysis and thermogenesis, and increased physical activity in the form of voluntary wheel running. The latter finding provides a clue for countering age-related decline in physical activity.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2011; 33(8):1541-50. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that exercise increases central leptin signaling, and thus reduces dietary weight gain in an aged obese model, we assessed the effects of voluntary wheel running (WR) in 23-month-old F344×BN rats fed a 60% high-fat (HF) diet for 3 months. After 2 months on the HF diet, half of the rats were provided access to running wheels for 2 weeks while the other half remained sedentary. Following the removal of the wheels, physical performance was evaluated, and 4 weeks later leptin signaling was assessed in hypothalamus and VTA after an acute bout of WR. Introduction of a HF diet led to prolonged hyperphagia (63.9 ± 7.8 kcal/day on chow diet vs. 88.1 ± 8.2 kcal/day on high-fat diet (when food intake stabilized), p < 0.001). As little as 9 (ranging to 135) wheel revolutions per day significantly reduced caloric consumption of HF food (46.8 ± 11.2 kcal/day) to a level below that on chow diet (63.9 ± 7.8 kcal/day, p < 0.001). After 2 weeks of WR, body weight was significantly reduced (7.9 ± 2.1% compared with prerunning weight, p < 0.001), and physical performance (latency to fall from an incline plane) was significantly improved (p = 0.04). WR significantly increased both basal (p = 0.04) and leptin-stimulated (p = 0.001) STAT3 phosphorylation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not in the hypothalamus. Thus, in aged dietary obese rats, the act but not the extent of voluntary WR is highly effective in reversing HF consumption, decreasing body weight, and improving physical performance. It appears to trigger a response that substitutes for the reward of highly palatable food that may be mediated by increased leptin signaling in the VTA.
    Gerontology 09/2010; 57(4):335-42. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mediates the fine-tuned regulation of external sodium (Na) balance. The circadian clock protein Period 1 (Per1) is an aldosterone-induced gene that regulates mRNA expression of the rate-limiting alpha subunit of ENaC (αENaC). In the present study, we examined the effect of Per1 on αENaC in the cortex, the site of greatest ENaC activity in the collecting duct, and examined the mechanism of Per1 action on αENaC. Compared to wild type mice, Per1 knockout mice exhibited a 50% reduction of steady state αENaC mRNA levels in the cortex. Importantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Per1 decreased total αENaC protein levels in mpkCCD(c14) cells, a widely used model of the murine cortical collecting duct (CCD). Per1 regulated basal αENaC expression and participated in the aldosterone-mediated regulation of αENaC in mpkCCD(c14) cells. Because circadian clock proteins mediate their effects as part of multi-protein complexes at E-box response elements in the promoters of target genes, the ability of Per1 to interact with these sequences from the αENaC promoter was tested. For the first time, we show that Per1 and Clock are present at an E-box response element found in the αENaC promoter. Together these data support an important role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the direct regulation of αENaC transcription and have important implications for understanding the role of the circadian clock in the regulation of renal function.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2010; 1799(9):622-9. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that increased fructose intake is associated with obesity. We hypothesized that chronic fructose consumption causes leptin resistance, which subsequently may promote the development of obesity in response to a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-free control or 60% fructose diet for 6 mo and then tested for leptin resistance. Half of the rats in each group were then switched to high-fat diet for 2 wk, while the other half continued on their respective diets. Chronic fructose consumption caused leptin resistance, while serum leptin levels, weight, and adiposity were the same as in control rats that were leptin responsive. Intraperitoneal leptin injections reduced 24-h food intake in the fructose-free group (73.7 +/- 6.3 vs. 58.1 +/- 8 kcal, P = 0.02) but had no effect in fructose-fed rats (71.2 +/- 6.6 vs. 72.4 +/- 6.4 kcal, P = 0.9). Absence of anorexic response to intraperitoneal leptin injection was associated with 25.7% decrease in hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the high-fructose-fed rats compared with controls (P = 0.015). Subsequent exposure of the fructose-mediated, leptin-resistant rats to a high-fat diet led to exacerbated weight gain (50.2 +/- 2 g) compared with correspondingly fed leptin-responsive animals that were pretreated with the fructose-free diet (30.4 +/- 5.8 g, P = 0.012). Our data indicate that chronic fructose consumption induces leptin resistance prior to body weight, adiposity, serum leptin, insulin, or glucose increases, and this fructose-induced leptin resistance accelerates high-fat induced obesity.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 09/2008; 295(5):R1370-5. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether chronic leptin treatment of diet-induced obese rats promotes or alleviates the susceptibility to continued high-fat feeding. Second, we examined if voluntary wheel running is beneficial in reducing the trajectory of weight gain in high-fat-raised leptin-resistant rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 5 months, and then hypothalamic leptin overexpression was induced through central administration of adeno-associated virus-encoding leptin while continuing either the standard or high-fat diet. Two weeks later, half of the rats in each group were provided access to running wheels for 38 days while being maintained on either a standard or high-fat diet. RESULTS; In standard diet-raised rats, either wheel running or leptin reduced the trajectory of weight gain, and the combined effect of both treatments was additive. In high-fat-raised leptin-resistant rats, leptin overexpression first transiently reduced weight gain but then accelerated the weight gain twofold over controls. Wheel running in high-fat-raised rats was sixfold less than in standard diet-raised rats and did not affect weight gain. Surprisingly, wheel running plus leptin completely prevented weight gain. This synergy was associated with enhanced hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 phosphorylation and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression in wheel running plus leptin compared with leptin-treated sedentary high-fat counterparts. This enhanced STAT3 signaling associated with the combination treatment occurred only in high-fat-raised, leptin-resistant rats and not in standard diet-raised, leptin-responsive rats. Chronic leptin treatment in diet-induced obese rats accelerates dietary obesity. However, leptin combined with wheel running prevents further dietary weight gain. Thus, this combination therapy may be a viable antiobesity treatment.
    Diabetes 04/2008; 57(3):614-22. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the role of the brain stem melanocortin system in long-term energy regulation, we assessed the effects of overproduction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the caudal brain stem of F344xBN rats with adult-onset obesity. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vector encoding POMC gene was delivered to the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) in the hindbrain, and food intake, body weight, glucose and fat metabolism, brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, and mRNA levels of neuropeptides and melanocortin receptors were assessed. POMC delivery resulted in sustained reduction in food intake and body weight over 42 days and improved insulin sensitivity. At death, in recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-POMC-treated rats vs. control rats, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in NTS increased nearly 21-fold, whereas hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone remained unchanged. Visceral adiposity decreased by 37%; tissue triglyceride content diminished by 26% and 47% in liver and muscle, respectively; serum triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids were reduced by 35% and 34%, respectively; phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was elevated by 63% in soleus muscle; brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 increased by 30%; and melanocortin 3 receptor expression declined by 60%, whereas neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, and MC4 receptor mRNA levels were unchanged in the NTS. In conclusion, POMC overexpression in the NTS produces a characteristic unabated hypophagia that is uniquely different from the anorexic tachyphylaxis following POMC overexpression in the hypothalamus. The sustained anorectic response may result from absence of compensatory elements in the NTS, such as increased agouti-related protein expression, suggesting melanocortin activation of the brain stem may be a viable strategy to alleviate obesity.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2007; 293(1):E252-8. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin-resistant rats have reduced leptin receptors and signaling and are refractory to exogenous leptin. However, it is unclear how leptin-mediated hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling relates to the loss of physiological responsiveness. We hypothesized that if leptin resistance is associated with leptin receptors that are no longer functionally coupled to leptin responses, then a leptin antagonist should be less effective in leptin-resistant compared with leptin-responsive rats. Hypothalamic leptin resistance was induced in lean rats with a recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector encoding leptin by intracerebroventricular injection. Following development of leptin resistance, at day 153, these rats and control rats were infused centrally either with vehicle or a rat leptin antagonist for 14 days. Food intake, body weight, adiposity, and uncoupling protein 1 expression increased with antagonist infusion in controls but elevated only marginally in leptin-resistant rats. Basal hypothalamic STAT3 signaling remained unchanged with antagonist infusion in control rats despite the pronounced orexigenic response in these animals. STAT3 phosphorylation in rats pretreated with rAAV-leptin to induce leptin resistance was elevated 2-fold. Paradoxically, in these leptin-resistant rats, the antagonist fully reversed the 2-fold elevated phosphorylated STAT3, but it evoked minimal physiological responses. These data reveal an uncoupling between leptin receptor activation and metabolic responses with central leptin resistance.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2007; 320(2):706-12. · 3.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

213 Citations
60.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Florida
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2013
    • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Gainesville, Florida, United States