Ting-Chien Chen

National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, P’ing-tung-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (15)25.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Humic substance (HS) in sediment can affect hydrophobic organic compound distribution, transportation, bioavailability, and toxicity. This study investigated the HS (BKHS) extracted from sediment and separated it into low molecular humic (LMHS, <1kDa) and high molecular humic substances (HMHS, 1kDa-0.45μm). Nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA) have a significant sorption capacity for HMHS and BKHS solutions. They are xenoestrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds that are widely produced and discharged to the environment. The log KHS values of the BKHS and HMHS solutions were between 4.74-5.09Lkg-C(-1) and 4.57-5.09Lkg-C(-1), respectively. However, the three compounds were not sorbed by the LMHS solution. The average values of SUVA254 for HMHS and LMHS were 4.29 and 1.31Lm(-1)mg-C(-1) and the average values of A250-400 for HMHS and LMHS were 18.1 and 4.51nmcm(-1), respectively. The HMHS peak position in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix at longer wavelengths corresponded to the peak position of LMHS, which indicates that the HMHS had a higher degree of humification than the LMHS. The results suggested that the KHS value's dominant factor was the degree of HS humification.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting compounds are a global concern, owing to their interference with the endocrine system of wildlife. In particular, natural estrogens at concentrations as low as ng/L level can interrupt the endocrine system of many organisms. A constructed wetland is an effective means of removing the residual levels of estrogen. This study investigates the estrogen degradation and sorption on colloids in a constructed wetland at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 27.5, 45.9, and 137.5h. Three natural estrogens (i.e. estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)) are analyzed with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. At HRT=27.5h, no degradation occurs; at HRT=45.9h, the degradation rates are 0-46.2%; and at HRT=137.5h, the degradation rates are 40-84.3%. Additionally, estrogen sorption coefficients (logKCOC values) range from 3.37 to 4.89. Average logKCOC values are 4.08±0.33, 4.04±0.34, and 4.11±0.28 for E1, E2, and E3, respectively. At different HRTs, values of logKCOC increase with an increasing HRT. Analytical results indicate that constructed wetlands can remove residual natural estrogens. With an increasing HRT, the estrogen degradation rate increases as well as the estrogen sorption on colloids.
    Journal of hazardous materials 03/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p < 0.001), land use (β = 0.065, p < 0.001), soil brightness (β = 0.170, p < 0.001), and soil moisture (β = 0.051, p = 0.020), with adjusted R2 = 0.947 (p < 0.001) (n = 662). An univariate logistic regression analysis with the cut-off point of 33.4 pg-BEQ/g d.w. showed significant odds ratios (ORs) for soil sampling location (OR = 2.43, p < 0.001), land use (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001), and soil brightness (OR = 2.83, p = 0.009). In conclusion, four variables, including soil sampling location, land use, soil brightness, and soil moisture, may be related to soil-dioxin contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2014; 11(5):4886-4904. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Chi-I Tuan, Yi-Lung Yeh, Chi-Jen Chen, Ting-Chien Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The enhancement of energy use efficiency is an urgent issue. In this study, Pinch Technology (PT) was used to assess the optimum energy use in a process. A heat pump (HP) was combined with a three-effect vacuum evaporator (TEVE) in an old and traditional food factory to recover and reuse waste heat. The Base case evaluated just the TEVE system. Three other cases included using the TEVE with: PT assessment alone (Case-1), PT with a conventional HP (CHP) (Case-2) and PT with a mechanical vapor recompression technology called Advanced HP (AHP) (Case-3). Case-2 and Case-3 not only enhanced the energy use efficiency and reduced energy consumption, but also decreased waste heat emissions, which lowered the environmental heating load. When the PT was combined with the AHP (Case-3), the results were unsurpassed. The heat of demand and emission were reduced by 15.7 (2.15×106 kWh/y) and 22.6% (3.10×106 kWh/y), respectively compared to the Base case. The results imply that if industry in Taiwan used this system to promote energy use efficiency, the potential energy savings would be equal to 1.9 months of heat energy by burning fuel oil. In addition, the reduced heat discharge potential was 2.44×107 kWh/y, which could also reduce the environmental heating load.
    Journal of The Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers - J TAIWAN INST CHEM ENG. 03/2012;
  • Chi-I Tuan, Yi-Lung Yeh, Lang-Fong Hsu, Ting-Chien Chen
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    ABSTRACT: This research investigated optimal energy utilization with pinch technology based on an actual gelatin production factory using a three-effect evaporator (TEE). A TEE is a well-known device used extensively when concentrating process fluid with large amounts of boiler steam. Under ideal energy use conditions, the exhaust heat can be recovered with the addition of a heat pump system. The study results showed that the original energy demand and discharge of the TEE were 1,736.2 and 1,733.2 kWh, respectively. Simulating the pinch technology use, the energy demand and discharge decreased to 1,531.5 and 1,527.7 kWh, respectively. When the heat pump was used to recover the exhaust heat, 324 kL per annum of fuel oil was saved, while electricity use increased 131 kWh. The total investment cost was 86,550 US$, but the total annual operation cost could save up to 166,421 US$. The net present value was estimated to be 544,316 US$ with a 5-year equipment operation. The investment expense could be completely recovered within a seven-month remuneration period.
    Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 03/2011; 29(3). · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    Yi-Lung Yeh, Ting-Chien Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The overuse of groundwater in coastal areas of Taiwan has caused serious land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and soil salinification. Artificial lakes are one of the alternatives that increase groundwater water resources. The Pingtung Plain is one of the most bountiful groundwater resource areas in Taiwan. The grey correlation method was used to evaluate the four optimal sites in the Pingtung Plain. Evaluations were based on hydraulic conductivity, the amount and quality of source water, the distance between the potential artificial lake site and the source water intake position, and the quantity and quality of gravel dug from the potential artificial lake site. Based on groundwater recharge and water storage, the grey correlation method showed that site D (Dar-Shiang-Yung) was the best choice.Key words: artificial lake, grey correlation analysis, groundwater recharge, Pingtung Plain.
    Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 02/2011; 31(1):56-64. · 0.47 Impact Factor
  • Chi-I Tuan, Ting-Chien Chen, Yi-Lung Yeh, Chi-Jen Chen
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    ABSTRACT: A heat pump is a high-efficiency energy converting system, which can combine endothermic and exothermic functions. This study used a heat pump, combining an air conditioner and a boiler, in a factory to assess the energy utilization efficiency. The result showed that when the heat pump was used the entire year, 96,824 L of fuel oil, 136,953 kW of electricity, and 2,165 m 3 of water could be saved. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced by 386,642 kg-CO2. Investment costs could be fully recovered within 0.5 years. The system justifies an immediate investment.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2010; 408(16):3223-30. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the variation in toxicity of phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and determined the correlation between their concentrations. All twenty-four samples acquired from a polluted river contained five phenolic EDCs. The EDC nonylphenol (NP) concentration was found to be the highest (4.26 +/- 2.74 microg/L) in the river water. In addition the concentrations of nonylphenol diethoxylate, (NP2EO), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), and bisphenol A (BPA) were 1.58 +/- 1.37 microg/L; 2.90 +/- 2.77 microg/L; 2.89 +/- 2.15 microg/L; and 2.25 +/- 0.96 microg/L, respectively. Concentrations of NP, NP1EO, and OP were significantly greater in the daytime than in the nighttime samples. Furthermore, concentrations of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO showed a strong correlation due to similar parent compounds while BPA and OP did not. NP1EO had the highest risk to aquatic organisms (hazard quotient, HQ = 26.3) and BPA the lowest (HQ = 2.24).The accumulative HQ sum (hazard index, HI) was 81.3 within all the samples. The HI was 110.3 in the daytime samples. This was 97% higher than in the nighttime HI (56.3), which suggested daytime anthropogenic discharges were an important source of toxicity to aquatic organisms.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 10/2009; 44(12):1244-50. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Meei-Fang Shue, Fu-An Chen, Ting-Chien Chen
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    ABSTRACT: We report a survey on the occurrence and distribution of nonylphenol (NP) and 17beta-estradiol equivalent quotient (EEQ) concentrations in Donggang River, Taiwan. Concentrations of NP were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescent system and EEQs were carried with an MVLN cell line. Concentrations of NP ranged from less than 93 to 511 ng/L; EEQs ranged from less than 0.16 to 8.64 ng-E2/L. Concentrations of NP were higher in the dry season than in the wet season, which was affected by a high flow rate. In the main water course, higher EEQ occurred in the wet season than in the dry season; rainfall may have flushed substances containing estrogenic activity. NP and EEQ concentrations occurred in seawater only in the dry season, especially high EEQ values, and were not detected in the wet season. The reasons are not clear at this moment. Furthermore, NP concentrations provided low contribution to the total estrogenic activity.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 08/2009; 168(1-4):91-101. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals, was detected in water collected from Kao-Pin River and its tributaries. Results indicated that 59% of the water samples contained BPA. Concentrations ranged from less than the limit of detection (LOD, 0.037) to 4.23 microg/L. The mean concentrations were 0.16, 0.20, 1.02, 1.30, and 0.30 microg/L for sampling sites S1, S2, S3, S4, and S5, respectively. Concentrations were not significantly different between high and low-flow periods in sites S2, S3, and S4. In site S1, concentrations in the high-flow period were significantly greater than during the lower flow period, and in site S5, BPA concentration in the low-flow period was significantly greater than in the high-flow period. The BPA mass flow rate in site S5 was greater in the high-flow period than in the low-flow period.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 02/2009; 161(1-4):135-45. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and 17beta-estradiol equivalent quotient (EEQ) concentrations in Kaoping River and two of its tributaries in Taiwan. During this study 44 water samples were collected from four sampling campaigns. Concentrations of NP in these samples ranged from 0.19 to 183.4 mug/L; EEQ ranged from less than limit of detection (1.41) to 32.2 ng-E2/L. NP concentrations in the main watercourse ranged from 0.19 to 9.21 mug/L; EEQ ranged from less than limit of detection to 2.13 ng-E2/L. These values are comparable to most rivers worldwide. The Wulo Creek tributary was polluted by animal waste discharges and the NP concentrations ranged from 0.72 to 6.8 mug/L. The EEQ ranged from 3.86 to 32.2 ng-E2/L. The Niouchou Creek tributary was polluted with domestic wastewater. Concentrations of NP ranged from 8.79 to 183.4 mug/L and EEQ ranged from 2.94 to 27.8 ng-E2/L. These data suggest that both inadequately treated livestock and human wastewater can cause high NP and EEQ concentrations.
    Water Science & Technology 02/2009; 59(10):2055-63. · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Fu-An Chen, Meei-Fang Shue, Ting-Chien Chen
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    ABSTRACT: There are 10 manufacturers who produce fossil fuel products in the Da-Hse Industrial District, Kaohsiung County, southwestern Taiwan. Before discharging the wastewater into the nearby aquatic environment, the pretreated wastewater from these manufacturers must be processed in a treatment plant which includes four major processing units: equalization, a primary clarifier, an aeration basin, and a final clarifier. In order to estimate the potential environmental risks of industrial wastewater from each manufacturer and the treatment efficiency of the powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) system used in this wastewater treatment plant, in vitro bioassays for estrogenicity and oxidative hepatotoxicity were carried out using a stably transfected human breast cancer cell line, MVLN, and a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2, respectively. Estrogenic substances occurred in nine of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which the relative luciferase activity ranged from 18.9% to 98.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewaters corresponding to the concentration of the original wastewater. The estrogenicity was highest at the influent of the treatment plant and decreased through the treatment process. About 81% estrogenicity clearance was found through all processing units. On the other hand, oxidative hepatotoxic substances existed in seven of 10 pretreated wastewaters from these manufacturers in which relative TBARs activity ranged from 18.5% to 43.0% for 1-fold-condensed wastewater. The TBARs of influent samples apparently decreased through the processing units until the aeration basin, but abruptly rose in the final clarifier, which was a result of the addition of an active charcoal-retrieving agent with the molecular formula of (C(2)H(3))(n)CONHCH(2)N(CH(3))(3)Cl and which had high TBARs activity. No TBARs activity being found in effluent samples could be a consequence of allowing sufficient time for coagulation between the active charcoal and its retrieval agent which decreased the residual active charcoal-retrieving agent. We concluded that the industrial wastewater treatment plant using the PACT system in the Da-Hse Industrial District is suitable for removing estrogenic substances and oxidative hepatotoxic substances discharged from these industrial manufacturers.
    Chemosphere 07/2004; 55(10):1377-85. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Ting-Chien Chen, Yi-Lung Yeh
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    ABSTRACT: Biochemically, nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEOs) and its breakdown products nonylphenol (NP), NP monoethoxylate (NP1EO), and NP diethoxylate (NP2EO) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. These NPnEOs have been detected in aquatic environments and are of concern. NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO were detected in water samples collected from the main watercourse and polluted tributaries of Kaoping River, Taiwan. Concentrations were below the detection limit (<LOD) to 310μg/l for NP, from <LOD to 27.2μg/l for NP1EO, and from <LOD to 27.5μg/l for NP2EO. It was found that concentrations of the three compounds in a low flow period were significantly greater than in the high flow period due to the low dilution effect. The risk to aquatic organisms by NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO was expressed as hazard quotient and hazard index and simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Results from this study suggested an inadequately treated domestic wastewater caused high concentrations of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO and a high risk to aquatic organisms. KeywordsEcological risk-Mass loading-Monte Carlo simulation-Nonylphenol (NP)-NP monoethoxylate (NP1EO)-NP diethoxylate (NP2EO)
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 208(1):209-220. · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Chi-I Tuan, Yi-Lung Yeh, Ting-Chien Chen, Chi-Jen Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Vaporized concentration is an operation process that requires a large amount of energy consumption. A three-effect vacuum evaporator (TEVE) has been widely used to reduce energy demand. However, it still requires external hot and cold functions. In this study, we showed that a TEVE saved energy under standard operating conditions in a food processing plant. A heat pump was combined with the TEVE (producing a TEVEHP system) to further save extra energy. The net present value (NPV) for the heat pump investment assessment was US$ 38,856 after five years of operation, and the break-even period was 10 months. This study also developed a multiple equation for the TEVE system that included four production parameters: input gelatin loading, input gelatin temperature, output gelatin concentration, and steam loading. This equation can simply and usefully calculate the TEVE operating and energy consumption data, and these data can be used to control the process to reach the optimum production conditions of the TEVE.