Masaki Edamatsu

The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan

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Publications (21)84.5 Total impact

  • Masaki Edamatsu
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    ABSTRACT: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2013; 104(2):322-. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Biophysical Journal 01/2011; 100(3). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We visualized the nucleotide-dependent behavior of single molecules of mammalian native cytoplasmic dynein using fragments of dynactin p150 with or without its N-terminal microtubule binding domain. The results indicate that the binding affinity of dynein for microtubules is high in AMP-PNP, middle in ADP or no nucleotide, and low in ADP.Pi conditions. It is also demonstrated that the microtubule binding domain of dynactin p150 maintains the association of dynein with microtubules without altering the motile property of dynein in the weak binding state. In addition, we observed bidirectional movement of dynein in the presence of ATP as well as in ADP/Vi condition, suggesting that the bidirectional movement is driven by diffusion rather than active transport.
    FEBS letters 06/2010; 584(11):2351-5. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fission yeast Pkl1 is a kinesin-14A family member that is known to be localized at the cellular spindle and is capable of hydrolyzing ATP. However, its motility has not been detected. Here, we show that Pkl1 is a slow, minus end-directed microtubule motor with a maximum velocity of 33+/-9 nm/s. The Km,MT value of steady-state ATPase activity of Pkl1 was as low as 6.4+/-1.1 nM, which is 20-30 times smaller than that of kinesin-1 and another kinesin-14A family member, Ncd, indicating a high affinity of Pkl1 for microtubules. However, the duty ratio of 0.05 indicates that Pkl1 spends only a small fraction of the ATPase cycle strongly associated with a microtubule. By using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that single molecules of Pkl1 were not highly processive but only exhibited biased one-dimensional diffusion along microtubules, whereas several molecules of Pkl1, probably fewer than 10 molecules, cooperatively moved along microtubules and substantially reduced the diffusive component in the movement. Our results suggest that Pkl1 molecules work in groups to move and generate forces in a cooperative manner for their mitotic functions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2008; 283(52):36465-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional kinesin (Kinesin-1) is a microtubule-based molecular motor that supports intracellular vesicle/organelle transport in various eukaryotic cells. To arrange kinesin motors similarly to myosin motors on thick filaments in muscles, the motor domain of rat conventional kinesin (amino acid residues 1-430) fused to the C-terminal 829 amino acid residues of catchin (KHC430Cat) was bacterially expressed and attached to catchin filaments that can attach to and arrange myosin molecules in a bipolar manner on their surface. Unlike the case of myosin where actin filaments move toward the center much faster than in the opposite direction along the catchin filaments, microtubules moved at the same speed in both directions. In addition, many microtubules moved across the filaments at the same speed with various angles between the axes of the microtubule and catchin filament. Kinesin/catchin chimera proteins with a shorter kinesin neck domain were also prepared. Those without the whole hinge 1 domain and the C-terminal part of the neck helix moved microtubules toward the center of the catchin filaments significantly, but only slightly, faster than in the opposite direction, although the movements in both directions were slower than those of the KHC430Cat construct. The results suggest that kinesin has substantial mechanical flexibility within the motor domain, possibly within the neck linker, enabling its interaction with microtubules having any orientation.
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 10/2008; 65(10):816-26. · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dynein is a motor ATPase, and the C-terminal two-thirds of its heavy chain form a ring structure. One of protrudings from this ring structure is a stalk whose tip, the dynein stalk head (DSH), is thought to be the microtubule-binding domain. As a first step toward elucidating the functional mechanisms of DSH, we aimed at the NMR structural analysis of an isolated DSH from mouse cytoplasmic dynein. The DSH expressed in bacteria and purified was coprecipitated with microtubules, suggesting its proper folding. Chemical shifts of the DSH were obtained from NMR measurements, and backbone assignment identified 94% of the main-chain N-H signals. Secondary structural prediction programs showed that about 60% of the residues formed alpha-helices. A region with cationic residues K58 and R61 (and possibly R66 as well), and another with R86, K88, K90, and K91, were found to form alpha-helices. Both of these regions may be important in the formation of the DSH-binding site to a microtubule that has a low pI with a number of acidic residues. Two synthetic peptides containing the sequence of the alpha-helix 12 of beta-tubulin, considered to be important in binding to DSH, were investigated. Of these two peptides, the one with higher helix-formation propensity appeared to bind to DSH, since it precipitated with DSH in a nearly stoichiometric manner. This suggested that the alpha-helicity of this region would be important in its binding to DSH.
    Journal of Biomolecular NMR 07/2008; 41(2):89-96. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dynactin is a hetero-oligomeric protein complex that has an important role in dynein-based intracellular transport. The expressed N-terminal fragments of dynactin p150 bound to microtubules in the ratio of one to one tubulin dimer, independent from the binding of dynein stalk head. Single molecule observation revealed that these fragments moved around on microtubules by Brownian motion. When the dynein-dynactin complex moves on microtubules, p150 can support dynein to maintain contact with microtubules and does not interfere with the motility of dynein, and thus, the dynein-dynactin complex can efficiently achieve long-distance carriage of the cargo.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2006; 340(1):23-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ncd is a molecular motor belonging to the kinesin superfamily. In solution, it is a homo-dimer of a 700 amino acid polypeptide. The C-terminus of each polypeptide forms a globular domain of about 40 kDa, the motor domain with ATPase activity. The ATPase site of the motor domain of kinesin family members, including ncd, binds ADP tightly, the release of which is facilitated by microtubules during the mechanochemical ATPase cycle. Previously, we studied the spectroscopic characteristics of the ncd motor domain, focusing on interactions of the transition-moment-dipoles between ADP and aromatic amino acid side chains using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. In the present study, we generated several ncd motor domain mutants. In each, a tryptophanyl or specific tyrosyl residue was mutated. We found that Trp370 and Tyr442, the latter of which stacks directly with the adenine moiety of bound ADP, caused the bound ADP to exhibit peculiar CD signals. In addition, fluorescence measurements revealed that Trp370, but not Trp473, was responsible for the emission intensity change depending on the presence or absence of bound ADP. This fluorescence result implies that the structural change induced at the ADP-binding site (on the release of the ADP) is transmitted to the region that includes Trp370, which is relatively close to the ADP-binding site but not in direct contact with the ADP-binding region. In contrast, Trp473 in the region that is in contact with the alpha-helical coiled coil stalk did not experience the structural changes caused on removal of ADP. The distinct behavior of these two tryptophanyl residues suggests that the ncd motor domain has a bifacial architecture made up of a relatively deformable side including the nucleotide binding site and a more rigid one.
    Journal of Biochemistry 08/2005; 138(1):95-104. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated a novel micro/nanotransport system using biomolecular motors driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the driving mechanism, microtubule-kinesin system, which is one of the linear biomolecular motor systems was investigated. ATP dissolved in an aqueous condition is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to energize the bionanoactuators in this mechanism. This means the system does not require an external electrical or mechanical energy source. Therefore, a purely chemical system which is similar to the in vivo transport will be realized. This paper reports some fundamental studies to integrate biomaterials and MEMS. The microtubules, or rail molecules, were patterned on a glass substrate with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) using a regular soft lithography technique. Microbeads (320 nm in diameter) and a micromachined structure (2×3 μm, 2 μm in thickness) coated with kinesin molecules were transported along the microtubules at an average speed of 476±56 and 308 nm/s, respectively. While ATP injection activated the transport system we have also managed to provide repetitive on/off control using hexokinase as an inhibitor. For the minimum response time in the repetitive control, the optimized concentration for ATP was 10<sup>2</sup> μM and 10<sup>3</sup> U/L for hexokinase.
    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 09/2004; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end-directed microtubule motor involved in numerous essential processes within eukaryotic cells, such as nuclear segregation and trafficking of intracellular particles. The motor domain of the dynein heavy chain comprises six tandemly linked AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) modules (AAA1-AAA6). The first four modules include nucleotide-binding sites (Walker A or P-loop motifs), and each of the four sites appears to bind ATP. However, the role and the function of each binding site are unknown. Especially, the question of which P-loops are ATP-hydrolyzing sites has not been answered, because it is difficult to measure the ATPase activity of each P-loop. Here, we purified several truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein fragments and their mutants expressed in Escherichia coli and then measured their ATPase activities. Our results suggest that there are multiple ATP-binding sites that have abilities to hydrolyze ATP in cytoplasmic dynein. Furthermore, a single AAA module is insufficient for ATP hydrolysis, and the adjacent module facing the ATP-binding site is necessary for ATP-hydrolyzing activity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2004; 101(35):12865-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dyneins and kinesins move in opposite directions on microtubules. The question of how the same-track microtubules are able to support movement in two directions remains unanswered due to the absence of details on dynein-microtubule interactions. To address this issue, we studied dynein-microtubule interactions using the tip of the microtubule-binding stalk, the dynein stalk head (DSH), which directly interacts with microtubules upon receiving conformational change from the ATPase domain. Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopic studies revealed that DSH bound to tubulin dimers with a periodicity of 80 A, corresponding to the step size of dyneins. The DSH molecule was observed as a globular corn grain-like shape that bound the same region as kinesin. Biochemical crosslinking experiments and image analyses of the DSH-kinesin head-microtubule complex revealed competition between DSH and the kinesin head for microtubule binding. Our results demonstrate that dynein and kinesin share an overlapping microtubule-binding site, and imply that binding at this site has an essential role for these motor proteins.
    The EMBO Journal 08/2004; 23(13):2459-67. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have successfully realized an on/off control of biomolecular linear motors in a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) chamber sealed with a cover glass. A linear biomolecular motor system, microtubule-kinesin system, is controlled by injecting the optimized concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for the activation and hexokinase for the stoppage. Not only control from on to off or off to on, the repetitive injection of ATP and hexokinase proves that kinesin molecules can move and stop alternatively once they bind to microtubules.
    TRANSDUCERS, Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, 12th International Conference on, 2003; 07/2003
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    ABSTRACT: Chromokinesin Kid (kinesin-like DNA-binding protein) localizes on spindles and chromosomes and has important roles in generating polar ejection force on microtubules in the metaphase. To understand these functions of Kid at the molecular level, we investigated molecular properties of Kid, its oligomeric state, interaction with microtubules, and physiological activity in vitro. Kid expressed in mammalian cells, as well as Kid expressed in Escherichia coli, was found to be monomeric. However, Kid cross-linked microtubules in an ATP-sensitive manner, suggesting that Kid has a second microtubule-binding site in addition to its motor domain. This was ascertained by binding of Kid fragments lacking the motor domain to microtubules. The interaction of the second microtubule-binding site was weak in a nucleotide-insensitive manner. KmMT of the ATPase activity of Kid was lower than that of the fragments lacking the second microtubule-binding site. Moreover, the velocity of Kid movement in vitro was not affected by the second microtubule-binding site, which is consistent with the weak binding of this site to microtubules. The second microtubule-binding site would be important to enhance the affinity to microtubules for the monomeric motor, Kid. Because the amino acid sequence of this region is highly conserved among species, it seems to have essential roles for the functions of Kid in vivo.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2003; 278(25):22460-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kid is a kinesin-like DNA-binding protein known to be involved in chromosome movement during mitosis, although its actual motor function has not been demonstrated. Here, we describe the initial characterization of Kid as a microtubule-based motor using optical trapping microscopy. A bacterially expressed fusion protein consisting of a truncated Kid fragment (amino acids 1-388 or 1-439) is indeed an active microtubule motor with an average speed of approximately 160 nm/s, and the polarity of movement is plus end directed. We could not detect processive movement of either monomeric Kid or dimerizing chimeric Kid; however, low levels of processivity (a few steps) cannot be detected with our method. These results are consistent with Kid having a role in chromosome congression in vivo, where it would be responsible for the polar ejection forces acting on the chromosome arms.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2003; 22(5):1067-74. · 9.82 Impact Factor
  • Masaki Edamatsu, Yoko Y Toyoshima
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    ABSTRACT: Synaptobrevin is a vesicle-associated membrane protein playing an essential role in regulated vesicle transport. In this study, we characterized Syb1, synaptobrevin of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Syb1 was located on various sizes of vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm and enriched in the medial region and cell ends. Transport of Syb1 to the medial region was mainly dependent on F-actin and Myo52/Myo4. Syb1 is essential for cell viability and most of the syb1-null cells showed a round or short cylindrical form. These results suggest that Syb1 is involved in membrane trafficking of cytokinesis and cell elongation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2003; 301(3):641-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated a novel micro/nano transportation system using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven biomolecular motors. Two kinds of linear biomolecular motor systems, microtubule- kinesin [1] and actin- myosin [2], are investigated as driving mechanisms in the system. The rail molecules, microtubules, and actin are patterned on a glass substrate using a regular soft lithography technique with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS). A few pm order micromachined structure coated with the motor molecules was transported along the rail molecules.
    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2003. MEMS-03 Kyoto. IEEE The Sixteenth Annual International Conference on; 02/2003
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    ABSTRACT: Kinesin is a motor protein that transports organelles along a microtubule toward its plus end by using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. To clarify the nucleotide-dependent binding mode, we measured the unbinding force for one-headed kinesin heterodimers in addition to conventional two-headed kinesin homodimers under several nucleotide states. We found that both a weak and a strong binding state exist in each head of kinesin corresponding to a small and a large unbinding force, respectively; that is, weak for the ADP state and strong for the nucleotide-free and adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate states. Model analysis showed that (i) the two binding modes in each head could be explained by a difference in the binding energy and (ii) the directional instability of binding, i.e., dependence of unbinding force on loading direction, could be explained by a difference in the characteristic distance for the kinesin-microtubule interaction during plus- and minus-end-directed loading. Both these factors must play an important role in the molecular mechanism of kinesin motility.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2002; 99(9):5977-81. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • M Edamatsu
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that vesicle transport to cleavage furrow is indispensable for cytokinesis. Some animal and plant cells form distinct structures during cell division known as central spindle and phragmoplast, respectively. Several essential factors involved in the vesicle transport have been isolated so far. SNARE proteins and molecular motors play a central role in this process. For future research of cytokinesis, it is important to investigate these factors as well as cytoskeletal components of the contractile ring in detail. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism of targeted vesicle transport in cytokinesis.
    Cell Structure and Function 01/2002; 26(6):567-70. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • M Edamatsu, Y Y Toyoshima
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    ABSTRACT: We have isolated mutants of fission yeast defective in correct positioning of septum. In visual screening, we obtained 16 clones showing unequal septation at restrictive temperature, which were classified into three complementation groups. At restrictive temperature, all the mutants underwent nuclear division normally. In cytokinesis, however, a contractile ring was formed at the site independent of the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that positional information for cytokinesis are not accurately transmitted to the cell equator. Furthermore, all the mutants frequently displayed incorrect orientation and/or distortion of septum, which suggests that the septum positioning is closely related to correct orientation and organization of septum.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 05/1996; 13(2):235-9. · 1.08 Impact Factor