[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias in clinical practice and it is often diagnosed after a complication occurs. The study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) for atrial fibrillation in a male population-based study.
This study is a part of the "Study of Men Born in 1913 and 1923", a longitudinal prospective cohort study of men, living in the city of Gothenburg in Sweden. A population-based sample of 528 men was investigated in 1988 when they were aged 65years (n=134) and 75years (n=394), and they were followed up for 16years. Blood samples were collected from all 528 men at baseline and plasma ANP levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Hazard ratios were estimated by competing-risk regression analysis. One hundred five participants were excluded because of a prior diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, severe hypertension, or severe chronic renal insufficiency. Of the remaining 423 participants, 90 men were diagnosed with atrial fibrillation over the 16-year follow-up. In multivariable analysis, men in the two highest quartiles of ANP levels had a significantly higher risk for atrial fibrillation compared with men in the lowest ANP quartile. The adjusted ratio was 3.14 (95% CI 1.59-6.20) for the third ANP quartile and 3.36 (95% CI 1.72-6.54) for the highest quartile of ANP level.
In this population-based longitudinal study, we found that elevated ANP levels at baseline predicted atrial fibrillation during a follow-up time of 16years.
International journal of cardiology 11/2013; · 7.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular events associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in new users of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Two cohorts of patients aged 50-84 years were identified from UK primary care databases: individuals with a first prescription for ASA (75-300 mg/day) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events (n = 39,513; CVD cohort) or with a record of hospitalisation for an acute coronary event (n = 42,542; ACS cohort) in 2000-2007. Cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary death were identified: 1,222 in the CVD cohort and 604 among new users of ASA in the ACS cohort. A nested case-control analysis estimated the relative risk (RR) of non-fatal MI or coronary death associated with use vs non-use of PPI therapy. Current continuous use of PPI therapy was not associated with a significant increase in RR overall: in the CVD cohort (RR = 1.14 [95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.43]); in the ACS cohort (0.88 [0.66-1.18]); or among current continuous users of ASA as antiplatelet monotherapy (CVD cohort: 1.15 [0.80-1.66]; ACS cohort: 0.73 [0.43-1.23]; pooled analysis of both cohorts: 0.96 [0.62-1.48]). Among first-time users of ASA for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, PPI use was not shown to be associated with an increased risk of non-fatal MI or coronary death.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 10/2013; 111(1). · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some pharmacokinetic studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the activity of clopidogrel, but the results of studies assessing clinical outcomes in patients receiving both drugs are inconsistent. We have therefore carried out a population-based cohort study with nested case-control analysis, in order to evaluate changes in the risk of cardiovascular and peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) events associated with PPI use in patients receiving clopidogrel. A total of 42,542 patients aged 50-84 years in 2000-2007 who survived an acute coronary event were identified in two UK-based primary care databases (The Health Improvement Network and the General Practice Research Database). Individuals were followed up to identify incident cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction/coronary death (n = 2,546) and PUB (n = 194). Controls were frequency matched to cases by age, sex and calendar year. Compared with PPI non-use, current continuous PPI use was not associated with a significant change in risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction/coronary death among current continuous users of clopidogrel monotherapy (relative risk [RR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.47 to 2.36) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT; RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.37) who initiated their antiplatelet therapy shortly after their coronary event. Among patients prescribed DAT at the start date, the RR of PUB events associated with current PPI use initiated at the start date was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.27 to 1.60).
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2013; 110(4). · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For patients at high cardiovascular and high gastrointestinal (GI) risk, coprescription of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with low-dose aspirin is recommended. We aimed to quantify the extent to which low-dose aspirin discontinuation in patients at high cardiovascular risk is affected by PPI use and baseline GI risk. Patients aged 50 to 84 years who had evidence of ischemic heart disease or cardiovascular disease and who were new users of low-dose aspirin in 2000 to 2007 were identified using The Health Improvement Network (n = 35,604). Aspirin discontinuation was defined as a period of at least 90 days after completion of the last prescribed course during which no repeat prescription was issued. The incidence of low-dose aspirin discontinuation was 26.8 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.2 to 27.4). The age-, gender-, and indication-adjusted risk of aspirin discontinuation was 15% less among continuous PPI users than among PPI nonusers (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.92); after further adjusting for number of coprescribed medications, the HR was 0.95 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.03). Continuous PPI use was associated with a reduced risk of aspirin discontinuation among patients at high GI risk (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.93) but not among those at low GI risk (HR 1.08; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.21). In conclusion, among patients at high GI risk, concomitant users of aspirin and PPI showed a greater aspirin adherence than aspirin users not on PPI. Further studies need to confirm factors with the potential to increase adherence to long-term aspirin.
The American journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Some recent reports suggest an increased risk of fractures with use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine type 2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), although results are inconsistent and a causal relationship has yet to be proven. As these acid-suppressive drugs may have uncommon adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as dizziness, we investigated whether their use is associated with falls as a possible mechanism for increasing fracture risk. METHODS:: A cohort study with nested case-control analysis and two validation strategies was performed using data from UK patients (aged 40-89 years) included in The Health Improvement Network database (2000-2008). Due to the large number of falls, a random sample of 20,000 cases was used for the analysis. RESULTS:: The overall incidence of falls per 1000 person-years was 13.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.9-13.1). After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no relationship between falls and current use of single PPIs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.89-1.02) or H2RAs (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.90-1.14); there was no relationship with dose or duration of treatment. Falls were associated with CNS disorders and treatment with various pharmacological agents including antiparkinson drugs (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 2.2-3.3) and antiepileptics (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.8-2.3). CONCLUSIONS:: There was no association between falls and use of PPIs or H2RAs. Any potential increase in the risk of fractures proposed to be associated with the use of acid-suppressive drugs is not via an increased risk of falls.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Simple global self-ratings of health (SRH) have become increasingly used in national and international public health monitoring, and in recent decades recommended as a standard part of health surveys. Monitoring developments in population health requires identification and use of health measures, valid in relation to targets for population health. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between SRH and sick leave, disability pension, hospital admissions, and mortality, adjusted for effects of significant covariates, in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: The analyses were based on screening data from eight population-based cohorts in southern and central Sweden, and on official register data regarding sick-leave, disability pension, hospital admissions, and death, with little or no data loss. Sampling was performed 1973--2003. The study population consisted of 11,880 women and men, age 25--99 years, providing 14,470 observations. Information on SRH, socio-demographic data, lifestyle variables and somatic and psychological symptoms were obtained from questionnaires. RESULTS: There was a significant negative association between SRH and sick leave (Beta -13.2, p<0.0001, and -9.5, p<0.01, in women and men, respectively), disability pension (Hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.0001 and 0.76, p<0.0001, in women and men, respectively), and mortality, adjusted for covariates. SRH was also significantly associated with hospital admissions in men (Hazard ratio 0.87, p<0.0001), but not in women (Hazard ratio 0.96, p0.20). Associations between SRH on the one hand, and sick leave, disability pension, hospital admission, and mortality, on the other, were robust during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: SRH had strong predictive validity in relation to use of social insurance facilities and health care services, and to mortality. Associations were strong and robust during follow-up.
BMC Public Health 12/2012; 12(1):1103. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to one-third of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in primary care have residual symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. We aimed to characterize partial response to PPIs among adult patients in UK primary care.
Newly diagnosed GERD patients aged 20-79 years who were prescribed PPI for treatment of GERD were identified in The Health Improvement Network. Those with a treatment change suggesting partial response to PPIs (new treatment added to PPI, increased PPI dose, or switching PPI) during the subsequent 6 months were identified as potential cases and confirmed after manual review of each patient's complete computer medical record including free-text comments. Patients without these treatment changes were study controls. A nested case-control analysis was conducted using logistic regression.
The proportion of newly diagnosed GERD patients with partial response to PPI therapy was 18.6% (1201/6453). Partial response was associated with female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.37), anxiety or depression (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00-1.31), and prescription of ≥ 6 drugs in the month before GERD diagnosis (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78). Among new PPI users (n = 2907), partial response was associated with esophageal ulcer or Barrett's esophagus at initial diagnosis (OR: 3.14; 95% CI: 1.60-6.17).
Approximately one in five newly diagnosed patients with GERD appear to have a partial response to PPI therapy. Female gender, polymedication, and a severe initial diagnosis may be associated with partial response.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 04/2012; 47(7):751-61. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine trends and predictors of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) coprescription with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prescribed for secondary cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease (CVD) prevention in UK primary care.
Patients aged 50-84 years who received a first prescription for low-dose ASA for secondary CVD prevention in 2000-2001 (n = 10,330) or 2006-2007 (n = 8154) were identified in The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database. Clopidogrel or PPI coprescriptions received within 15 days after the first low-dose ASA prescription were ascertained.
Clopidogrel coprescription with low-dose ASA increased from 1.6% to 25.2% between the two study periods; PPI coprescription increased from 11.6% to 28.3%. Low-dose ASA indications of myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR) 11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.2 to 13.4] and unstable angina (OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.09 to 2.75) were positive predictors of clopidogrel coprescription in 2006-2007, relative to chronic ischaemic heart disease. Patients at high risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were more likely to receive a PPI than those at lower risk in 2006-2007 (OR 4.36, 95%CI 3.93 to 4.84). In this period, 65.5% of patients who required a clopidogrel coprescription according to guideline recommendations received one, and 44.3% of patients at high risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding received a PPI.
Clopidogrel and PPI coprescription with low-dose ASA increased markedly between 2000-2001 and 2006-2007; however, many patients on low-dose ASA did not receive the recommended coprescriptions at the end of the study period.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 02/2012; 21(5):463-9. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global self-rated health (SRH) has become extensively used as an outcome measure in population health surveillance. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of age and secular trend (year of investigation) on SRH.
Prospective cohort study, using population-based data from eight ongoing cohort studies, with sampling performed between 1973 and 2003.
11 880 women and men, aged 25-99 years, providing 14 470 observations.
In multiple ordinal logistic regression analyses, adjusted for the effects of covariates, there were independent effects of age (p<0.0001) and of year of investigation (p<0.0001) on SRH. In women the association was linear, showing lower levels of SRH with increased age, and more recent year of investigation. In men the association was curvilinear, and thus more complex. The final model explained 76.2% of the SRH variance in women and 74.5% of the variance in men.
SRH was strongly and inversely associated with age in both sexes, after adjustment for other outcome-affecting variables. There was a strongly significant effect of year of investigation indicating a change in SRH, in women towards lower levels over calendar time, in men with fluctuations across time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used to delay tumour development and improve survival in patients with prostate cancer. However, several randomized controlled trials and observational studies have suggested that ADT may increase the risk of cardiovascular events.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) in patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT in UK primary care, and to evaluate the risks associated with individual ADT and combination ADT.
The UK General Practice Research Database was used to identify a cohort of patients with a first prostate cancer diagnosis during 1999-2005. These patients were followed up to assess the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), death from CHD, incident HF and hospitalization due to acute decompensated HF. Nested case-control analyses were performed to assess the risk of these outcomes associated with anti-androgen therapy, as well as different types of ADT and combinations of ADT.
Current anti-androgen use was associated with a significant increase in the risk of hospitalization due to HF (odds ratio [OR] 2.15; 95% CI 1.08, 4.29), but not of incident HF, CHD or AMI. When assessed individually, there was no significant association of bicalutamide or cyproterone use with the risk of AMI or CHD. Current use of bicalutamide 50 mg/day was associated with a significant increase in the risk of HF (OR 3.28; 95% CI 1.31, 8.18); however, this increased risk of HF was only found in patients taking bicalutamide 50 mg/day in combination with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor agonists. There were no cases of hospitalized HF in patients taking bicalutamide 50 mg/day as monotherapy and there was no significant association between current use of bicalutamide 150 mg/day and the risk of hospitalized HF. Combination therapy with LHRH agonists and anti-androgens was associated with a significant increase in the risk of CHD (OR 4.35; 95% CI 1.94, 9.75), AMI (OR 3.57; 95% CI 1.44, 8.86), incident HF (OR 3.19; 95% CI 1.10, 9.27) and hospitalized HF (OR 3.39; 95% CI 1.07, 10.70) compared with non-use of these drugs.
In men with prostate cancer, combination therapy with LHRH agonists and anti-androgens is associated with significant increases in the risk of CHD, AMI, incident HF and hospitalized HF. Individual therapies do not appear to increase the risk of these outcomes.
Drug Safety 11/2011; 34(11):1061-77. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischaemic cerebrovascular accident (ICVA) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Identification of risk factors can reduce its incidence. We aim to estimate the incidence rate (IR) of hospitalised ICVA in the general population by sex and quantify its risk associated with several factors.
We followed up 907, 001 individuals aged 40-84 years during a mean of 3.63 years to ascertain the first episode of hospitalised ICVA between 2000 and 2004 using a UK primary care database. We evaluated the risk factors for ICVA through unconditional logistic regression (OR) with a nested case-control analysis, using 2953 incident cases and 10, 000 random controls frequency-matched by age, sex and year.
The IR of hospitalised ICVA was 1.94 (95%CI: 1.87-2.01) per 1000 person-years in men and 1.59 (95%CI: 1.53-1.65) in women. The IR ratio adjusted by age was 1.35 (95%CI: 1.28-1.43). Major risk factors for the first ICVA were atrial fibrillation (AF) (OR of 1.96 (95%CI: 1.59-2.42) for men and 3.54 (95%CI: 2.85-4.39) for women), smoking, epilepsy and hypertension. AF patients on anticoagulant therapy presented a reduced risk of ICVA (OR: 0.39; 95%CI: 0.27-0.56) in both sexes. Hypertensive women that discontinued the treatment had an increased risk (OR: 2.53; 95%CI: 1.63-3.91).
Men had higher incidence of hospitalised ICVA than women. AF was the major risk factor for ICVA (more in women than men), followed by smoking. Among AF patients, those under anticoagulant therapy showed a significant reduced risk of first ICVA. Antihypertensive drug discontinuation increased the risk of ICVA among women.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 08/2011; 20(10):1050-6. · 2.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data exist on the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in paediatrics. The objective of this study was to examine treatment patterns of GERD in paediatrics in the primary care.
Incident GERD cases among paediatric patients were identified using The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database. We assessed prescription treatments in 30 days before and any time after the date of diagnosis. Initial treatment was defined as that received in 30 days either side of diagnosis. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of receiving the treatment were calculated by multiple logistic regressions.
The incident GERD cohort comprised 1700 paediatric patients aged 1-17 years. Antacids were initially prescribed in 49.2% of patients. Similar proportions of patients (23.3 and 22.9%) received histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H(2)RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs); 7.5% were prescribed prokinetics and 19.3% received no prescribed treatment. Overall, 24.7% of initial H(2)RA users switched to PPIs, and 9.8% of those using PPIs switched to H(2)RAs. The likelihood of the use of PPI increased with age and was lower in girls than in boys (odds ratio: 0.7; 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9).
Antacids are the drugs most frequently prescribed by primary care physicians to paediatric patients with GERD, and approximately half receive an initial course of antisecretory treatment with H(2)RAs or PPIs. This study suggests that treatment patterns in paediatrics differ from those in adults.
European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 03/2011; 23(3):232-7. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Discontinuation of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy may increase the risk of ischemic events. This study evaluated the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and TIA after low-dose ASA discontinuation in patients with cardiovascular disease or cerebrovascular disease.
The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database was used to identify a cohort of individuals aged 50-84 years with a first prescription for low-dose ASA (75-300 mg/day) for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in 2000-2007 (n = 39,512). Individuals were followed up for a mean of 3.4 years to identify cases of IS/TIA. Nested case-control analyses were used to assess risk factors for IS/TIA, including low-dose ASA discontinuation.
The overall incidence of IS/TIA was 5.0 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6-5.4). IS/TIA was significantly more common in patients with a previous diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease (relative risk [RR] 2.79; 95% CI 2.05-3.80) or atrial fibrillation (RR 1.71; 95% CI 1.28-2.29) than in those without these conditions. Compared with current users of low-dose ASA, those who discontinued treatment 31-180 days before the index date had a significantly increased overall risk of IS/TIA (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.03-1.92). The most common reason for discontinuation was patient nonadherence.
In patients prescribed low-dose ASA for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, discontinuation of low-dose ASA was associated with a 40% increase in the risk of IS/TIA compared with continuation of therapy. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that discontinuation of low-dose ASA is associated with a 40% increased risk of stroke within 31-180 days of discontinuation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) associated with use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone and in combination with other gastrotoxic medications.
The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database was used to identify individuals 40 to 84 years of age with a UGIB diagnosis in 2000 to 2007 (n = 2049). An age-, sex-, and calendar year-matched control group (n = 20,000) was identified from the same source population. The relative risk (RR) of UGIB associated with use of low-dose ASA (75 to 300 mg/d), clopidogrel, and other commonly coadministered medications was estimated by multivariate logistic regression. The risk of UGIB was increased in current users of low-dose ASA (RR, 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59 to 2.03) or clopidogrel (RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.24) compared with nonusers. Compared with low-dose ASA monotherapy, the risk of UGIB was significantly increased when low-dose ASA was coadministered with clopidogrel (RR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.21), oral anticoagulants (RR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.45), low-/medium-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (RR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.93 to 3.60), high-dose nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (RR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.88 to 3.76), or high-dose oral corticosteroids (RR, 4.43; 95% CI, 2.10 to 9.34); this was not apparent with coadministration of statins (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.21) or low-dose oral corticosteroids (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.77).
Use of low-dose ASA is associated with an almost 2-fold increase in the risk of UGIB compared with nonuse. This risk is increased further in individuals taking low-dose ASA along with clopidogrel, oral anticoagulants, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or high-dose oral corticosteroids.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the risk of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease after discontinuation of low dose aspirin in primary care patients with a history of cardiovascular events.
Nested case-control study.
The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database in the United Kingdom.
Individuals aged 50-84 with a first prescription for aspirin (75-300 mg/day) for secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in 2000-7 (n=39,513).
Individuals were followed up for a mean of 3.2 years to identify cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease. A nested case-control analysis assessed the risk of these events in those who had stopped taking low dose aspirin compared with those who had continued treatment.
There were 876 non-fatal myocardial infarctions and 346 deaths from coronary heart disease. Compared with current users, people who had recently stopped taking aspirin had a significantly increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease combined (rate ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.84) and non-fatal myocardial infarction alone (1.63, 1.23 to 2.14). There was no significant association between recently stopping low dose aspirin and the risk of death from coronary heart disease (1.07, 0.67 to 1.69). For every 1000 patients, over a period of one year there were about four more cases of non-fatal myocardial infarction among patients who discontinued treatment with low dose aspirin (recent discontinuers) compared with patients who continued treatment.
Individuals with a history of cardiovascular events who stop taking low dose aspirin are at increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction compared with those who continue treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged city-dwelling Swedish women from 1980 to 2003.
Using cross-sectional population-based surveys, five random population samples of a total of 1915 women aged between 45 and 54 years, participating in the BEDA study in 1980, WHO MONICA studies in 1985, 1990 and 1995, and a study of 50-year-old women in 2003 were measured for the following parameters: anthropometry, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, smoking habits, blood pressure, physical activity and stress.
Over almost 25 years, middle-aged women gained on average 4.4 kg in weight, with a net increase in body mass index (BMI) from 24.7 to 25.6 kg m⁻². The proportion of participants classified as obese (≥30 kg m⁻²) increased by 50% from 10.4% to 15.1%. Women who were smokers in 2003 did not have lower BMI values than nonsmokers. Mean serum cholesterol concentrations decreased markedly, whereas smoking habits did not significantly change. The prevalence of hypertension decreased by 8%, whereas that of diabetes remained stable at around 2%. Optimal risk factor status - no smoking, normotension and serum cholesterol <5 mmol l⁻¹ - was present in less than one in six women in 2003, and similar across BMI categories.
The favourable decline in cholesterol levels and hypertension and the increase in leisure time physical activity were offset by an increase in obesity, triglyceride levels and experience of stress, with only a minority of participants (less than one in six) having an optimal level of risk factors with respect to smoking, serum cholesterol and hypertension in 2003. This applied also to overweight and obese women. In earlier cohorts, subjects with low BMI values were more often smokers, whereas the opposite is observed in recent cohorts. Thus, women who smoke no longer have the advantage of lower weight.
Journal of Internal Medicine 12/2010; 268(6):594-603. · 6.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection remains common in East Asia, though its prevalence is decreasing in Western countries. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis (AG) may reduce the likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and AG and their association with endoscopic findings and symptom-defined GERD in Shanghai.
A representative random sample of 3600 Shanghai residents aged 18-80 years was invited to complete a general information questionnaire and a Chinese version of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire, to provide blood samples for H. pylori serology and pepsinogen (PG) I/II assay (to detect AG, defined as PGI < 70 µg/L and/or PGI/PGII < 7), and to undergo endoscopy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariate logistic regression.
A total of 1022 Shanghai residents underwent endoscopy and were valid for inclusion in the study. Of these, 71.7% tested positive for H. pylori, 63.8% had AG and 30.5% had moderate/severe AG (PGI < 50 µg/L and/or PGI/PGII < 5). Helicobacter pylori infection was equally common in all age groups. Severity of AG increased with age in women. Reflux esophagitis was inversely associated with AG (OR, 0.23 [CI, 0.09-0.55] for moderate/severe AG compared with no H. pylori or gastritis). However, symptom-defined GERD showed no clear association with AG.
Helicobacter pylori infection and AG are very common in Shanghai, and the infection is acquired early in life. Atrophic gastritis is inversely associated with reflux esophagitis but is not significantly associated with symptom-defined GERD.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2010; 26(5):908-15. · 3.33 Impact Factor