[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor (H-YST) is an exceedingly rare and highly malignant neoplasm. We present and discuss our experience with cytologic and histopathologic features of a mediastinal H-YST presenting with sternum metastasis, which to the best of our knowledge has not been previously reported.
A 38-year-old man presented with a large mass on the sternum. Computed tomography of the thorax showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with sternum metastsis and multiple lung metastases. Laboratory examination revealed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (60,000 IU/mL). No tumor was found in the other organ systems. A percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy and subsequent open surgical biopsy were performed on the sternum metastasis. Cytologically, the tumor was composed of monotonous, large, round to polygonal hepatoid cells forming solid sheets and trabeculae entrapped with endothelial cells resembling hepatocellular carcinoma. Histopathologic sections of tumor showed tumor cells with eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm arranged in a solid, trabecular growth pattern, with some acinar formations. Immunohistochemical study supported the hepatoid origin.
Fine needle aspiration cytology, together with the characteristic clinical presentations and specific tumor markers, is crucial to the initial diagnosis of H-YST.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to evaluate the typing accuracy of conventional smear (CS), cell block (CB) preparations and combined use of both procedures (CS + CB) for the diagnosis of hepatic malignancies and to determine whether immediate on-site cytopathological evaluation improves the diagnostic yield of liver fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Ultrasound-guided FNABs were performed on 323 consecutive cases with liver masses between December 2002 and December 2004. Histologically and/or clinically correlated 167 cases were included in the study. Preliminary FNAB results, results of CS, CB, and combined use of CS and CB were compared regarding diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy. Subtyping accuracies of different methods were also compared.
The sensitivity of on-site cytopathological examination and CS were both 92.8%. The sensitivity of CS + CB was slightly better than that of CB (93.5% versus 84.8%). Specificity of all procedures was achieved 100%. Diagnostic accuracy of on-site cytopathological evaluation, CS, CB, and CS + CB were 93.9%, 93.9%, 87.2%, and 94.5%, respectively. A specific subtype diagnosis of malignant tumours could be rendered accurately on the basis of preliminary diagnosis in 71%, CS in 75.4%, CB in 78.3% and combined approach in 92% of cases. In terms of typing accuracy, 87.5% of HCCs, 93.2% of adenocarcinomas, 92.3% of neuroendocrine carcinomas, 100% of lymphomas and 100% of other malignant tumours were correctly subclassified in the final cytopathological diagnosis. The agreement between preliminary diagnosis and final cytopathological diagnosis was 77.2%.
With use of on-site cytopathological evaluation and combined use of CS and CB, the diagnostic accuracy of liver tumours approaches 100% and also significantly improve diagnostic and subtyping accuracy of liver malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules is a reliable and simple method, the diagnostic value may be limited by inadequate and false-negative results. In this prospective study, we compared palpation-guided FNAB (PGFNAB) with ultrasound-guided FNAB (UGFNAB) to establish the rates of inadequate material and cost-effectiveness.
A total of 285 thyroid nodules in 215 patients were included in the study. Palpable nodules with the greatest diameter between 1 and 2.5 cm were included in the study. PGFNAB and UGFNAB techniques were applied to the same nodule by the same operator. Cytologic evaluations were performed by the same cytologist in a blinded fashion. To provide cost analysis, the prices obtained from different hospitals were evaluated.
The rates of inadequate material for PGFNAB and UGFNAB were significantly different as 32.3% and 21.4%, respectively (p = 0.004). There was significantly higher inadequate material rate in PGFNAB group for small-sized nodules (greatest nodule diameter between 10 and 15 mm) (p = 0.009), despite inadequate material rate was not significant for both procedures for larger sized nodules. False-negative results were 15.8% for PGFNAB and 5.6% for UGFNAB. Regarding cost analysis, the difference between the two methods was 20 dollars on average for each patient.
We consider UGFNAB to be superior to PGFNAB for obtaining adequate material especially for small-sized nodules, as well as providing more accurate cytologic evaluation. Indeed, the difference between the costs of two procedures might be acceptable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare tumors of the adenohypophysis. The presence of craniospinal and/or systemic extracranial metastases is the only reliable criterion for the diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma. To date, only 2 cases have been reported correctly by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). We present an additional case of pituitary carcinoma with FNAB features.
A 60-year-old woman presented with clinical features of Cushing's disease and a pituitary tumor. She underwent transsphenoidal resection of the tumor. The initial diagnosis was an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing invasive pituitary adenoma. The patient presented again with neck pain 6 years after the operation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed metastatic tumor masses at the level of C5-C6 of the cervical vertebrae. Intraoperative fine needle aspiration and incomplete excision of metastatic tumors were performed. Cytologically, tumor cells were composed of a combination of loose groups and single cells. Neoplastic cells had a relatively monotonous appearance and displayed characteristic neuroendocrine tumor features. Immunocytochemistry from cell block sections revealed AE1/ AE3, synaptophysin chromogranin A and ACTH positivity in the tumor cells.
Pituitary carcinoma with extracranial systemic metastases demonstrates typical neuroendocrine features on fine needle aspiration. In the differential diagnosis, metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas should be kept in mind. In the absence of sufficient clinical data, these 2 entities cannot be distinguished correctly through the cytologic features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of c-jun and c-myc proto-oncogenes in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium in relation to estrogen receptor (ER) status and to investigate whether these genes can be related to other histopathological features of endometrial carcinoma, 32 endometrial carcinomas, 38 endometrial hyperplasias and 22 cyclic endometria (10 proliferative and 12 secretory) were evaluated histologically. Endometrial hyperplasia cases were classified as simple and complex hyperplasia without atypia, and atypical hyperplasia. Endometrial carcinoma cases were subtyped according to the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. Modified FIGO system was used for both grading and staging. Immunohistochemical examination was performed using antibodies to ER-alpha, c-myc and c-jun with streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. The mean percentage of ER-alpha positive cells changed cyclically during the menstrual cycle, and it was the highest (96%) and the lowest (31.6%) in proliferative and carcinomatous endometrium, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between proliferative and secretory phases and proliferative and carcinomatous endometrium in relation to ER-alpha staining (p<0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference with respect to ERalpha reactivity between secretory phase and each hyperplastic group, as well as between the carcinoma group and each hyperplastic group (p<0.05). Although not significant, the mean percentage of c-myc expressing cells in the carcinoma group was higher (15.3%) than that of proliferative phase and hyperplastic groups. The mean percentage of c-jun positive cells in proliferative endometrium was slightly higher than in secretory endometrium, and it was the highest in atypical hyperplastic endometrium (28.3%), but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. In carcinoma cases, a positive correlation was observed between c-jun positivity and tumor grade (p=0.027, r=0.3908), but such a correlation with c-myc was not found. A positive correlation was detected between ER-alpha and c-myc expression (p=0.038, r=0.3686). A progressive loss of ER seems to be correlated with increasing malignant transformation. C-myc expression might play a role in the development of endometrial carcinoma via ER. The association between c-jun and ER appears to be lost in endometrial carcinoma. The relationship between c-myc, c-jun and ER appears to be altered in endometrial carcinoma compared to that of menstrual endometrium.