J M Beuzelin

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States

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Publications (24)24.09 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most injurious insect pest in US rice production. Yield losses in excess of 25% can occur from severe infestations. Management demonstrations were conducted in the 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons to evaluate the use of commercially available insecticides to control L. oryzophilus in commercial rice fields. The demonstration tests, conducted on farms throughout Louisiana, compared the efficacies of recently registered seed treatment insecticides to untreated controls and to foliar applications of pyrethroids. Efficacy was assessed by collecting root/soil core samples three to four weeks after application of permanent flood and counting numbers of larvae and pupae in core samples. Tests were replicated across locations in multiple rice-producing Louisiana parishes. Densities of larvae and pupae in core samples exceeded the larval threshold (three larvae or pupae per core sample) in over 80% of untreated plots/cuts, confirming the ubiquity and severity of this insect as a pest of rice. Use of chlorantraniliprole (Dermacor® X-100, DuPont™ Crop Protection, Wilmington, DE), thiamethoxam (CruiserMaxx® Rice, Syngenta® Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC), and clothianidin (NipsIt Inside®, Valent® USA Corporation, Walnut Creek, CA) seed treatments significantly reduced L. oryzophilus infestation compared to untreated checks. Fewer larvae and pupae were observed in rice treated with chlorantraniliprole than in rice treated with other insecticides.
    Crop Protection 11/2014; 65:37–42. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feeding behavior of Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was studied on sugarcane, Saccharum spp. (Poaceae), cultivars HoCP 91-555 (resistant), LCP 85-384 (moderately resistant), and L 97-128 (susceptible) using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Constitutive concentrations of total phenolics and available carbohydrates, water potential at the whole-leaf tissue level, and free amino acids (FAAs) in phloem sap extracts, and in honeydew produced by aphids fed on L 97-128 and HoCP 91-555 were determined. Cultivar did not influence time for M. sacchari to access phloem sieve elements. Total time in sieve elements was ca. two-fold greater on L 97-128 than on HoCP 91-555, whereas it did not differ from LCP 85-384 in either cultivar. The mean duration of individual events associated with phloem sap ingestion was ca. 50% shorter on both HoCP 91-555 and LCP 85-384 than on L 97-128. Although cultivar effects were not detected for levels of total phenolics, available carbohydrates, and water potential, two free essential amino acids, histidine and arginine, were absent from phloem sap in HoCP 91-555. Two free essential amino acids, leucine and isoleucine, and two free non-essential amino acids, tyrosine and proline, were absent from honeydew of aphids fed on HoCP 91-555. These results suggest that despite apparent biosynthesis of some FAAs, the absence of important FAAs in the phloem sap of HoCP 91-555 and the inability of M. sacchari and its endosymbionts (e.g., Buchnera) to derive specific free essential and non-essential amino acids from other ingested molecules, possibly along with other unidentified factors, underlie the pest's decreased phloem sap ingestion and consequently reduced growth potential on HoCP 91-555.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 01/2014; 150(1). · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Biological Control 01/2014; 77:93–100. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Systemic insecticides, chlorantraniliprole (CAP) and thiamethoxam (TMX), applied to rice as seed treatments may affect multiple life stages of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus. Effects of CAP and TMX on adult survival, egg-laying and first and late instar survivals were determined by infesting plants treated as seeds with different rates of insecticides. The biological activity was related to insecticidal concentrations in leaves, shoots and roots. RESULTS: CAP did not affect adult survival but decreased egg numbers, and reduced survival of the first and late instars. The greatest reduction in weevil population occurred in late instars feeding on roots. In contrast, TMX reduced adult survival, egg and larval numbers. The high biological activity of CAP on root feeding stages was consistent with the accumulation of CAP in roots, whereas, in TMX-treated plants, high activity on adults correlated with high concentrations of TMX in leaves and stems. CONCLUSIONS: The differential activity of insecticides on adults suggests poor inherent potency of CAP as an adulticide and/or its limited systemicity in foliage. The distribution of insecticide in specific plant parts can be attributed to different physico-chemical properties of CAP and TMX. The field implications of this research on management of L. oryzophilus are discussed.
    Pest Management Science 04/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • S K Lanka, J A Ottea, J M Beuzelin, M J Stout
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of treatment of rice seeds with an anthranilic diamide, chlorantraniliprole, and a neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam, on egg laying and first instar survival in rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, were examined under greenhouse conditions. Exposure of adult weevils to rice (6-7 leaf stage) grown from seeds treated with chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam resulted in reduction in numbers of eggs and first instars. The low egg numbers by adults exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plants was confirmed as a sublethal effect on adults: adult survival was not impacted after 4 d of feeding on foliage from chlorantraniliprole-treated plants but the number of eggs laid by these weevils was reduced when released on untreated plants. Furthermore, a comparison of first instar emergence from chlorantraniliprole-treated plants and from untreated plants infested with weevils previously exposed to this chemical suggested that chlorantraniliprole was also reducing egg or first instar survival. In contrast, adults that fed on foliage from thiamethoxam-treated plants showed increased mortality. Possible sublethal effects of thiamethoxam on the number of eggs laid by adults were investigated by infesting untreated plants with weevils that survived exposure to thiamethoxam via foliar feeding (7 microg active ingredient/seed). Prior exposure to thiamethoxam through adult feeding reduced egg numbers. However, potential larvicidal or ovicidal effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments could not be detected in this study because of low first instar emergence from both thiamethoxam-treated plants and from untreated plants infested with weevils previously exposed to this chemical. These experiments revealed that the two seed treatments accomplish weevil control in different ways.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 02/2013; 106(1):181-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AbstractA greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. cv Cocodrie (Poaceae), and four primary non‐crop hosts of Texas Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and vaseygrass, Paspalum urvillei Steud. (both Poaceae), were assessed at three phenological stages. Two spring annuals, brome, Bromus spec., and ryegrass, Lolium spec. (both Poaceae), were assessed at two phenological stages. Phenological stages represented the diversity of plant development stages E. loftini may encounter. Plant fresh biomass, dry biomass, and sum of tiller heights were used as measures of plant availability. Accounting for plant availability, rice was preferred over non‐crop hosts, and intermediate and older plants were preferred over young plants. Johnsongrass and vaseygrass were 32–60% as preferred as rice when considering the most preferred phenological stages of each host. Brome and ryegrass received few or no eggs, respectively. Eoreuma loftini larval development (in degree days above developmental threshold temperatures) was fastest on rice and slowest on johnsongrass and vaseygrass. Development duration was only retarded by plant stage on young rice plants. Foliar and stem free amino acid concentrations were determined to help provide insights on the mechanisms of E. loftini oviposition preference and developmental performance.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 01/2013; 146(3):332-346. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A three-treatment aerial application insecticide experiment was conducted in five commercial sugarcane, Saccharum spp., fields in south Texas to evaluate the use of pheromone traps for improving chemical control of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in 2009 and 2010. A threshold of 20 moths/trap/wk was used to initiate monitoring for larval infestations. The percentage of stalks with larvae on plant surfaces was directly related to the number of moths trapped. Reductions in borer injury and adult emergence were detected when a threshold of >5% of stalks with larvae present on plant surfaces was used to trigger insecticide applications. Novaluron provided superior control compared with beta-cyfluthrin; novaluron treated plots were associated with a 14% increase in sugar production. A greenhouse experiment investigating establishment and behavior of E. loftini larvae on two phenological stages of stalkborer resistant, HoCP 85-845, and susceptible, HoCP 00-950, sugarcane cultivars determined that more than half of larvae on HoCP 00-950 and > 25% on HoCP 85-845 tunneled inside leaf mid-ribs within 1 d of eclosion, protected therein from biological and chemical control tactics. Exposure time of larvae averaged < 1 wk for all treatments and was shortest on immature HoCP 00-950 and longest on mature HoCP 85-845. This study shows a short window of vulnerability of E. loftini larvae to insecticide applications, and demonstrates the potential utility of pheromone traps for improving insecticide intervention timing such that a single properly timed application may be all that is required.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 12/2012; 105(6):1998-2006. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-year field study in Texas compared infestations of the stem borers Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in rice, Oryza sativa L., as affected by main crop harvest cutting height and the production of a ratoon crop. Substantial infestations (>5.6 stem borers/m2) remained in rice culms regardless of cutting height (20 vs. 40 cm). However, the 20-cm cutting height reduced E. loftini infestations by 70–81% whereas D. saccharalis infestations were not affected. Plant dissections showed that compared to D. saccharalis larvae and pupae, relatively more E. loftini immatures are located high in rice plants (>20 cm from the base of the culm). In October, the ratoon crop was more infested with stem borers than the unmanaged main crop stubble during the first year of the study. The opposite was observed during the second year. Differences in unmanaged main crop stubble phenology between the two years likely caused these differences in infestation levels. During the post-growing season, infestations in main and ratoon crop stubble decreased over the winter. After favorable winter conditions, infestations in main and ratoon crop stubble did not differ, attaining 3.3 E. loftini/m2 and 0.4 D. saccharalis/m2 by March 2008. In March 2009, rice stubble harbored 0.3 E. loftini/m2 and 0.2 D. saccharalis/m2 regardless of whether only a main crop or a main and ratoon crop had been produced. This study showed that a lower rice harvest cutting height can suppress late season E. loftini populations. Furthermore, rice stubble under favorable conditions represents a substantial overwintering habitat, thus warranting evaluation of pest management tactics targeting overwintering populations.
    Crop Protection 04/2012; 34:47–55. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. 01/2012; 32.
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    ABSTRACT: Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.
    Environmental Entomology 10/2011; 40(5):1036-50. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    Julien M Beuzelin
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    ABSTRACT: To assess potential interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced resistance to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith & Abbot (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), three commercial Stoneville cotton cultivars, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae) (‘ST 475’, a conventional cultivar; ‘ST 4575 BR’, a Bollgard® cultivar expressing Cry1Ac protein; and ‘ST 4554B2RF’, a Bollgard II® cultivar expressing Cry2Ab2 in addition to Cry1Ac), were treated with JA. Two experiments were conducted with 6-day-old S. frugiperda larvae on three cotton cultivars at two phenological stages. The first experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions and used excised cotton leaves; the second experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions on intact cotton plants. Relative growth rates (RGRs) and leaf area consumed by 6-day-old S. frugiperda larvae were determined for each combination of treatments. Overall, JA treatment and cultivars significantly impacted RGR and leaf area consumption. Significant JA treatment*cultivar interactions were observed for RGR of larvae in the laboratory experiment and for leaf area consumption in the greenhouse experiment. An additional experiment evaluated S. frugiperda neonates on the same JA and cotton cultivar combinations (at a single phenological stage) under laboratory conditions. Neonate survival was determined after 3, 5, and 10 days of feeding, and final larval weight after 10 days of feeding. Overall, JA treatment and cultivars significantly impacted final weight and survival of S. frugiperda. Significant JA treatment*cultivar interactions were observed for final weight and on overall survival of S. frugiperda. Combination of the cotton tissue expressing pyramided Bt proteins with JA treatment demonstrated the greatest negative impact on larval development. Apparent synergism between Bt proteins and JA-induced resistance emphasizes that traditional host plant resistance has a role to play in combination with Bt technology.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 08/2011; 140(3):226 - 237. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    J. M. Beuzelin, A. Mészáros, W. Akbar
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    ABSTRACT: En un estudio de campo de dos años, se sembro caña de azúcar en cuatro fechas desde la primera semana de agosto hasta la tercera semana de noviembre, que reproduce la fenología de la caña de azúcar asociada con las operaciones de siembra y cosecha en Louisiana. La caña de azúcar sembrada en el principio de agosto ofreció un periodo extenso de disponibilidad de la planta para infestaciones por el barrenador de la caña, Diatraea saccharalis (F), durante el otoño. Muestras periódicas tomadas durante el otoño mostró que las siembras del principio de agosto tuvieron una mayor densidad (P < 0.05) de cañas con corazones muertos causados por D. saccharalis que la caña de azúcar sembrada mas tarde. El muestreo destructivo realizado en el principio de octubre mostró que las siembras de agosto albergaba mayores densidades de corazones muertos (P < 0.05 en el otoño de 2007) e infestaciones de D. saccharalis (P < 0.05 en el otoño de 2006 y 2007) que las siembras de septiembre. Los datos de este estudio sugieren un posible aumento de poblaciones invernantes de D. saccharalis en siembras tempranas asociadas a una mayor infestación durante el otoño. Sin embargo, no se detectaron (P > 0.05) diferencias en los corazones muertos y las infestaciones de D. saccharalis en los corazones muertos durante la primavera. Se estudiaron tres variedades comerciales de caña de azúcar (‘L 99-226’, ‘L 97-128’, ‘HoCP 95-988’). Se detectaron (P < 0.05) diferencias en el daño causado por D. saccharalis o de infestaciones afectadas por el tipo de variedad solamente al principio de octubre del 2007, cuando ‘HoCP 95-988’ albergaba las infestaciones de 2.3 veces mayor que la ‘L 99-226’.
    Florida Entomologist 07/2011; · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Allan T. Showler, Julien M. Beuzelin, Thomas E. Reagan
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    ABSTRACT: The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternative weed and crop hosts have been reported, the extent to which they might support Mexican rice borer populations is unknown. This study involved choice assays that compared oviposition preference for and larval infestations of five mature graminaceous weed species. Levels of infestation between sugarcane and corn, Zea mays L., crop hosts and between corn and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, were also assessed. We determined that the average number of larval entry holes in sudangrass stems was ≥2.5-fold more than for any of the other four weed host plants, that corn had ≥5.9-fold more larval entry holes than sorghum and ≥8.2-fold more than sugarcane. Greater oviposition and infestation of one non-crop host over another was not related to numbers of stems per plant, but was associated with the greater stem diameter and abundance of dry leaf tissue found in Sudangrass, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. drummondi (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet & Harlan, johnsongrass, S. halepense (L.) and barnyardgrass, Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.; relative to the other weed species in this study. In terms of the crop plants, stalk diameter and quantity of dry leaf tissue were not associated with numbers of eggs or larval entry holes in the choice assays between corn and sorghum, and between sugarcane and corn. While corn has been known as a host of the Mexican rice borer for at least 84 yr, its role in area-wide population dynamics and control efforts has likely been greatly underestimated.Highlights► Several weeds and forage plant species are ranked in order of Mexican rice borer oviposition preference. ► Factors that contribute to observed oviposition preference are included. ► Three important host crop plants are ranked in terms of Mexican rice borer oviposition preference. ► First report identifying corn as likely source of substantial Mexican rice borer populations in the sugarcane and sorghum growing areas of south Texas
    Crop Protection. 01/2011; 30(7):895-901.
  • International Sugar Journal 01/2011; 113(1353):660-665. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) on rice. A lab experiment showed that the number of hosts parasitized per female per day reached a maximum (0.961) at 28°C. Parasitized larvae recovered from the field experiment produced an average of 27.9±19.1 (x¯±s.d.) parasitoids, with a 2.57:1 (female/male) sex ratio. A cohort-based age-structured model was developed to simulate the population dynamics and economic impact of sugarcane borer and C. flavipes in rice, as affected by overwintering larval density, timing and rate of parasitoid aerial release, and year-to-year climate (temperature and rainfall). The results suggest the cumulative seasonal damaging larval density (3rd or later instars) is negatively correlated with winter temperature, while maximum parasitoid density and maximum proportion parasitized are positively correlated with the cumulative seasonal damaging larval density. C. flavipes was most effective when released 40 or 50days after rice planting, with simulated yield loss reduced by up to 50.9% when the release rate was 10 females and 4 males m−2. The maximum simulated economic benefit ($59.48ha−1) is ca. 6.7% of that provided by insecticide-based control, which occurred when the release rate was 1 female and 0.4 males m−2. The inability of C. flavipes to provide economic control in temperate-subtropical areas is due to its high rearing cost, a low effective search rate, a low maximum number of hosts parasitized per female, and failure of the spring emerging parasitoids to find hosts.
    Biological Control - BIOL CONTROL. 01/2011; 56(2):159-169.
  • J Lv, L T Wilson, J M Beuzelin, T E Reagan
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    ABSTRACT: A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate the tillering and yield response of rice, Oryza sativa L., whose culms were injured artificially or by larval sugarcane borers, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Artificially injured plants produced approximately 0.49 more tillers than uninjured plants, similar to what has previously been reported for larval injured plants. In contrast, artificial injury did not affect yield per tiller, whereas larval injury did. The proximity of larval injury to the panicle had a negative impact on tiller yield, whereas artificial injury did not. Artificial injury apparently resulted in less injury to vascular tissue than did sugarcane borer larval injury. Until an artificial method of injury is developed that mimics the effects of larval feeding, further injury studies will continue to require sugarcane borer larvae.
    Environmental Entomology 04/2010; 39(2):528-34. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    Florida Entomologist 01/2010; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On-farm field experiments were conducted in 2004 and 2007 to assess the suitability of novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), management in Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). Aerial insecticide applications reproducing commercial production practices were made when D. saccharalis infestation levels exceeded a recommended action threshold. In addition to decreased D. saccharalis infestations, 6.3 – 14.5-fold reductions in end of season injury, expressed as the percentage of bored sugarcane internodes, were observed in plots treated with novaluron. D. saccharalis control in novaluron plots was equivalent to (P > 0.05) or better (P < 0.05) than that achieved with tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist that has been extensively used for over a decade on sugarcane. With a numerical trend of a 3.1-fold decrease in percent bored internodes, the pyrethroid gamma-cyhalothrin seemed less effective than the biorational insecticides in protecting sugarcane against D. saccharalis. Using continuous pitfall trap sampling, no measurable (P > 0.05) decreases in predaceous and non-predaceous soil-dwelling non-target arthropods were associated with insecticides. However, numerical trends for decreases in immature crickets associated with novaluron and gamma-cyhalothrin were recorded in 2007. Our data suggest that novaluron will fit well in Louisiana sugarcane integrated pest management.
    Crop Protection. 01/2010; 29(10):1168-1176.
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    Florida Entomologist 09/2009; · 1.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18 Citations
24.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2012
    • Louisiana State University
      • Department of Entomology
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
    • Texas A&M University
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2011
    • Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes
      Roazhon, Brittany, France