Roberto Cabeza

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (143)755.41 Total impact

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    Sander Daselaar, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Goes with the Oxford chapter
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    ABSTRACT: Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415648-10$15.00/0.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 11/2014; 34(47):15648-57. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2888-14.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Erik A Wing, Maureen Ritchey, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Neurobiological memory models assume memory traces are stored in neocortex, with pointers in the hippocampus, and are then reactivated during retrieval yielding the experience of remembering. Whereas most prior neuroimaging studies on reactivation have focused on the reactivation of sets or categories of items, the current study sought to identify cortical patterns pertaining to memory for individual scenes. During encoding, participants viewed pictures of scenes paired with matching labels (e.g., "barn," "tunnel"), and during retrieval, they recalled the scenes in response to the labels and rated the quality of their visual memories. Using representational similarity analyses, we interrogated the similarity between activation patterns during encoding and retrieval both at the item level (individual scenes) and the set level (all scenes). The study yielded four main findings. First, in occipitotemporal cortex, memory success increased with encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) at the item level but not at the set level, indicating the reactivation of individual scenes. Second, in ventrolateral pFC, memory increased with ERS for both item and set levels, indicating the recapitulation of memory processes that benefit encoding and retrieval of all scenes. Third, in retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, ERS was sensitive to individual scene information irrespective of memory success, suggesting automatic activation of scene contexts. Finally, consistent with neurobiological models, hippocampal activity during encoding predicted the subsequent reactivation of individual items. These findings show the promise of studying memory with greater specificity by isolating individual mnemonic representations and determining their relationship to factors like the detail with which past events are remembered.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10/2014; DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00740 · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    Wei-Chun Wang, Ilana T Z Dew, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Not all memory processes are equally affected by aging. A widely accepted hypothesis is that older adults rely more on familiarity-based processing, typically linked with the perirhinal cortex (PRC), in the context of impaired recollection, linked with the hippocampus (HC). However, according to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, healthy aging reduces the specialization of MTL memory subregions so that they may mediate different memory processes than in young adults. Using fMRI, we tested this possibility using a conceptual fluency manipulation known to induce familiarity-related PRC activity. The study yielded two main findings. First, although fluency equivalently affected PRC in both young (18-28; N=14) and older (62-80; N=15) adults, it also uniquely affected HC activity in older adults. Second, the fluency manipulation reduced functional connectivity between HC and PRC in young adults, but it increased it in older adults. Taken together, the results suggest that aging may result in reduced specialization of the HC for recollection, such that the HC may be recruited when fluency increases familiarity-based responding. Age-related differences in medial temporal lobe involvement during conceptual fluency.
    Brain Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.061 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The posterior midline region (PMR) –considered a core of the default mode network- is deactivated during successful performance in different cognitive tasks. The extent of PMR deactivations is correlated with task-demands and associated with successful performance in various cognitive domains. In the domain of episodic memory, functional MRI (fMRI) studies found that PMR-deactivations reliably predict learning (successful encoding). Yet, it is unclear what explains this relation. One intriguing possibility is that PMR-deactivations are partially-mediated by respiratory artifacts. There is evidence that the fMRI signal in PMR is particularly prone to respiratory artifacts, because of its large surrounding blood vessels. Since respiratory fluctuations has been shown to track changes in attention, it is critical for the general interpretation of fMRI results to clarify the relation between respiratory fluctuations, cognitive performance, and fMRI signal. Here, we investigated this issue by measuring respiration during word encoding, together with a breath-holding condition during fMRI-scanning. Stimulus-locked respiratory analyses showed that respiratory fluctuations predicted successful encoding via a respiratory phase-locking mechanism. At the same time, the fMRI analyses showed that PMR-deactivations associated with learning were reduced during breath-holding and correlated with individual differences in the respiratory phase-locking effect during normal breathing. A left frontal region –used as a control region– did not show these effects. These findings indicate that respiration is a critical factor in explaining the link between PMR-deactivation and successful cognitive performance. Further research is necessary to demonstrate whether our findings are restricted to episodic memory encoding, or also extend to other cognitive domains.
    Human Brain Mapping 09/2014; 35(9):4932-4943. DOI:10.1002/hbm.22523 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of frontal and parietal brain regions is associated with attentional control during visual search. We used fMRI to characterize age-related differences in frontoparietal activation in a highly efficient feature search task, detection of a shape singleton. On half of the trials, a salient distractor (a color singleton) was present in the display. The hypothesis was that frontoparietal activation mediated the relation between age and attentional capture by the salient distractor. Participants were healthy, community-dwelling individuals, 21 younger adults (19 - 29years of age) and 21 older adults (60 - 87years of age). Top-down attention, in the form of target predictability, was associated with an improvement in search performance that was comparable for younger and older adults. The increase in search reaction time (RT) associated with the salient distractor (attentional capture), standardized to correct for generalized age-related slowing, was greater for older adults than for younger adults. On trials with a color singleton distractor, search RT increased as a function of increasing activation in frontal regions, for both age groups combined, suggesting increased task difficulty. Mediational analyses disconfirmed the hypothesized model, in which frontal activation mediated the age-related increase in attentional capture, but supported an alternative model in which age was a mediator of the relation between frontal activation and capture.
    NeuroImage 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.07.053 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    Carla Pais-Vieira, Erik Wing, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Research on emotion and embodied cognition has shown that the interoceptive Self-awareness (SA) of emotion is associated with activity in anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) (e.g. Critchley 2005; Craig, 2009), regions comprising the salience network (SN) (Seeley et al., 2007).  Although it is well known that the memory for emotional items is enhanced via amygdala-MTL interactions (LaBar & Cabeza, 2006), most encoding tasks rely on perceptual orienting processing (PO) of emotional stimuli. It is less clear whether/how encoding that deliberately encourages the self-awareness of emotion contributes to memory formation.  The present study examined brain function related to emotional memory formation during both a PO condition and one emphasizing SA of emotion. We specifically compared:-regions that showed differential activity for subsequent memory effect (SME) between the conditions;-potential differences in functional coupling of the amygdala and other regions during emotion-specific encoding in the different conditions.  Behavioral results demonstrated that pictures encoded in the SA condition were better remembered than the perceptually encoded pictures. Memory enhancements where found for negative pictures, which were also rated by the participants as more personally arousing.  Imaging data showed that subsequent memory for emotional items in the SA condition was differentially linked with changes in salience/ interoceptive awareness network activity (bilateral AI, dACC and midbrain), which is typically involved on the allocation of attention to internal emotionally arousing information (Critchley, 2005; Craig, 2009).  In addition, results showed that the subsequent memory-enhancing effect of emotion for SA processing involved positive coupling between dACC and amygdala, a neural pathway linked to cognitive appraisal and generation of emotions (Ekin et al., 2011).  Overall, these results suggest that the neural mechanisms (including amygdalar pathways) mediating emotional memory formation may depend on how affective information is initially processed. Acknowledgements:
    Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS) Annual Meeting, Boston; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 04/2014; 26(10). DOI:10.1162/jocn_a_00633 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    Sander Daselaar, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Our memory is one of the cognitive functions most affected by the aging process. The types of memory that are most affected are working memory, the short-term memory maintenance and simultaneous manipulation of information, and episodic memory, our memory for personally experienced past events. The advances with functional neuroimaging techniques that allow us to study the human brain in action have greatly increased our knowledge of the neural basis of episodic memory and its decline with age. Functional neuroimaging studies indicate important roles for medial temporal and prefrontal regions in age-related decline in working memory and episodic memory. Interestingly, their findings also indicate that aging is not exclusively associated with decline. Some older adults seem to deal with PFC and MTL decline by shifting to alternative brain resources that can compensate for their memory deficits.
    01/2014;
  • Ilana T Z Dew, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is well established that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) makes an important contribution to recognition memory, the specific nature of this contribution remains uncertain. The finding that PRC activity is reduced for old compared with new items is typically attributed to the recovery of a long-term memory (LTM) signal. However, because old items are processed more easily or fluently than new items, reduced PRC activity could reflect increased fluency rather than LTM retrieval per se. We tested this hypothesis in humans using fMRI and a well-validated method to manipulate fluency: the masked priming paradigm. Some words during an old-new recognition test were preceded by conceptually related words (primes) that were subliminally presented (masked). The behavioral results replicated previous findings using this paradigm, whereby the fluency manipulation increased "oldness" responses to both old and new items. The fMRI analyses yielded two main sets of results. First, in the case of new items, which are independent from LTM retrieval, masked priming reduced PRC activity and predicted behavioral misattribution of fluency to oldness. Second, in the case of old items, the same PRC region showing fluency-related reductions for new items also contributed to "old" responding to old items. Individual differences in PRC attenuation also predicted oldness ratings to old items, and fluency modulated PRC connectivity with other brain regions associated with processing oldness signals, including visual cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex. These results support a broader view in which the PRC serves a function more general than memory.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2013; 33(36):14466-74. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1413-13.2013 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Roberto Cabeza
    Neuropsychologia 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.08.001 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental question in the emotional memory literature is why emotion enhances memory in some conditions but disrupts memory in other conditions. For example, separate studies have shown that emotional stimuli tend to be better remembered in long-term episodic memory (EM), whereas emotional distracters tend to impair working memory (WM) maintenance. The first goal of this study was to directly compare the neural correlates of EM enhancement (EME) and WM impairing (WMI) effects, and the second goal was to explore individual differences in these mechanisms. During event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants maintained faces in WM while being distracted by emotional or neutral pictures presented during the delay period. EM for the distracting pictures was tested after scanning and was used to identify successful encoding activity for the picture distracters. The first goal yielded two findings: (1) emotional pictures that disrupted face WM but enhanced subsequent EM were associated with increased amygdala (AMY) and hippocampal activity (ventral system) coupled with reduced dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) activity (dorsal system); (2) trials in which emotion enhanced EM without disrupting WM were associated with increased ventrolateral PFC activity. The ventral-dorsal switch can explain EME and WMI, while the ventrolateral PFC effect suggests a coping mechanism. The second goal yielded two additional findings: (3) participants who were more susceptible to WMI showed greater amygdala increases and PFC reductions; (4) AMY activity increased and dlPFC activity decreased with measures of attentional impulsivity. Taken together, these results clarify the mechanisms linking the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on memory, and provide insights into the role of individual differences in the impact of emotional distraction.
    Frontiers in Psychology 06/2013; 4:293. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00293 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Erik A Wing, Elizabeth J Marsh, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Restudying material is a common method for learning new information, but not necessarily an effective one. Research on the testing effect shows that practice involving retrieval from memory can facilitate later memory in contrast to passive restudy. Despite extensive behavioral work, the brain processes that make retrieval an effective learning strategy remain unclear. In the present experiment, we explored how initially retrieving items affected memory a day later as compared to a condition involving traditional restudy. In contrast to restudy, initial testing that contributed to future memory success was associated with engagement of several regions including the anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortices, and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additionally, testing enhanced hippocampal connectivity with ventrolateral PFC and midline regions. These findings indicate that the testing effect may be contingent on processes that are typically thought to support memory success at encoding (e.g. relational binding, selection and elaboration of semantically-related information) in addition to those more often associated with retrieval (e.g. memory search).
    Neuropsychologia 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.04.004 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Roberto Cabeza, Morris Moscovitch
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    ABSTRACT: In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a major theoretical debate in the memory domain regarding the multiple memory systems and processing modes frameworks. The components of processing framework argued for a middle ground: Instead of neatly divided memory systems or processing modes, this framework proposed the existence of numerous processing components that are recruited in different combinations by memory tasks and yield complex patterns of associations and dissociations. Because behavioral evidence was not sufficient to decide among these three frameworks, the debate was largely abandoned. However, functional neuroimaging evidence accumulated during the last two decades resolves the stalemate, because this evidence is more consistent with the components framework than with the other two frameworks. For example, functional neuroimaging evidence shows that brain regions attributed to one memory system can contribute to tasks associated with other memory systems and that brain regions attributed to the same processing mode (perceptual or conceptual) can be dissociated from each other. Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that memory processes are supported by transient interactions between a few regions called process-specific alliances. These conceptual developments are an example of how functional neuroimaging can contribute to theoretical debates in cognitive psychology.
    Perspectives on Psychological Science 01/2013; 8(1):49-55. DOI:10.1177/1745691612469033 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that perceptual processing enhances memory for emotional information or events. The current fMRI study investigated the neural mechanisms of this effect by testing how neural activations during emotional memory retrieval are influenced by the prior encoding strategy. Participants incidentally encoded emotional and neutral pictures under instructions to attend to either semantic or perceptual properties of each picture. Recognition memory was tested two days later. fMRI analyses yielded three main findings. First, right amygdalar activity associated with emotional memory strength was enhanced by prior perceptual processing. Second, prior perceptual processing of emotional pictures produced a stronger effect on recollection- than familiarity-related activations in the right amygdala and left hippocampus. Finally, prior perceptual processing enhanced amygdalar connectivity with regions strongly associated with retrieval success, including hippocampal/parahippocampal regions, visual cortex, and ventral parietal cortex. Taken together, the results specify how encoding orientations yield alterations in brain systems that retrieve emotional memories.
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2013.12.012 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retrieval. The present investigation tested the novel prediction that encoding-retrieval similarity can be observed and related to memory at the level of individual items. Multivariate representational similarity analysis was applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during encoding and retrieval of emotional and neutral scenes. Memory success tracked fluctuations in encoding-retrieval similarity across frontal and posterior cortices. Importantly, memory effects in posterior regions reflected increased similarity between item-specific representations during successful recognition. Mediation analyses revealed that the hippocampus mediated the link between cortical similarity and memory success, providing crucial evidence for hippocampal-cortical interactions during retrieval. Finally, because emotional arousal is known to modulate both perceptual and memory processes, similarity effects were compared for emotional and neutral scenes. Emotional arousal was associated with enhanced similarity between encoding and retrieval patterns. These findings speak to the promise of pattern similarity measures for evaluating memory representations and hippocampal-cortical interactions.
    Cerebral Cortex 09/2012; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhs258 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Ilana T Z Dew, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The article "More than a feeling: Pervasive influences of memory without awareness of retrieval" reviews evidence from ERP studies of recognition memory that the FN400 effect typically ascribed to familiarity may index implicit memory that occurs during recognition testing. We find their argument compelling, and contend that this potential "implicit contamination" is not unique to ERP studies. We suggest an analogous problem affecting fMRI studies, focusing particularly on the perirhinal cortex. Resolving this issue is critical for understanding the relationship between memory and the medial temporal lobes.
    Cognitive neuroscience 09/2012; 3(3-4):214-5. DOI:10.1080/17588928.2012.689972 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Trends in Cognitive Sciences 07/2012; 16(8):400-1. DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2012.06.015 · 21.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although ventral parietal cortex (VPC) activations can be found in a variety of cognitive domains, these activations have been typically attributed to cognitive operations specific to each domain. In this article, we propose a hypothesis that can account for VPC activations across all the cognitive domains reviewed. We first review VPC activations in the domains of perceptual and motor reorienting, episodic memory retrieval, language and number processing, theory of mind, and episodic memory encoding. Then, we consider the localization of VPC activations across domains and conclude that they are largely overlapping with some differences around the edges. Finally, we assess how well four different hypotheses of VPC function can explain findings in various domains and conclude that a bottom-up attention hypothesis provides the most complete and parsimonious account.
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 05/2012; 16(6):338-52. DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2012.04.008 · 21.15 Impact Factor
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    Norman R. Brown, Lori Buchanan, Roberto Cabeza
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    ABSTRACT: Participants studied lists of multiply presented converging associates (e.g.,bed, dream, pillow, etc.) and were timed as they estimated how often they saw list items, related foils (e.g.,blanket), and non-presented critical items (SLEEP). Average number of repetitions (few [3] vs. many [6]) and repetition variability (fixed vs. variable) were manipulated between subjects. Participants responded more slowly to critical items (3.18 sec) than to list items (2.45 sec) or foils (2.22 sec). In addition, critical-item judgments of frequency (JOFs) were about as large as list-item JOFs, and false recognition (i.e., nonzero JOFs) of critical items was most likely in the few-fixed condition (96%) and least likely in the many-fixed condition (74%). These findings suggest that people can userecollection failure—the absence of an anticipated recollective experience, coupled with strong familiarity—to distinguish critical items from list items and that recollection failure is weighted most heavily when people expect familiar probes to access episodic information.
    Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 04/2012; 7(4):684-691. DOI:10.3758/BF03213007 · 2.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
755.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Duke University
      • • Center for Cognitive Neuroscience
      • • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1997–2012
    • University of Alberta
      • Department of Psychology
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2011
    • Boston University
      • Memory Disorders Research Center
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Faculty of Science
      • • Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1998–2007
    • Umeå University
      • Department of Psychology
      Umeå, Vaesterbotten, Sweden
  • 1996–2003
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Rotman Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada