[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paracoccidioidomycosis presents a variety of clinical manifestations and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, most importantly the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host surface structures is essential to its virulence. The interaction between P. brasiliensis and epithelial cells has been studied, with particular emphasis on the induction of apoptosis. To investigate the expression of different apoptosis-inducing pathways in human A549 cells, we infected these cells with P. brasiliensis Pb18SP (subcultured) and 18R (recently isolated from cell culture and showing a high adhesion pattern) samples in vitro. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bak and caspase 3 were analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL technique. Apoptosis of human A549 cells was induced by P. brasiliensis in a sample and time-dependent manner. Using an in vitro model, our data demonstrates that caspase 3, Bak, Bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation mediate P. brasiliensis-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The overall mechanism is a complex process, which may involve several signal transduction pathways. These findings could partially explain the efficient behaviour of this fungus in promoting tissue infection and/or blood dissemination.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2009; 104(5):749-54. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo). Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.
Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada. 01/2009;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host-fungal interactions are inherently complex and dynamic. In order to identify new microbial targets and develop more effective antifungal therapies, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. Paracoccidioidomycosis provokes a variety of clinical symptoms, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, but primarily attacks the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with the host surface structures is essential to further colonization, invasion, and growth. Epithelial cells may represent the first host barrier or the preferential site of entry of the fungus. For this reason, interactions between P. brasiliensis and Vero/A549 epithelial cells were evaluated, with an emphasis on the adherence, induction of cytoskeletal alterations, and differential signaling activity of the various surface molecules. The adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells by P. brasiliensis may represent strategies employed to thwart the initial host immune response, and may help in the subsequent dissemination of the pathogen throughout the body.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates are not homogeneous in their patterns of pathogenicity in animals and adhesion to epithelial cells. During this investigation, genotypic differences were observed between two samples of P. brasiliensis strain 18 yeast phase (Pb18) previously cultured many times, one taken before (Pb18a) and the other after (Pb18b) animal inoculation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using the primer OPJ4 distinguished Pb18b from Pb18a by one 308 bp DNA fragment, which after cloning and sequencing was shown to encode a polypeptide sequence homologous to the protein beta-adaptin. It is suggested, by comparison to other micro-organisms, that this protein might play an important role in the virulence of P. brasiliensis. This result demonstrates the influence of in vitro subculturing on the genotype of this organism.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 08/2007; 56(Pt 7):884-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which although not formally considered an intracellular pathogen, can be internalized by epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms used by P. brasiliensis to adhere to and invade non-professional phagocytes have not been identified. The signal-transduction networks, involving protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein phosphatase activities, can modulate crucial events during fungal infections. In this study, the involvement of PTK has been investigated in P. brasiliensis adherence and invasion in mammalian epithelial cells. A significant inhibition of the fungal invasion occurred after the pre-treatment of the epithelial cells with genistein, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, indicating that the tyrosine kinase pathway is involved in P. brasiliensis internalization. In contrast, when the fungus was treated, a slight (not significant) inhibition of PTK was observed, suggesting that PTK might not be the fungus' transduction signal pathway during the invasion process of epithelial cells. An intense PTK immunofluorescence labeling was observed in the periphery of the P. brasiliensis infected cells, little PTK labeling was found in both uninfected cells and yeast cells, at later infection times (8 and 24 h). Moreover, when the epithelial cells were treated with genistein and infected with P. brasiliensis, no labeling was observed, suggesting the importance of the PTK in the infectious process. These results suggest that PTK pathway participates in the transduction signal during the initial events of the adhesion and invasion processes of P. brasiliensis to mammalian epithelial cells.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 08/2007; 92(1):129-35. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins plays a crucial role in invasive fungal diseases. ECM proteins bind to the surface of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells in distinct qualitative patterns. Extracts from Pb18 strain, before (18a) and after animal inoculation (18b), exhibited differential adhesion to ECM components. Pb18b extract had a higher capacity for binding to ECM components than Pb18a. Laminin was the most adherent component for both samples, followed by type I collagen, fibronectin, and type IV collagen for Pb18b. A remarkable difference was seen in the interaction of the two extracts with fibronectin and their fragments. Pb18b extract interacted significantly with the 120-kDa fragment. Ligand affinity binding assays showed that type I collagen recognized two components (47 and 80kDa) and gp43 bound both fibronectin and laminin. The peptide 1 (NLGRDAKRHL) from gp43, with several positively charged amino acids, contributed most to the adhesion of P. brasiliensis to Vero cells. Synthetic peptides derived from peptide YIGRS of laminin or from RGD of both laminin and fibronectin showed the greatest inhibition of adhesion of gp43 to Vero cells. In conclusion, this work provided new molecular details on the interaction between P. brasiliensis and ECM components.
Microbes and Infection 06/2006; 8(6):1550-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules, which may disseminate to several organs and tissues, leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion to and invasion of host cells are essential steps involved in the infection and dissemination of pathogens. Furthermore, pathogens use their surface molecules to bind to host extracellular matrix components to establish infection. Here, we report the characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of P. brasiliensis as an adhesin, which can be related to fungus adhesion and invasion. The P. brasiliensis GAPDH was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody against this protein was obtained. By immunoelectron microscopy and Western blot analysis, GAPDH was detected in the cytoplasm and the cell wall of the yeast phase of P. brasiliensis. The recombinant GAPDH was found to bind to fibronectin, laminin, and type I collagen in ligand far-Western blot assays. Of special note, the treatment of P. brasiliensis yeast cells with anti-GAPDH polyclonal antibody and the incubation of pneumocytes with the recombinant protein promoted inhibition of adherence and internalization of P. brasiliensis to those in vitro-cultured cells. These observations indicate that the cell wall-associated form of the GAPDH in P. brasiliensis could be involved in mediating binding of fungal cells to fibronectin, type I collagen, and laminin, thus contributing to the adhesion of the microorganism to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection.
Infection and Immunity 02/2006; 74(1):382-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of several molecular and cellular approaches that are likely to supply insights into the host-fungus interaction. Fungi present intra- and/or extracellular host-parasite interfaces, the parasitism phenomenon being dependent on complementary surface molecules. The entry of the pathogen into the host cell is initiated by the fungus adhering to the cell surface, which generates an uptake signal that may induce its cytoplasmatic internalization. Furthermore, microbial pathogens use a variety of their surface molecules to bind to host extracellular matrix (ECM) components to establish an effective infection. On the other hand, integrins mediate the tight adhesion of cells to the ECM at sites referred to as focal adhesions and also play a role in cell signaling. The phosphorylation process is an important mechanism of cell signaling and regulation; it has been implicated recently in defense strategies against a variety of pathogens that alter host-signaling pathways in order to facilitate their invasion and survival within host cells. The study of signal transduction pathways in virulent fungi is especially important in view of their putative role in the regulation of pathogenicity. This review discusses fungal adherence, changes in cytoskeletal organization and signal transduction in relation to host-fungus interaction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The virulence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can be attenuated or lost after long periods of repeated subculturing and reestablished after animal inoculation. Only one adhesin (gp43) has been described until now, among the various identified components of P. brasiliensis, and gp43 shows adhesion to laminin. Thus, the present study was designed to isolate and characterize factors putatively related to the capacity of this fungus to adhere to the host by comparing P. brasiliensis samples, taken before and after animal inoculation. The two samples differed in their pattern of adhesion and invasion. The sample recently isolated from animals (Pb18b) demonstrated a greater capacity to adhere and to invade the Vero cells than the one subcultured in vitro (Pb18a). Extract from Pb18b also showed higher levels of protein expression than that from Pb18a, when two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were compared. A protein species of 30 kDa, pI 4.9, was more evident in the Pb18b extract and had properties of adhesin. Laminin, but none of the other extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as fibronectin, collagen I and IV, bound specifically to the P. brasiliensis 30 kDa protein. The roles of 30 kDa and gp43 in cellular interactions were investigated and the adhesion of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was intensively inhibited by pre-treatment of epithelial cells with 30 kDa protein and gp43. Thus, this study presents evidence that adhesion capacity could be related to virulence, and that a 30 kDa adhesin accumulated differentially in samples with different levels of pathogenicity. This protein and its adhesion characteristics are being published for the first time and may be related to the virulence of P. brasiliensis.
Microbes and Infection 06/2005; 7(5-6):875-81. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) yeast cells can enter mammalian cells and probably manipulate the host cell environment to favor their own growth and survival. We studied the uptake of strain Pb 18 into A549 lung and Vero epithelial cells, with an emphasis on the repercussions in the cytoskeleton and the apoptosis of host cells. Cytoskeleton components of the host cells, such as actin and tubulin, were involved in the P. brasiliensis invasion process. Cytochalasin D and colchicine treatment substantially reduced invasion, indicating the functional participation of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs) in this mechanism. Cytokeratin could also play a role in the P. brasiliensis interaction with the host. Gp43 was recognized by anti-actin and anti-cytokeratin antibodies, but not by anti-tubulin. The apoptosis induced by this fungus in infected epithelial cells was demonstrated by various techniques: TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and Bak and Bcl-2 immunocytochemical expression. DNA fragmentation was observed in infected cells but not in uninfected ones, by both TUNEL and gel electrophoresis methods. Moreover, Bcl-2 and Bak did not show any differences until 24 h after infection of cells, suggesting a competitive mechanism that allows persistence of infection. Overexpression of Bak was observed after 48 h, indicating the loss of competition between death and survival signals. In conclusion, the mechanisms of invasion of host cells, persistence within them, and the subsequent induction of apoptosis of such cells may explain the efficient dissemination of P. brasiliensis.
Microbes and Infection 09/2004; 6(10):882-91. · 2.92 Impact Factor