[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulin glutamylation is a post-translational modification that occurs predominantly in the ciliary axoneme and has been suggested to be important for ciliary function. However, its relationship to disorders of the primary cilium, termed ciliopathies, has not been explored. Here we mapped a new locus for Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which we have designated as JBTS15, and identified causative mutations in CEP41, which encodes a 41-kDa centrosomal protein. We show that CEP41 is localized to the basal body and primary cilia, and regulates ciliary entry of TTLL6, an evolutionarily conserved polyglutamylase enzyme. Depletion of CEP41 causes ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and mice and results in glutamylation defects in the ciliary axoneme. Our data identify CEP41 mutations as a cause of JBTS and implicate tubulin post-translational modification in the pathogenesis of human ciliary dysfunction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to create a classification system for pediatric corpus callosal abnormalities (CCA) based upon midline sagittal brain MRI. We used the term CCA for patients with structural variants of the corpus callosum, excluding patients with interhemispheric cyst variant or pure dysplasia without hypoplasia. Currently, no system exists for nonsyndromic forms of CCA, and attempts to create such a system have been hampered by highly variable morphology in patients with sporadic CCA. We reasoned that any useful strategy should classify affected family members within the same type, and that phenotypic variability should be minimized in patients with recessive disease.
We focused recruitment toward multiplex consanguineous families, ascertained 30 patients from 19 consanguineous families, and analyzed clinical features together with brain imaging.
We identified 3 major CCA classes, including hypoplasia, hypoplasia with dysplasia, and complete agenesis. Affected individuals within a given multiplex family usually displayed the same variant of the class of abnormality and they always displayed the same class of abnormality within each family, or they displayed complete agenesis. The system was validated among a second cohort of 10 sporadic patients with CCA.
The data suggest that complete agenesis may be a common end-phenotype, and implicate multiple overlapping pathways in the etiology of CCA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome (JS) and related disorders are a group of autosomal-recessive conditions sharing the "molar tooth sign" on axial brain MRI, together with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ataxia, and psychomotor delay. JS is suggested to be a disorder of cilia function and is part of a spectrum of disorders involving retinal, renal, digital, oral, hepatic, and cerebral organs. We identified mutations in ARL13B in two families with the classical form of JS. ARL13B belongs to the Ras GTPase family, and in other species is required for ciliogenesis, body axis formation, and renal function. The encoded Arl13b protein was expressed in developing murine cerebellum and localized to the cilia in primary neurons. Overexpression of human wild-type but not patient mutant ARL13B rescued the Arl13b scorpion zebrafish mutant. Thus, ARL13B has an evolutionarily conserved role mediating cilia function in multiple organs.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2008; 83(2):170-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome and related cerebellar disorders (JSRD) are a group of recessive congenital ataxia conditions usually showing neonatal hypotonia, dysregulated breathing rhythms, oculomotor apraxia, and mental retardation. The pathognomonic finding in JSRD is the unique molar tooth sign (MTS) on brain imaging. There is a tremendously broad spectrum of signs and symptoms mainly including kidney, retina, and liver disease, along with polydactyly and facial dysmorphisms. Here we propose a new diagnostic classification within JSRD that includes four major subtypes. To test this classification, we performed a systematic recruitment and genetic evaluation from a single referral center in Egypt. Thirteen families were identified, four showed evidence of linkage to one of the four known genetic loci, three showed novel AHI1 mutations, and nine were excluded from known loci. Each family could be classified into one of the four subtypes. This classification may thus be useful in the evaluation of patients with JSRD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome-related disorders (JSRDs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions that share a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, the molar tooth sign (MTS) visible on brain imaging, with variable neurological, ocular, and renal manifestations. Mutations in the CEP290 gene were recently identified in families with the MTS-related neurological features, many of which showed oculo-renal involvement typical of Senior-Loken syndrome (JSRD-SLS phenotype). Here, we performed comprehensive CEP290-mutation analysis on two nonoverlapping cohorts of JSRD-affected patients with a proven MTS. We identified mutations in 19 of 44 patients with JSRD-SLS. The second cohort consisted of 84 patients representing the spectrum of other JSRD subtypes, with mutations identified in only two patients. The data suggest that CEP290 mutations are frequently encountered and are largely specific to the JSRD-SLS subtype. One patient with mutation displayed complete situs inversus, confirming the clinical and genetic overlap between JSRDs and other ciliopathies.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2007; 81(1):104-13. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessively inherited developmental brain disorder with several identified causative chromosomal loci. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis and a particular midbrain-hindbrain "molar tooth" sign, a finding shared by a group of Joubert syndrome-related disorders (JSRDs), with wide phenotypic variability. The frequency of mutations in the first positionally cloned gene, AHI1, is unknown.
We searched for mutations in the AHI1 gene among a cohort of 137 families with JSRD and radiographically proven molar tooth sign.
We identified 15 deleterious mutations in 10 families with pure JS or JS plus retinal and/or additional central nervous system abnormalities. Mutations among families with JSRD including kidney or liver involvement were not detected. Transheterozygous mutations were identified in the majority of those without history of consanguinity. Most mutations were truncating or splicing errors, with only one missense mutation in the highly conserved WD40 repeat domain that led to disease of similar severity.
AHI1 mutations are a frequent cause of disease in patients with specific forms of JSRD.
Annals of Neurology 04/2006; 59(3):527-34. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jouberts syndrome-related disorders are a group of recessively inherited conditions showing cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and the molar tooth sign of the midbrain-hindbrain junction. Recent analyses have suggested at least three loci, JBTS1 (9q34.3), -2 (11p11.2-q12.3), and -3 (6q23), but the phenotypic spectrum associated with each locus has not been delineated. In addition, deletions of the NPHP1 gene, usually responsible for isolated juvenile nephronophthisis, are occasionally encountered among Jouberts syndrome-related disorder patients. Here, we describe four novel families showing evidence of linkage to two of these loci, provide a 3.6Mb refinement of the JBTS2 locus, and perform a detailed comparison of all linked families identified so far, to define the clinical and radiographical hallmarks for each genetic condition. We find that JBTS1 and -3 primarily show features restricted to the central nervous system, with JBTS1 showing largely pure cerebellar and midbrain-hindbrain junction involvement, and JBTS3 displaying cerebellar, midbrain-hindbrain junction, and cerebral cortical features, most notably polymicrogyria. Conversely, JBTS2 is associated with multiorgan involvement of kidney, retina, and liver, in addition to the central nervous system features, and results in extreme phenotypic variability. This provides a useful framework for genetic testing strategies and prediction of which patients are most likely to experience development of systemic complications.
Annals of Neurology 05/2005; 57(4):513-9. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive disorder marked by agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, ataxia, hypotonia, oculomotor apraxia, neonatal breathing abnormalities, and mental retardation. Despite the fact that this condition was described >30 years ago, the molecular basis has remained poorly understood. Here, we identify two frameshift mutations and one missense mutation in the AHI1 gene in three consanguineous families with JS, some with cortical polymicrogyria. AHI1, encoding the Jouberin protein, is an alternatively spliced signaling molecule that contains seven Trp-Asp (WD) repeats, an SH3 domain, and numerous SH3-binding sites. The gene is expressed strongly in embryonic hindbrain and forebrain, and our data suggest that AHI1 is required for both cerebellar and cortical development in humans. The recently described mutations in NPHP1, encoding a protein containing an SH3 domain, in a subset of patients with JS plus nephronophthisis, suggest a shared pathway.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2004; 75(6):979-87. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Molar Tooth Sign (MTS) is defined by an abnormally deep interpeduncular fossa; elongated, thick, and mal-oriented superior cerebellar peduncles; and absent or hypoplastic cerebellar vermis that together give the appearance of a "molar tooth" on axial brain MRI through the junction of the midbrain and hindbrain (isthmus region). It was first described in Joubert syndrome (JS) where it is present in the vast majority of patients with this diagnosis. We previously showed that the MTS is a component of several other syndromes, including Dekaban-Arima (DAS), Senior-Löken, and COACH (cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (CVH), oligophrenia, ataxia, coloboma, and hepatic fibrosis). Here we present evidence that the MTS is seen together with polymicrogyria, Váradi-Papp syndrome (Orofaciodigital VI (OFD VI)), and a new syndrome with encephalocele and cortical renal cysts. We also present a new patient with COACH syndrome plus the MTS. We propose that the MTS is found in multiple distinct clinical syndromes that may share common developmental mechanisms. Proper classification of patients with these variants of the MTS will be essential for localization and identification of mutant genes.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2004; 125A(2):125-34; discussion 117. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome is a rare genetic neurologic disorder associated with hypoplasia or absence of the cerebellar vermis. The classic form is characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, eye movement abnormalities, developmental delay, and abnormal breathing patterns. In contrast, other patients have the additional feature of kidney cysts. This population could represent a distinct form of Joubert syndrome. One case of Joubert syndrome with subcortical neuroepithelial cysts was recently described. We report a new case of Joubert syndrome with overlapping features, including diffuse progressive central nervous system neuroepithelial cysts and kidney cysts. Our data suggest that neuroepithelial cysts occur in conjunction with Joubert syndrome associated with kidney cysts.
Journal of Child Neurology 04/2004; 19(3):227-31. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joubert syndrome (JS) is an autosomal recessive developmental brain condition characterized by hypoplasia/dysplasia of the cerebellar vermis and by ataxia, hypotonia, oculomotor apraxia, and neonatal breathing dysregulation. A form of JS that includes retinal dysplasia and cystic dysplastic kidneys has been differentiated from other forms of JS, called either "JS type B" or "cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome" (CORS), but the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Here, we describe three consanguineous families that display CORS. Linkage analysis defines a novel locus on chromosome 11p12-q13.3, with a maximum two-point LOD score of Z=5.2 at the marker D11S1915. Therefore, the cerebello-oculo-renal form of JS is a distinct genetic entity from the Joubert syndrome 1 (JBTS1) locus described elsewhere, in which there is minimal involvement of retina or kidney. We suggest the term "CORS2" for this new locus.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2003; 73(3):656-62. · 11.20 Impact Factor