Chern-En Chiang

National Yang Ming University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (101)406.58 Total impact

  • Chern-En Chiang · Kang-Ling Wang ·

    Evidence-based medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1136/ebmed-2015-110229
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and may contribute to an increased risk of dementia. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether statin use prevented non-vascular dementia in subjects with AF. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study group comprised 51,253 AF subjects aged ≥60years who had received statin treatment. For each study patient, four age- and sex-matched AF subjects without statin exposure were selected as the control group (n=205,012). The risk of non-vascular dementia was compared between the statin and control groups. During the follow-up period, 17,201 patients experienced non-vascular dementia. The annual incidence of non-vascular dementia was lower in the statin group than in the control group (1.89% vs. 2.20%; p<0.001). Statin use exhibited a protective effect on the occurrence of non-vascular dementia, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.832 (95% confidence interval=0.801-0.864). Among statin types, the use of rosuvastatin was associated with the largest risk reduction (adjusted HR=0.661). Statin exposure duration was related inversely to the risk of non-vascular dementia. In this large-scale nationwide cohort study, statin use was associated with a lower risk of non-vascular dementia in AF. Use of more potent statin and longer exposure time may be associated with greater benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International journal of cardiology 10/2015; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.159 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies from Asia have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with a "low-risk" congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female (CHA2DS2-VASc) score of 0 (for males) or 1 (for females) might be higher than that for non-Asians. Objectives: This study hypothesized that the age threshold (65 years) used in the CHA2DS2-VASc system for initiating oral anticoagulants (OACs) might be lower in Taiwanese AF patients than in non-Asians. Methods: We used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan to study 186,570 nonanticoagulated AF patients. There were 9,416 males with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 and 6,390 females with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1. Their risk of ischemic stroke was analyzed with stratification on the basis of age. Results: The annual risks of ischemic stroke for males (score 0) and females (score 1) were 1.15% and 1.12%, respectively, and continuously increased from younger to older age groups, with an increment in stroke risk evident for patients >50 years of age. At a cutoff of 50 years, patients could be further stratified into 2 subgroups with different stroke risks (>50 years of age: 1.78%/year; vs. <50 years of age: 0.53%/year). This observation was consistent for males (1.95%/year vs. 0.46%/year, respectively) and females (1.58%/year vs. 0.64%/year, respectively) with AF. In a subgroup analysis, the annual risks of ischemic stroke for males and females with AF 50 to 54 years of age were 1.47% and 1.07%, respectively. Conclusions: For Taiwanese patients 50 to 64 years of age, the annual stroke risk was 1.78%, which may exceed the threshold for OAC use for stroke prevention. The annual risk of ischemic stroke for AF patients <50 years of age was 0.53%, which was truly low-risk, and OACs could be omitted. Whether resetting the age threshold to 50 years could refine current clinical risk stratification for Asian AF patients deserves further study.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2015; 66(12):1339-47. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.026 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: -Current American and European guidelines emphasized the importance of rate control treatments in treating atrial fibrillation (AF) with a Class I recommendation, although data about the survival benefits of rate control are lacking. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether patients receiving rate control drugs had a better prognosis compared to those without rate-control treatment. Methods and results: -This study used the "National Health Insurance Research Database" in Taiwan. There were 43,879, 18,466 and 38,898 AF patients enrolled in the groups of beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and digoxin, respectively. The reference group consisted of 168,678 subjects who did not receive any rate-control drug. The clinical endpoint was all-cause mortality. During a follow-up of 4.9±3.7 years, mortality occurred in 88,263 patients (32.7%). After the adjustment for the baseline differences, the risk of mortality was lower in patients receiving BBs (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.78) and CCBs (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.90-0.96) compared to those who did not receive rate-control medications. On the contrary, the digoxin group had a higher risk of mortality with an adjusted HR of 1.12 (95% CI = 1.10-1.14). The results were consistently observed in subgroup analyses and among the cohorts after propensity matching. Conclusions: -In this nationwide AF cohort, the risk of mortality was lower for patients receiving rate-control treatments with BBs or CCBs, and the use of BBs was associated with a largest risk reduction. Digoxin use was associated with greater mortality. Prospective randomized trials are necessary to confirm these findings.
    Circulation 09/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013709 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    Kang-Ling Wang · Gregory Y.H. Lip · Shing-Jong Lin · Chern-En Chiang ·
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    ABSTRACT: The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the cornerstone treatment for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, is limited by the perceived risk of serious bleeding in Asia. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are safer alternatives. Here, we evaluate performance differences of NOACs between Asians and non-Asians. We compared efficacy and safety of NOACs between patients enrolled in Asian and non-Asian countries using aggregative data from phase III clinical trials. The odds ratios (ORs [95% confidence interval]) were calculated by a random effects model. Comparing with VKAs, standard-dose NOACs reduced stroke or systemic embolism (OR=0.65 [0.52-0.83] versus 0.85 [0.77-0.93], P interaction= 0.045) more in Asians than in non-Asians and were safer in Asians than in non-Asians about major bleeding (OR=0.57 [0.44-0.74] versus 0.89 [0.76-1.04], P interaction=0.004), hemorrhagic stroke (OR=0.32 [0.19-0.52] versus 0.56 [0.44-0.70], P interaction=0.046) in particular, whereas gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly increased in non-Asians (OR=0.79 [0.48-1.32] versus 1.44 [1.12-1.85], P interaction=0.041). Generally, low-dose NOACs were safer than VKAs without heterogeneity in efficacy and safety between Asians and non-Asians, except for ischemic stroke, major, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Our findings suggest that standard-dose NOACs were more effective and safer in Asians than in non-Asians, whereas low-dose NOACs performed similarly in both populations. © 2015 The Authors.
    Stroke 09/2015; 46(9):2555-61. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009947 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both American and European guidelines recommended the use of CHA2DS2-VASc score, rather than CHADS2, for stroke risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the CHA2DS2-VASc score has not been proved to be better than CHADS2 for Asians in a large-scale study. We aimed to compare the accuracies of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting ischemic stroke in Chinese. This study used the "National Health Insurance Research Database" in Taiwan. A total of 186,570 AF patients without antithrombotic therapies were selected as the study cohort. The clinical endpoint was occurrence of ischemic stroke. During the follow-up of 3.4+3.7 years, 23,723 patients (12.7%) experienced ischemic stroke. The CHA2DS2-VASc score performed better than CHADS2 score in predicting ischemic stroke assessed by c-indexes (0.698 versus 0.659, p<0.0001). Among 25,286 patients with a CHADS2 score of 0, the CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0-3 and the annual stroke rate ranged from 1.15% to 4.47%. Compared to patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0, the hazard ratio of ischemic stroke for patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 3 was 3.998. Patients with a CHADS2 score of 0 were not necessarily 'low risk', and the annual stroke rate can be as high as 4.47% when they were further stratified by the CHA2DS2-VASc score. In contrast, patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 had a truly low risk of ischemic stroke, with an annual stroke rate around 1.15%. The same as Caucasians, the CHA2DS2-VASc score should be used for stroke risk stratification in Asians. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.08.017 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Hao-Min Cheng · Chern-En Chiang · Chen-Huan Chen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence rate of hypertension in Asian countries grows faster than in other parts of the world, where stroke exceeds coronary heart disease in causing morbidities and mortalities. The optimal management of hypertension is therefore an especially important task in Asia. In a transparent and rigorous guideline development process, the most updated information available on the management of hypertension was summarized in the 2015 Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC)/Taiwan Hypertension Society (TSH) hypertension guideline. In contradiction with the ESH/ESH joint hypertension guidelines and the 2014 Joint National Committee (JNC) report, this updated guideline suggests some different blood pressure (BP) targets. In brief, the BP target is 150/90 mm Hg for very elderly patients (≥ 80 years), 130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes, coronary heart disease, proteinuric chronic kidney disease or those receiving antithrombotics for stroke prevention, and 140/90 mm Hg for all the other hypertension patients with or without the aforementioned comorbidities. To facilitate the adherence to the guideline, the following was proposed: mnemonics for lifestyle modifications: S-ABCDE (Sodium restriction, Alcohol limitation, Body weight reduction, Cigarette smoking cessation, Diet adaptation, and Exercise adoption), treatment algorithm: PROCEED (Previous experience, Risk factors, Organ damage, Contraindications or unfavorable conditions, Expert's or doctor's judgment, Expenses or cost, and Delivery and compliance issue), and medication adjustment algorithm: AT GOALs (Adherence, Timing of administration, Greater doses, Other classes of drugs, Alternative combination or single-pill combination, and Lifestyle modification + Laboratory tests). In particular, the effort of translating the concept of central BP into clinical practice may stand out from all other hypertension guidelines. In summary, our guidelines may deliver useful information and guidance to clinicians in managing hypertensive patients, including the approach to a more accurate diagnosis, treatment and adjustment algorithm, and evidence-based recommendations.
    05/2015; 3(1):29-34. DOI:10.1159/000381299
  • Kang-Ling Wang · Shing-Jong Lin · Chern-En Chiang ·

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A1412. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61412-7 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been almost 5 years since the publication of the 2010 hypertension guidelines of the Taiwan Society of Cardiology (TSOC). There is new evidence regarding the management of hypertension, including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized trials, post-hoc analyses, subgroup analyses, retrospective studies, cohort studies, and registries. More recently, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published joint hypertension guidelines in 2013. The panel members who were appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC) also published the 2014 JNC report. Blood pressure (BP) targets have been changed; in particular, such targets have been loosened in high risk patients. The Executive Board members of TSOC and the Taiwan Hypertension Society (THS) aimed to review updated information about the management of hypertension to publish an updated hypertension guideline in Taiwan.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 12/2014; 78(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2014.11.005 · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • Gregory Y.H. Lip · Kang-Ling Wang · Chern-En Chiang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have changed the landscape for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the huge burden of AF in Asians, more attention to stroke prevention is clearly needed. Aiming to provide an overview and reappraisal of stroke prevention in Asians with AF, we searched MEDLINE for information on NOACs in Asians. In addition, abstracts from national and international cardiovascular meetings were studied to identify unpublished studies. In the 4 recent Phase 3 trials comparing NOACs to warfarin, a consistent pattern is evident. For efficacy endpoints in the comparison of NOACs vs warfarin, a significant reduction in stroke/systemic embolization was seen for dabigatran 150mg [HR 0.45 (0.28-0.72)], with non-significant trends seen for lower stroke/systemic embolization with other NOACs, except edoxaban 30mg. A similar pattern was seen for ischaemic stroke, with a significant reduction for dabigatran 150mg [HR 0.55 (0.32-0.950]. For haemorrhagic stroke, all NOAC regimes, except rivaroxaban 20mg, had significantly lower hazard ratios. No evidence of increased myocardial infarction was found for NOACs. All-cause mortality was significantly lowered amongst Asian patients on edoxaban 60mg compared to warfarin [HR 0.63 (0.40-0.98)] with non-significant trends to lower mortality with dabigatran 150mg, rivaroxaban and edoxaban 30mg. For safety endpoints, all the NOAC regimes, except rivaroxaban 20mg, significantly reduced major bleeding and 'all bleeding' events. Intracranial haemorrhage was consistently lowered by all NOACs. None of NOACs increased gastrointestinal bleeding. These information suggested that NOACs should be preferentially indicated for stroke prevention in Asians with AF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; 180C:246-254. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.182 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Saxagliptin was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk. This study assessed the risk of HHF during an exposure to sitagliptin in general diabetic patients. Methods In Taiwan National Health Insurance research database, a study of the beneficiaries aged ≥ 45 years with diabetes treated with or without sitagliptin between March 2009 and July 2011 was conducted. Patients treated with sitagliptin were matched to patients never exposed to a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor by the propensity score methodology. The outcome measures were the first and the total number of HHF, and mortality for heart failure or all causes. Results A total of 8288 matched pairs of patients were analyzed. During a median of 1.5 years, the first event of HHF occurred in 339 patients with sitagliptin and 275 patients never exposed to a DPP-4 inhibitor (hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.42, P = 0.017); all-cause mortality was similar (hazard ratio: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.74–1.03, P = 0.109). The risk for HHF was proportional to exposure (hazard ratio: 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.11, P < 0.001 for every 10% increase in adherence to sitagliptin). Overall, there were 935 events of HHF, in which the association between the number of HHF and the adherence to sitagliptin was linear. The greatest total number of HHF occurred in the patients with the highest adherence. Conclusions The use of sitagliptin was associated with a higher risk of HHF but no excessive risk for mortality was observed.
    International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; 177(1):86–90. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.09.038 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Digoxin and related cardiac glycoside have been used for almost 100 years in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, recent 2 analyses of the “AFFIRM” trial showed non-consistent results about the risk of mortality associated with digoxin use. The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationship between digoxin and the risk of ischemic stroke and mortality in Asians. Methods This study used the “National Health Insurance Research Database” in Taiwan. A total of 4,781 AF patients who did not receive any antithrombotic therapy were selected as the study population. Among the study population, 829 subjects (17.3%) received the digoxin treatment. The risks of ischemic stroke and mortality of patients with or without digoxin use were compared. Results The use of digoxin was associated with an increased risk of clinical events with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.41 (95% CI =1.17-1.70) for ischemic stroke and 1.21 (95% CI =1.01-1.44) for all-cause mortality. In the subgroup analysis based on the coexistence with heart failure or not, digoxin was a risk factor of adverse events for patients without heart failure, but not for those with heart failure (interaction p<0.001 for either endpoint). Among AF patients without heart failure, the use of beta-blockers was associated with better survival with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.48 (95% CI = 0.34-0.68). Conclusions Digoxin should be avoided for AF patients without heart failure since it was associated with an increased risk of clinical events. Beta-blockers may be a better choice for controlling ventricular rate.
    The Canadian journal of cardiology 10/2014; 30(10). DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.05.009 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Most atrial fibrillation (AF) epidemiology described Western populations; there is a paucity of data from Chinese ethnicity. This study presented differences in patient characteristics and management strategies, and assessed the quality of life (QoL) and AF control in Taiwanese patients from RealiseAF. Methods RealiseAF enrolled 10,523 patients internationally, in which Taiwanese cohort accounts for 7.1%. Physicians were randomly selected from a global list. Patient characteristics, management and therapeutic strategies of AF, QoL measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire, and the control of AF (in sinus rhythm, or AF with a ventricular rate ≤80 beats per minute) evaluated by electrocardiography were assessed. Results Taiwanese patients were mostly outpatients (93.9%), older (70.2 ± 11.8 years), accompanied by more comorbidities, more frequently (51.7%) in permanent AF, and symptomatic (European Heart Rhythm Association score ≥II: 81.5%) compared with the non-Taiwanese cohort. A rhythm-control strategy was less preferable to rate-control than in non-Taiwanese cohort as well as the use of class I and III antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs); 85.2% of Taiwanese patients received AADs, among which beta-blockers were the most common (46.9%). QoL was compromised (Visual Analogue Scale: 70.3 ± 14.4; single index utility score: 0.81 ± 0.25) and only 48.6% of the Taiwanese patients had AF controlled. Conclusions AF complexity in the Taiwanese cohort was similar to or even greater than that in the non-Taiwanese cohort. The Taiwanese patients were highly symptomatic; QoL was impaired despite the widespread use of medications and AF control was unsatisfactory. There is an apparent unmet need in AF treatment in Chinese ethnicity.
    Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 64(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.01.010 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Withholding effective treatment is clinically prevalent. The CEntralized Pan-Asian survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolemia (CEPHEUS-PA) indicated suboptimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment in Taiwan, which may be attributable to clinical inertia. We herein analyzed the Taiwanese cohort in the CEPHEUS-PA to identify key elements regarding clinical inertia and unsatisfactory LDL-C control. Methods: A questionnaire regarding the attitudes and perceptions for each physician and patient was included in the CEPHEUS-PA. Physicians completed the physician questionnaire before enrolling patients, who completed the patient questionnaire before the assessment. Results: The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guideline was used by 81.8% of physicians to establish the individual therapeutic targets; 50.2% of patients failed to take medications persistently. Regarding perceptions to hypercholesterolemia management, 75.9% of physicians were confident of having a sufficient number of patients at cholesterol targets; 80.2% and 65.9% of patients felt satisfied and motivated, respectively, but 46.0% had no strong feeling. The healthcare reimbursement policy used for treatment guidance was a significant determinant for LDL-C goal attainment (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.15-0.69, P=0.006) in addition to patient compliance. Low patient involvement indexed by having no strong feeling was associated with poor LDL-C control (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.95, P=0.020). Conclusions: The referenced healthcare reimbursement policy, poor patient compliance, and low patient involvement with hypercholesterolemia management were associated with failure of LDL-C control. Our findings highlight the need to overcome those barriers to improve the under-treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 06/2014; 21(10). DOI:10.5551/jat.24158 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The impact of renal dysfunction has been investigated in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to assess its additive prognostic value in low thromboembolic risk AF patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1. Methods and results: A total of 617 non-valvular AF patients were enrolled and baseline serum creatinine was measured. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and estimated clearance of creatinine were calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and Cockcroft-Gault formula, respectively. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death and systemic thromboembolic events, including acute ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and peripheral artery embolism. Of these, 338 individuals had clinical CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1. Among these individuals, 23 patients had impaired renal function. During the follow-up period of 53.6±32.1 months, the annual composite outcome rate in AF patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1 was 0.40%/year. As compared with patients with preserved renal function, the annual composite outcome rate was significantly higher in patients with impaired renal function (2.92%/year vs. 0.21%/year, P<0.001). Moreover, on multivariate Cox regression analysis, renal dysfunction was the only risk predictor in these low-risk patients. Conclusions: Impaired renal function has an additive prognostic value for thromboembolic events and cardiovascular mortality in low-risk AF patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1.
    Circulation Journal 02/2014; 78(4). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-13-1246 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The implementation of international guidelines for antithrombotic use in atrial fibrillation (AF) in routine practice is not well known, particularly, in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East and Africa. Aim To describe and analyse the use of antithrombotics in patients with AF in routine practice. Methods The RealiseAF international cross-sectional survey enrolled 10,523 patients (with at least one documented AF episode in the preceding 12 months) from 831 sites. Participating physicians were randomly selected from physician list forms. Results Mean age was 66.6 ± 12.2 years. In 47.4% of the patients with a CHADS2 score ≥ 2, oral anticoagulants were not prescribed. Patients who had a CHADS2 score ≥ 2, permanent or persistent AF, valvular heart disease, a stroke leading to hospitalization in the previous year or treatment by a cardiologist (rather than an internist) were most likely to receive oral anticoagulants. Patients aged ≥ 75 years and those with coronary heart disease; major bleeding leading to hospitalization in the previous year or a rhythm control strategy was least likely to receive oral anticoagulants. Appropriate antithrombotic treatment was prescribed in 66.7% of the patients with a CHADS2 score ≥ 2 in the Middle East/Africa, 55.3% in Europe, 43.9% in Latin America and 31.7% in Asia. Conclusion There is substantial deviation from international guidelines in antithrombotic use for AF in routine clinical practice, with overuse and underuse of antithrombotics in about 50% of the cases and important geographical differences. These findings emphasize the need for improved medical education worldwide and a better understanding of geographical disparities in the implementation of guidelines.
    Archives of cardiovascular diseases 02/2014; 107(2). DOI:10.1016/j.acvd.2014.01.001 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation can be categorized into nonpermanent and permanent atrial fibrillation. There is less information on permanent than on nonpermanent atrial fibrillation patients. This analysis aimed to describe the characteristics and current management, including the proportion of patients with successful atrial fibrillation control, of these atrial fibrillation subsets in a large, geographically diverse contemporary sample. Data from RealiseAF, an international, observational, cross-sectional survey of 10,491 patients with atrial fibrillation, were used to characterize permanent atrial fibrillation (N = 4869) and nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (N = 5622) patients. Permanent atrial fibrillation patients were older, had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a higher symptom burden, and were more likely to be physically inactive. They also had a higher mean (SD) CHADS2 score (2.2 [1.3] vs. 1.7 [1.3], p<0.001), and a higher frequency of CHADS2 score ≥2 (67.3% vs. 53.0%, p<0.001) and comorbidities, most notably heart failure. Physicians indicated using a rate-control strategy in 84.2% of permanent atrial fibrillation patients (vs. 27.5% in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation). Only 50.2% (N = 2262/4508) of permanent atrial fibrillation patients were controlled. These patients had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a lower symptom burden, less obesity and physical inactivity, less severe heart failure, and fewer hospitalizations for acute heart failure than uncontrolled permanent atrial fibrillation patients, but with more arrhythmic events. The most frequent causes of hospitalization in the last 12 months were acute heart failure and stroke. Permanent atrial fibrillation is a high-risk subset of atrial fibrillation, representing half of all atrial fibrillation patients, yet rate control is only achieved in around half. Since control is associated with lower symptom burden and heart failure, adequate rate control is an important target for improving the management of permanent atrial fibrillation patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86443. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086443 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that the attainment of goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are globally suboptimal, but contemporary data are scarce. The CEntralized Pan-Asian survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolemia (CEPHEUS-PA) is the largest evaluation of pharmacological treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Asia. The study reported here analyzed the Taiwan cohort in CEPHEUS-PA to identify the determinants of successful treatment. The patients eligible for this study were adults (≥18 years old) with hypercholesterolemia and with at least two coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors who had been receiving lipid-lowering drugs for at least 3 months before enrollment, without adjustment for at least 6 weeks before enrollment. Demographic and clinical information and lipid concentrations were recorded. Cardiovascular risk levels and LDL-C targets were determined using the updated Adult Treatment Panel III. In this group of 999 Taiwanese patients, 50%, 25%, and 24% had LDL-C goals set at <70 mg/dL, <100 mg/dL, and <130 mg/dL, respectively. The overall attainment rate was 50%, with the lowest rate in patients set at the most stringent target (22%), followed by those whose therapeutic goals were <100 mg/dL (69%) and <130 mg/dL (87%). The success of LDL-C control was lower in patients with multiple risk factors other than CHD or its equivalents than in those without these multiple risk factors (37% vs. 53%, p < 0.001), and lower in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without (43% vs. 66%, p < 0.001). Baseline LDL-C and cardiovascular risk were inversely associated with goal attainment, whereas treatment with statins was directly associated with the achievement of LDL-C goals. Patients with diabetes (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.84, p = 0.010) and with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.40, p < 0.001) were less likely to be treated with statins. This study showed that there is a discrepancy between the updated Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations for LDL-C control and the control attained by this group of Taiwanese patients. In particular, treatment with statins was largely underused in patients with diabetes and in those with metabolic syndrome. These findings highlight the need for more intensive treatment in high-risk patients and those with multiple risk factors, particularly patients with metabolic syndrome.
    Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 12/2013; 77(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2013.10.013 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Food and Drug Administration recently updated the safety warning concerning the association between statin therapy and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). For prediabetes, little information is available for statins on cardiovascular outcome reduction and diabetogenic consequences. This study aimed to examine the risk of NODM and the reduction of cardiovascular events and death (MACE) after statin therapy in the prediabetic subjects. The medical and pharmacy claims of the prediabetic beneficiaries were retrieved from Taiwan National Health Insurance research database. The occurrence of NODM, MACE, and morbidity indexed by hospitalizations and emergency visits was ascertained by ambulatory and inpatient database. A propensity score-matched model was constructed for statin users and nonusers. During follow-up (4.1 ± 2.5 years), NODM and MACE occurred in 23.5% and 16.7%, respectively, of nonusers and 28.5% and 12.0%, respectively, of users. Statin therapy was associated with a greater risk of NODM (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.32) and less risk of MACE (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.80), both in dose-dependent fashions. The earlier and more persistent use correlated with the greater increase in risk of NODM offset by the proportionally larger reduction in MACE. Furthermore, the early persistent users had the lowest rate of hospitalizations and emergency visits. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the relation between NODM and therapeutic advantages of statins was parallel in the prediabetic population. Treatment benefits outweighed diabetic consequences in subjects receiving the earlier and more persistent treatment.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2013; 113(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.10.043 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Kang-Ling Wang · Chern-En Chiang ·

    Circulation Journal 07/2013; 77(9). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-13-0885 · 3.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

945 Citations
406.58 Total Impact Points


  • 1993-2015
    • National Yang Ming University
      • • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1994-2013
    • Taipei Veterans General Hospital
      • • Department of Medical Research and Education
      • • Cardiology Division
      • • Department of Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004-2005
    • Fu Jen Catholic University
      • School of Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan