Robert G Voigt

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (62)161.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are observed in up to 50% of infants after complex cardiac surgery. We sought to determine the association of perioperative anesthetic exposure with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery and to determine the effect of brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Retrospective cohort study of neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery who had preoperative and 7-day postoperative brain MRI and 12-month neurodevelopmental testing with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Doses of volatile anesthetics (VAA), benzodiazepines, and opioids were determined during the first 12 months of life. From a database of 97 infants, 59 met inclusion criteria. Mean ± sd composite standard scores were as follows: cognitive = 102.1 ± 13.3, language = 87.8 ± 12.5, and motor = 89.6 ± 14.1. After forward stepwise multivariable analysis, new postoperative MRI injury (P = 0.039) and higher VAA exposure (P = 0.028) were associated with lower cognitive scores. ICU length of stay (independent of brain injury) was associated with lower performance on all categories of the Bayley-III (P < 0.02). After adjustment for multiple relevant covariates, we demonstrated an association between VAA exposure, brain injury, ICU length of stay, and lower neurodevelopmental outcome scores at 12 months of age. These findings support the need for further studies to identify potential modifiable factors in the perioperative care of neonates with CHD to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 03/2014; 24(3):266-74. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105640. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether DHA supplementation improves the behavior of children with autism. 3 to 10 year old children with autism were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive a supplement containing 200 mg of DHA or a placebo for 6 months. Parent and investigator Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scales were completed to rate changes in core symptoms of autism after 3 and 6 months. Parents completed the Child Development Inventory (CDI) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and both parents and teachers completed the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (BASC) at enrollment and after 6 months. 48 children (40 [83%] male; mean age [SD] = 6.1 [2.0] years) were enrolled; 24 received DHA and 24 placebo. Despite a median 431% increase in total plasma DHA levels after 6 months, the DHA group was not rated as improved in core symptoms of autism compared to the placebo group on the CGI-I. Based on analysis of covariance models adjusted for the baseline rating scores, parents (but not teachers) provided a higher average rating of social skills on the BASC for the children in the placebo group compared to the DHA group (p = 0.04), and teachers (but not parents) provided a higher average rating of functional communication on the BASC for the children in the DHA group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.02). Dietary DHA supplementation of 200 mg per day for 6 months does not improve the core symptoms of autism. Our results may have been limited by inadequate sample size.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 12/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Previous studies suggest that former late preterm infants are at increased risk for learning and behavioral problems compared with term infants. These studies have primarily used referred clinical samples of children followed only until early school age. Our objective was to determine the cumulative incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) in former late preterm versus term infants in a population-based birth cohort.METHODS:Subjects included all children born 1976 to 1982 in Rochester, MN who remained in the community after 5 years. This study focused on the comparison of subjects in 2 subgroups, late preterm (34 to <37 weeks) and term (37 to <42 weeks). School and medical records were available to identify individuals who met research criteria for ADHD and LD in reading, written language, and math. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of each condition by 19 years of age. Cox models were fit to evaluate the association between gestational age group and condition, after adjusting for maternal education and perinatal complications.RESULTS:We found no statistically significant differences in the cumulative incidence of ADHD or LD between the late preterm (N = 256) versus term (N = 4419) groups: ADHD (cumulative incidence by age 19 years, 7.7% vs 7.2%; P = .84); reading LD (14.2% vs 13.1%; P = .57); written language LD (13.5% vs 15.7%; P = .36), and math LD (16.1% vs 15.5%; P = .89).CONCLUSIONS:These data from a population-based birth cohort indicate that former late preterm infants have similar rates of LD and ADHD as term infants.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:We examined long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of childhood ADHD cases and controls, prospectively assessed as adults.METHODS:Adults with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same birth cohort (N = 5718) were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Vital status was determined for birth cohort members. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were constructed to compare overall and cause-specific mortality between childhood ADHD cases and controls. Incarceration status was determined for childhood ADHD cases. A standardized neuropsychiatric interview was administered.RESULTS:Vital status for 367 childhood ADHD cases was determined: 7 (1.9%) were deceased, and 10 (2.7%) were currently incarcerated. The SMR for overall survival of childhood ADHD cases versus controls was 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-4.26; P = .13) and for accidents only was 1.70 (95% CI, 0.49-5.97; P = .41). However, the cause-specific mortality for suicide only was significantly higher among ADHD cases (SMR, 4.83; 95% CI, 1.14-20.46; P = .032). Among the childhood ADHD cases participating in the prospective assessment (N = 232; mean age, 27.0 years), ADHD persisted into adulthood for 29.3% (95% CI, 23.5-35.2). Participating childhood ADHD cases were more likely than controls (N = 335; mean age, 28.6 years) to have ≥1 other psychiatric disorder (56.9% vs 34.9%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8; P < .01).CONCLUSIONS:Childhood ADHD is a chronic health problem, with significant risk for mortality, persistence of ADHD, and long-term morbidity in adulthood.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study reports the incidence of enuresis and encopresis among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus those without ADHD. METHODS: Subjects included 358 children (74.5% boys) with research-identified ADHD from a 1976 to 1982 population-based birth cohort (n = 5718) and 729 (75.2% boys) non-ADHD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a diagnosis of enuresis or encopresis was made or last follow-up before 18 years of age. The complete medical record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on age of initial diagnosis of an elimination disorder, frequency and duration of symptoms, and identification of exclusionary criteria specified by DSM-IV, with confirmation of the diagnosis by expert consensus. RESULTS: Children with ADHD were 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.4; P = .002) times more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for enuresis than non-ADHD controls; they were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.7; P = .006) times more likely to do so than non-ADHD controls when less stringent criteria for a diagnosis of enuresis were employed. Though not significant, children with ADHD were 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7-4.6; P = .23) times more likely to meet criteria for encopresis than non-ADHD controls. The relative risk was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1; P = .05) when a less stringent definition for encopresis was utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers without ADHD to develop enuresis with a similar trend for encopresis.
    Academic pediatrics 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Neonates undergoing complex congenital heart surgery have a significant incidence of neurologic problems. Erythropoietin has antiapoptotic, antiexcitatory, and anti-inflammatory properties to prevent neuronal cell death in animal models, and improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in full-term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. We designed a prospective phase I/II trial of erythropoietin neuroprotection in neonatal cardiac surgery to assess safety and indicate efficacy. METHODS: Neonates undergoing surgery for D-transposition of the great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, or aortic arch reconstruction were randomized to 3 perioperative doses of erythropoietin or placebo. Neurodevelopmental testing using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was performed at age 12 months. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients received the study drug. Safety profile, including magnetic resonance imaging brain injury, clinical events, and death, was not different between groups. Three patients in each group died. Forty-two patients (22 in the erythropoietin group and 20 in the placebo group; 79% of survivors) returned for 12-month follow-up. In the group receiving erythropoietin, mean Cognitive Scale scores were 101.1 ± 13.6, Language Scale scores were 88.5 ± 12.8, and Motor Scale scores were 89.9 ± 12.3. In the group receiving placebo, Cognitive Scale scores were 106.3 ± 10.8 (P = .19), Language Scores were 92.4 ± 12.4 (P = .33), and Motor Scale scores were 92.6 ± 14.1 (P = .51). CONCLUSIONS: Safety profile for erythropoietin administration was not different than placebo. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were not different between groups; however, this pilot study was not powered to definitively address this outcome. Lessons learned suggest optimized study design features for a larger prospective trial to definitively address the utility of erythropoietin for neuroprotection in this population.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2012; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this study we report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain injury and 12-month neurodevelopmental outcomes when regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used for neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. METHODS: Fifty-seven neonates receiving RCP during aortic arch reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective outcome study. RCP flows were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler monitoring. Brain MRI was performed preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively. Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at 12 months. RESULTS: Mean RCP time was 71 ± 28 minutes (range, 5 to 121 minutes) and mean flow was 56.6 ± 10.6 mL/kg/min. New postoperative MRI brain injury was seen in 40% of patients. For 35 RCP patients at age 12 months, mean Bayley Scales III Composite standard scores were: Cognitive, 100.1 ± 14.6 (range, 75 to 125); Language, 87.2 ± 15.0 (range, 62 to 132); and Motor, 87.9 ± 16.8 (range, 58 to 121). Increasing duration of RCP was not associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal aortic arch repair with RCP using a neuromonitoring strategy results in 12-month cognitive outcomes that are at reference population norms. Language and motor outcomes are lower than the reference population norms by 0.8 to 0.9 standard deviations. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in this RCP cohort demonstrate that this technique is effective and safe in supporting the brain during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Expectations for outcomes after the neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) continue to change. This cohort study describes neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 12 months after neonatal ASO, and analyzes both modifiable and nonmodifiable factors for association with adverse outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent an ASO (n = 30) were enrolled in a prospective outcome study, with comprehensive clinical data collection during the first 12 months of life. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 7 days postoperatively, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III was performed at age 12 months. RESULTS: Ten of 30 patients (33%) had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging injury; 13 of 30 patients (43%) had new postoperative magnetic resonance imaging injury. Twenty patients (67%) had Bayley Scales of Infant Development III: Cognitive Composite standard score mean was 104.8 ± 15.0, Language Composite standard score median was 90.0 (25th to 75th percentile, 83 to 94), and Motor Composite standard score mean was 92.3 ± 14.2. Best subsets multivariable analysis found associations between lower preoperative and intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging brain injury, total bypass time, and total midazolam dose and lower Bayley Scales of Infant Development III scores at age 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: At 12 months after ASO, neurodevelopmental outcome means were within normal population ranges. The new associations reported in this study between potentially modifiable perioperative factors and outcomes require investigations in larger patient cohorts. Beyond survival, which was 100% in this cohort, factors influencing quality of life including neurodevelopmental outcomes should be routinely investigated in studies of ASO patients.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2012; 94(4):1250-1256. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods:  Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we identified 379 ADHD incident cases and 758 age-gender matched non-ADHD controls, passively followed to age 19 years. All psychiatric diagnoses were identified and abstracted, but only those confirmed by qualified medical professionals were included in the analysis. For each psychiatric disorder, cumulative incidence rates for subjects with and without ADHD were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Corresponding hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for gender and mother's age and education at the subject's birth. The association between ADHD and the likelihood of having an internalizing or externalizing disorder was summarized by estimating odds ratios (OR). Results:  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a significantly increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR = 3.88), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (HR = 9.54), mood disorders (HR = 3.67), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.94), tic disorders (HR = 6.53), eating disorders (HR = 5.68), personality disorders (HR = 5.80), and substance-related disorders (HR = 4.03). When psychiatric comorbidities were classified on the internalization-externalization dimension, ADHD was strongly associated with coexisting internalizing/externalizing (OR = 10.6), or externalizing-only (OR = 10.0) disorders. Conclusion:  This population-based study confirms that children with ADHD are at significantly increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Besides treating the ADHD, clinicians should identify and provide appropriate treatment for psychiatric comorbidities.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 05/2012; 53(10):1036-43. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Annually, millions of children are exposed to anesthetic agents that cause apoptotic neurodegeneration in immature animals. To explore the possible significance of these findings in children, we investigated the association between exposure to anesthesia and subsequent (1) learning disabilities (LDs), (2) receipt of an individualized education program for an emotional/behavior disorder (IEP-EBD), and (3) scores of group-administered achievement tests. This was a matched cohort study in which children (N = 8548) born between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982, in Rochester, Minnesota, were the source of cases and controls. Those exposed to anesthesia (n = 350) before the age of 2 were matched to unexposed controls (n = 700) on the basis of known risk factors for LDs. Multivariable analysis adjusted for the burden of illness, and outcomes including LDs, receipt of an IEP-EBD, and the results of group-administered tests of cognition and achievement were outcomes. Exposure to multiple, but not single, anesthetic/surgery significantly increased the risk of developing LDs (hazard ratio: 2.12 [95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.54]), even when accounting for health status. A similar pattern was observed for decrements in group-administered tests of achievement and cognition. However, exposure did not affect the rate of children receiving an individualized education program. Repeated exposure to anesthesia and surgery before the age of 2 was a significant independent risk factor for the later development of LDs but not the need for educational interventions related to emotion/behavior. We cannot exclude the possibility that multiple exposures to anesthesia/surgery at an early age may adversely affect human neurodevelopment with lasting consequence.
    PEDIATRICS 11/2011; 128(5):e1053-61. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is one of six short papers that describe additional innovations to help integrate public health into medical education; these were featured in the "Patients and Populations: Public Health in Medical Education" conference. They represent relatively new endeavors or curricular components that had not been explored in prior publications. Although evaluation data are lacking, it was considered to be of value to medical educators to share a brief description of the collaboration between the Division of Preventive, Occupational, and Aerospace Medicine and the Department of Pediatrics at Mayo Clinic to integrate a preventive medicine-public health curriculum into the pediatric residency.
    American journal of preventive medicine 10/2011; 41(4 Suppl 3):S314-6. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the incidence of written-language disorder (WLD) among children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based birth cohort. Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born in 1976-1982 who remained in Rochester, Minnesota, after 5 years of age (N = 5718). Information from medical, school, and private tutorial records was abstracted. Cumulative incidences of WLD with or without reading disability (RD), identified with any of 3 formulas, among children with and without ADHD and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. For both genders, the cumulative incidence of WLD by 19 years of age was significantly higher for children with ADHD than for children without ADHD (boys: 64.5% vs 16.5%; girls: 57.0% vs 9.4%). The magnitude of association between ADHD and WLD with RD was significantly higher for girls than for boys (adjusted HR: girls: 9.8; boys: 4.2; P < .001). However, this was not true for WLD without RD (adjusted HR: girls: 7.4; boys: 6.6; P = .64). ADHD is strongly associated with an increased risk of WLD (with or without RD) for both boys and girls. Girls with ADHD are at higher risk of having WLD with RD compared with boys with ADHD, whereas boys and girls are at the same risk of having WLD without RD.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2011; 128(3):e605-12. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When developed in the 1990s, the Neurobiologic Risk Score (NBRS) and Neurodevelopmental Risk Exam (NRE) correlated well with developmental outcomes in premature infants. Given recent advances in neonatology, we assessed their present ability to predict cognitive outcome, alone and combined with socio-economic factors. One hundred and twenty-nine neonates <32 weeks gestational age were assessed at 6, 12 and/or 24 months corrected age with the Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Indices of socio-economic status included maternal education and marital status. At 24 months corrected age (n= 67), the NBRS (r=-0.5), maternal education (r= 0.46) and marital status (r= 0.37) correlated with the CAT/CLAMS. These correlations increased when NBRS and maternal education were combined (r= 0.63) and when specific NBRS components (intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, seizures) and maternal education were combined (r= 0.66). In the contemporary neonatal intensive care unit, measures used to predict cognitive outcome should incorporate both neurobiological risk factors and socio-economic variables.
    Child Care Health and Development 07/2011; 38(5):683-9. · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 06/2011; 32(5):438. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • European Psychiatry - EUR PSYCHIAT. 01/2011; 26:308-308.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the characteristics of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have high intelligence quotient (IQ) versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N = 379) from a birth cohort (N = 5718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 and 18 years were used to categorize children into 3 groups: Low (IQ < 80), Normal (80 ≤ IQ < 120), and High IQ (IQ ≥ 120). Subjects were retrospectively followed up from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, comorbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. There were no significant differences among children with high (N = 34), normal (N = 276), or low IQ (N = 21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of comorbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, and 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, and 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, and 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, and 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, and 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, and 29.0, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal, and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 12/2010; 32(2):103-9. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P < .008) but there were no statistically significant differences between groups on other neuropsychological domains. Five-year-old children whose mothers received modest DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2010; 157(6):900-5. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterise the relationship between ICD code-based (i.e. physician diagnosis-based) and criteria-based asthma ascertainment. We compared identification of children with asthma between criteria-based medical record review for asthma ascertainment and an ICD-9 code-based approach. We determined the agreement rate and validity index of ICD code-based asthma ascertainment using asthma status by medical record review as a gold standard. Of the 115 study subjects, the agreement between medical record review and ICD-9 coding was 81.6% with a kappa value of 0.28 (P<0.0001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for ICD-9 code were 24.0%, 97.8%, 75.0%, and 82.0%, respectively, using criteria for asthma by medical record review as gold standard. ICD code-based asthma ascertainment appears to under-identify children with asthma compared to criteria-based medical record review. ICD codes may be useful for etiologic research but may not be suitable for surveillance of asthma epidemiology.
    Primary care respiratory journal: journal of the General Practice Airways Group 11/2010; 20(1):79-83.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of reading disability (RD) among children with and without research-identified attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), separately according to gender, in a population-based birth cohort. Subjects included all children born in 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, Minnesota, after 5 years of age (n=5718). Information from medical, school, and private tutorial records was abstracted. Cumulative incidence of RD, by any of 3 RD formulas, in children with and without ADHD and corresponding hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated separately according to gender. Cumulative incidence of RD by the age of 19 years was significantly higher in children with ADHD (51% in boys, 46.7% in girls) compared with those without ADHD (14.5% in boys, 7.7% in girls). Among children with ADHD, the risk for RD was similar in boys versus girls (HR: 1.0). However, among children without ADHD, boys were 2.0 times more likely than girls to meet RD criteria. Among girls, the HR for the risk for RD associated with ADHD (versus those without ADHD) was 8.1 (95% confidence interval: 5.7-11.5), which was significantly higher than the corresponding HR among boys (3.9 [95% confidence interval: 3.2-4.9]). The risk for RD is significantly greater among children with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the risk for RD is the same for boys and girls. However, among children without ADHD, boys are more at risk for RD than girls. Among girls, the magnitude of increased risk for RD associated with ADHD is nearly twice that among boys, because girls without ADHD are less likely to have RD than boys without ADHD.
    PEDIATRICS 09/2010; 126(4):e788-95. · 4.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

725 Citations
161.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • United States Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service Children's Nutrition Research Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2013
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • • Division of Developmental Medicine
      • • Developmental Medicine Center
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000–2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2010
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
    • Wakayama Medical University
      Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan
    • Texas Children's Hospital
      • Meyer Center for Developmental Pediatrics
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2003
    • Agricultural Research Service
      Kerrville, Texas, United States