Masamitsu Shimazawa

Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gihu, Gifu, Japan

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Publications (225)628.27 Total impact

  • Hiroshi Izawa · Yuki Inoue · Yuta Ohno · Kazuki Ojino · Kazuhiro Tsuruma · Masamitsu Shimazawa · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Placental growth factor (PlGF) is part of the VEGF family and is known to be involved in angiogenesis, vasopermeability, and neuroprotection. Recently, PlGF has been reported as a novel therapeutic target for wet AMD. However, there are few reports about the effect of PlGF against dry AMD. Previously, we reported that PlGF has protective effects against retinal neuronal cell damage in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PlGF against photoreceptor degeneration. Methods: In this study, mice were exposed to white light at 8000 lx for 3 hours to induce retinal damage, which was evaluated by recording the electroretinogram amplitude and measuring the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness. The mice were injected intravitreally with PlGF before light exposure, PlGF after light exposure, or anti-PlGF antibody before light exposure. RPE-choroid-sclera flat mounts were immunostained with anti-ZO-1 antibody to evaluate the disruption of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cell-cell junctional integrity after light exposure. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF receptor in the retina and RPE-choroid complex after light exposure was measured using Western blot analysis. Results: Contrary to the expected outcome, PlGF treatment exacerbated the light-induced retinal functional damage and ONL thinning. In contrast, anti-PlGF treatment significantly improved the light-induced retinal degeneration. The disruption of RPE cell-cell junctional integrity after light exposure was suppressed by anti-PlGF treatment. Moreover, the VEGF receptor, which is involved in blood-retinal barrier breakdown, was up-regulated after light exposure. Conclusions: These findings suggest that anti-PlGF antibody has protective effects against light-induced retinal degeneration in the murine retina through inhibition of RPE breakdown after light exposure. Thus, anti-PlGF antibody may be useful therapeutic agents in dry AMD.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2015; 56(11):6914-6924. DOI:10.1167/iovs.15-16748 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is rich in anthocyanins, which are polyphenolic pigments. This study aimed to analyze and characterize the anthocyanin composition in cultivated blue tomato in Japan. The extracts of peel, seed, and pulp of tomatoes were purified following which anthocyanins and lycopene contents were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven types of anthocyanins were identified, including delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin. Further, the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins was evaluated using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical quenching assays and electron spin resonance. "Blue tomato" extracts exert antioxidant activity. Thus, we showed that petunidin was present in the "blue tomato" peel while lycopene was present in the peel and pulp. Additionally, the blue tomato peel extract was found to significantly inhibit H2O2-induced cell death in vitro. This is the first study on cell protective effects of Japanese blue tomato extract and petunidin in murine photoreceptor cells.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/09168451.2015.1091715 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photobiomodulation is the treatment with light in the far-red to near-infrared region of the spectrum and has been reported to have beneficial effects in various animal models of disease, including an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) mouse model. Previous reports have suggested that phagocytosis is reduced by age-related increased oxidative stress in AMD. Therefore, we investigated whether photobiomodulation improves phagocytosis caused by oxidative stress in the human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cell line. ARPE-19 cells and human primary retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cells were incubated and irradiated with near-infrared light (670 nm LED light, 2,500 lx, twice a day, 250 s/per time) for 4 d. Next, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and photoreceptor outer segments (POS) labeled using a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye were added to the cell culture, and phagocytosis was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, cell death was observed by double staining with Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide after photobiomodulation. CM-H2DCFDA, JC-1 dye, and CCK-8 were added to the cell culture to investigate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability, respectively. We also investigated the expression of phagocytosis-related proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK). Oxidative stress inhibited phagocytosis, and photobiomodulation increased the oxidative stress-induced hypoactivity of phagocytosis in ARPE-19 cells and hRPE cells. Furthermore, H2O2 and photobiomodulation did not affect cell death in this experimental condition. Photobiomodulation reduced ROS production but did not affect cell viability or mitochondrial membrane potential. The expression of phosphorylated MerTK increased, but phosphorylated FAK was not affected by photobiomodulation. These findings indicate that near-infrared light photobiomodulation (670 nm) may be a noninvasive, inexpensive, and easy adjunctive therapy to help inhibit the development of ocular diseases induced by the activation of phagocytosis.
    Molecular vision 08/2015; 21:883-92. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DBA/2J mice are one of several animal strains used for experimental models of both intraocular hypertension and glaucoma. This study investigates the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and optic nerve degeneration in DBA/2J mice. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in DBA/2J mice between the ages of 6 and 15 months. Optic nerve damage was assessed at 15 months of age. The nerve was immunostained with antibodies to either neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) or phosphorylated NFH (pNFH), and optic nerve damage was assessed by performing NFH- and pNFH-positive axon counts. Expression levels of the ER stress proteins 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, also known as binding immunoglobulin protein, and C/EBP homologous protein were assayed with Western blotting. We also investigated ER stress localization in the optic nerve by double immunostaining with antibodies to ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, myelin basic protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In DBA/2J mice, IOP began to rise at 8 months of age, and retinal degeneration was detected at 15 months of age. DBA/2J mice had fewer axons than controls at 15 months of age. ER stress-related protein levels were higher in the optic nerves of DBA/2J mice and were colocalized with GFAP-positive astrocytes. Our findings suggest that ER stress plays a role in optic nerve degeneration during chronic ocular hypertension. Furthermore, ER stress may be related in some way to astrocyte activation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 08/2015; 93(11). DOI:10.1002/jnr.23630 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. The quality of life of patients with ALS is significantly improved by ameliorating muscular symptoms. We previously reported that glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB; osteoactivin) might serve as a target for ALS therapy. In the present study, superoxide dismutase 1/glycine residue 93 changed to alanine (SOD1(G93A) ) transgenic mice were used as a model of ALS. Expression of the C-terminal fragment of GPNMB was increased in the skeletal muscles of SOD1(G93A) mice and patients with sporadic ALS. SOD1(G93A) /GPNMB transgenic mice were generated to determine whether GPNMB expression ameliorates muscular symptoms. The weight and cross-sectional area of the gastrocnemius muscle, number and cross-sectional area of myofibers, and denervation of neuromuscular junctions were ameliorated in SOD1(G93A) /GPNMB vs. SOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, direct injection of a GPNMB expression plasmid into the gastrocnemius muscle of SOD1(G93A) mice increased the numbers of myofibers and prevented myofiber atrophy. These findings suggest that GPNMB directly affects skeletal muscle and prevents muscular pathology in SOD1(G93A) mice and may therefore serve as a target for therapy of ALS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 07/2015; 93(10). DOI:10.1002/jnr.23619 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huperzia serrata has been used as a Chinese folk medicine for many years. It contains huperzine A, which has a protective effect against memory deficits in animal models; however, it is unclear if H. serrata extract exerts any effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. We used H. serrata collected in Japan and determined its huperzine A content using HPLC. We determined its inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity. H. serrata extract (30 mg/kg/day) and donepezil (10 mg/kg/day) were orally administrated for 7 days. After repeated administration, we performed the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. H. serrata extract contained 0.5% huperzine A; H. serrata extract inhibited AChE, but not BuChE. H. serrata extract ameliorated cognitive function in mice. These results indicate that Japanese H. serrata extract ameliorates cognitive function deficits by inhibiting AChE. Therefore, H. serrata extract may be valuable for the prevention or treatment of dementia in AD.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/09168451.2015.1052773 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder, characterized by cognitive dysfunction and abnormal body movements, and at present there is no effective treatment for HD. Therapeutic options for HD are limited to symptomatic treatment approaches and there is no cure for this devastating disease. Here, we examined whether SUN N8075, (2S)-1-(4-amino-2,3,5-trimethylphenoxy)-3-{4-[4-(4-fluorobenzyl)phenyl]-1-piperazinyl}-2-propanol dimethanesulfonate, which exerts neuroprotective effects by antioxidant effects and induction of VGF nerve growth factor inducible (VGF), has beneficial effects in STHdh cells derived from striatum of knock-in HD mice and R6/2 HD mice. In an in vitro study, SUN N8075 inhibited the cell death caused by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) and upregulated the VGF mRNA level via the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Furthermore, 30 amino acid of VGF C-terminal peptide, AQEE-30 inhibited the cell death and the aggregation of mHtt. In an in vivo study, SUN N8075 improved the survival and the clasping response in the R6/2 mice. Furthermore, SUN N8075 increased the number of surviving neurons in the striatum of the R6/2 mice. These findings suggest that SUN N8075 may be an effective candidate for HD treatments.
    06/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.1002/prp2.140
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic stress is a risk factor of ocular neovascularization. Hypoxia visualization may provide clues regarding the underlying cause of angiogenesis. Recently, we developed a hypoxia-specific probe, protein transduction domain-oxygen-dependent degradation domain-HaloTag-Rhodamine (POH-Rhodamine). In this study, we observed the localization of HIF-1α proteins by immunohistochemistry and the fluorescence of POH-Rhodamine on RPE-choroid flat mounts. Moreover, we compared the localization of POH-Rhodamine with pimonidazole which is a standard reagent for detecting hypoxia. Next, we investigated the effects of triamcinolone acetonide (TAAC) against visual function that was evaluated by recording electroretinogram (ERG) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) development. Mice were given laser-induced CNV using a diode laser and treated with intravitreal injection of TAAC. Finally, we investigated POH-Rhodamine on CNV treated with TAAC. In this study, the fluorescence of POH-Rhodamine and HIF-1α were co-localized in laser-irradiated sites, and both the POH-Rhodamine and pimonidazole fluorescent areas were almost the same. Intravitreal injection of TAAC restored the reduced ERG b-wave but not the a-wave and decreased the mean CNV area. Furthermore, the area of the POH-Rhodamine-positive cells decreased. These findings indicate that POH-Rhodamine is useful for evaluating tissue hypoxia in a laser-induced CNV model, suggesting that TAAC suppressed CNV through tissue hypoxia improvement.
    Scientific Reports 04/2015; 5:9898. DOI:10.1038/srep09898 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Hiromi Murase · Kazuhiro Tsuruma · Masamitsu Shimazawa · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Renewal and elimination of the aged photoreceptor outer segment (POS) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a daily rhythmic process that is important for long-term vision. Phagocytic dysfunction results in photoreceptor cell death. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, is a known to show neuroprotective effects in stroke, neurological diseases, and retinal degeneration models. In this study, we investigated the effects of TUDCA on retinal phagocytosis. Methods We used pHrodo®-succinimidyl ester (SE), a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, to label the POS for monitoring phagocytosis. After ingestion, the intensity of pHrodo fluorescence increases because of the pH changes inside the liposome. An RPE cell line, ARPE-19, and primary human RPE cells were used to investigate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of phagocytosis in the pH sensitive fluorescence POS phagocytosis assay. Additionally, we examined whether TUDCA could promote phagocytic function. Results The intensity of pHrodo® light emission increased in a time-dependent manner. TUDCA enhanced phagocytosis of POS and protected against H2O2-induced phagocytic dysfunction. It also promoted phagocytic function via activation of Mer tyrosine kinase receptor (MerTK), which is known to play a key role in the physiological renewal of POS. Conclusions These results suggest that TUDCA activates MerTK, which is important for phagocytosis of POS. TUDCA may represent a new therapeutic option for the treatment of retinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2015; 56(4). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-15962 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to establish an experimental exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) model in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), which is a small New World monkey. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by laser irradiation on the left eye of each animal under anesthesia. Eight laser spots were applied around the macular area using the image-guided laser system (532 nm) attached with Micron III at 650 mW-2,000 mW power. Laser pulse duration and spot size were fixed at 100 ms and 50 µm, respectively. At 14 days after laser irradiation, fluorescein angiograms were observed. At 21 days after laser irradiation, the fluorescein angiograms were transcardially perfused to the bilateral common carotid arteries with 4% paraformaldehyde for the transverse section or with fluorescein-conjugated dextran (MW = 2,000 kDa) for the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE)-choroidal flatmount. At 14 days after laser irradiation, late hyperfluorescence and leakage within or beyond the lesion borders were observed in a laser power-dependent manner. In the RPE-choroidal flatmount, the mean size of the CNV lesions at 1,500 mW was 1.34 ± 0.49 × 105 µm2 (Mean ± S.D., n = 29), and the coefficient of variation for each CNV area was 36.5% (n = 29). In conclusion, we succeeded in producing an experimental exudative type of AMD model in the common marmoset. This model may be useful in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanism and screening of new candidates for exudative AMD.
    Current Neurovascular Research 03/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.2174/1567202612666150311105814 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    Yuta Yoshino · Mitsue Ishisaka · Saori Tsujii · Masamitsu Shimazawa · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive dysfunction and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an insulinotropic peptides. GLP-1-associated medicines are widely used as treatments for type 2 diabetes. In addition, they have been shown to ameliorate pathology in AD mouse models. Here, we investigated the effects of GLP-1 on different stressors in murine hippocampal HT22 cells. GLP-1 (7–36) prevented H2O2-, l-glutamate-, tunicamycin-, thapsigargin-, and amyloid β1–42-induced neuronal cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. GLP-1 (7–36) treatment for 1 h significantly increased phosphorylated Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) when compared with vehicle-treatment. These results suggest that GLP-1 (7–36) is protective against these stressors via activation of survival signaling molecules, such as Akt and ERK1/2 in HT22 cells. In conclusion, GLP-1 and activators of the GLP-1 receptor might be useful targets for the treatment of AD.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2015; 458(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.01.098 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Masamitsu Shimazawa · Sou Sugitani · Yuki Inoue · Kazuhiro Tsuruma · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cutamesine dihydrochloride is an agonist of sigma-1 receptor, which is a ligand-operated receptor chaperone at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. ER stress plays a pivotal role in light irradiation-induced retinal damage. In the present study, we examined whether cutamesine is effective against experimental degenerative retinal damages in vitro and in vivo. The effects of cutamesine against white light-induced retinal photoreceptor damage were evaluated in vitro by measuring cell death. The expression of sigma-1 receptor after the light exposure was examined by immunoblot analysis. The disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3/7 activation after excessive light exposure were also examined. In addition, retinal damage in mice induced by irradiation to white light was evaluated using histological staining and electroretinography. Cutamesine reduced the cell death rate induced by light exposure, and the protective effect was prevented by N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine (BD-1047) dihydrobromide, a sigma-1 receptor antagonist. Sigma-1 receptor expression was decreased by light exposure, and cutamesine suppressed the decreased expression of sigma-1 receptor protein. Cutamesine also reduced the mitochondrial damage and reduced the elevated level of caspase 3/7 activity; this effect was attenuated by BD-1047. In in vivo studies, cutamesine suppressed the light-induced retinal dysfunction and thinning of the outer nuclear layer in the mouse retina. These findings indicate that cutamesine protects against retinal cell death in vitro and in vivo by the agonistic effect of sigma-1 receptor. Therefore, sigma-1 receptor may have a potential as a therapeutic target in retinal diseases mediated by photoreceptor degeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Experimental Eye Research 01/2015; 132. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2015.01.017 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron accumulation is a potential pathogenic event often seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. In this study, we focused on the relationship between AMD pathology and concentrations of ferrous ion, which is a highly reactive oxygen generator in biological systems. Murine cone-cells-derived 661W cells were exposed to white florescence light at 2500 lx for 1, 3, 6, or 12 h. Levels of ferrous ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hydroxyl radicals were detected by RhoNox-1, a novel fluorescent probe for the selective detection of ferrous ion, 5-(and-6)-chloromethy1-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA), and 3'-p-(aminophenyl) fluorescein, respectively. Reduced glutathione, total iron levels and photoreceptor cell death were also measured. Two genes related to iron metabolism, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and H ferritin (HFt), were quantified by RT-PCR. The effects of ferrous ion on cell death and hydroxyl radical production were determined by treatment with a ferrous ion chelating agent, 2,2'-bipyridyl. We found that the ferrous ion level decreased with light exposure in the short time frame, whereas it was upregulated during a 6-h light exposure. Total iron, ROS, cell death rate, and expression of TfR and HFt genes were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in 661W cells exposed to light. Chelation with 2,2'-bipyridyl reduced the level of hydroxyl radicals and protected against light-induced cell death. These results suggest that light exposure decreases ferrous ion levels and enhances iron uptake in photoreceptor cells. Ferrous ion may be involved in light-induced photoreceptor cell death through production of hydroxyl radicals.
    Experimental Eye Research 12/2014; 129. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2014.10.019 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein nonmelanoma protein B (GPNMB, alias osteoactivin), a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is cleaved by extracellular proteases, resulting in release of an extracellular fragment (ECF). GPNMB is widely expressed by neurons within the CNS, including the hippocampus; however, its function in the brain remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of GPNMB in memory and learning by using transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing GPNMB (Tg mice on a BDF-1 background) and ECF-treated mice. In the hippocampus of both wild-type and Tg mice, GPNMB was highly expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Tg mice exhibited memory improvements in two types of learning tasks but were impaired in a passive-avoidance test. In Tg mice, the hippocampus displayed increased levels of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1. Intracerebroventricular administration of ECF (50 ng) to Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice also improved memory in a passive-avoidance test and increased hippocampal GluA1 levels 24 h after treatment. In Tg mice and ECF (0.25 μg/mL)-treated hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation (LTP) was promoted. These findings suggest that GPNMB may be a novel target for research on higher-order brain functions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2014; 132(5). DOI:10.1111/jnc.13010 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Previously, we reported that DGKβ knockout (KO) mice showed mania-like behaviors such as hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, lithium ameliorated the hyperactivity and reduced anxiety of DGKβ KO mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of the clinically active antimanic drugs valproate and olanzapine on the abnormal behaviors of DGKβ KO mice. Valproate (100mg/kg/day) and olanzapine (1mg/kg/day) were administered intraperitoneally. Following drugs treatments, behavioral tests were performed to investigate locomotor activity, anxiety levels, and cognitive function of the mice. A single treatment of valproate and olanzapine did not ameliorate the hyperactivity or abnormal anxiety level of DGKβ KO mice. Chronic treatment with valproate and olanzapine significantly decreased locomotor activity and abnormal anxiety levels of DGKβ KO mice. Additionally, valproate also ameliorated cognitive function of DGKβ KO mice. These results suggest that the abnormal behaviors of DGKβ KO mice is responsive to antimanic drugs, and that DGKβ KO mice are useful as an animal model of mania. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 10/2014; 67(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pharep.2014.10.009 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Tomomi Masuda · Masamitsu Shimazawa · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Kallikrein is a serine protease involved in the kallikrein-kinnin system. Kallikrein is derived from the blood plasma or tissue, and is correlated with aggravation and improvement in eye diseases, such as, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and ocular ischemic syndrome. The plasma kallikrein stimulates retinal vascular permeability and intraocular hemorrhage. On the other hand, we had reported that the tissue kallikrein normalizes retinal vasopermeability and inhibited retinal neovascularization and retinal ischemic injury. The protective mechanisms of the tissue-derived kallikrein include the cleavage of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which suggests that the tissue kallikrein could be potentially-effective against any disease involving the VEGF production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2014; 749. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.10.007 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Saori Tsujii · Mitsue Ishisaka · Masamitsu Shimazawa · Takanori Hashizume · Hideaki Hara ·
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    ABSTRACT: Zonisamide has been reported to have protective effects on epilepsy and Parkinson's disease and to work via various mechanisms of action, such as inhibition of monoamine oxidase-B and enhancement of tyrosine hydroxylase. Recently, it has been suggested that zonisamide itself shows neuroprotective actions. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of zonisamide against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We used human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and investigated the protective effects of zonisamide against tunicamycin- and thapsigargin-induced neuronal cell death. In addition, we investigated the effect of zonisamide against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced cell death and the mechanism of protection against ER stress. In vivo, we investigated the effect of zonisamide (20mg/kg, p.o.) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Zonisamide not only suppressed MPP(+)-induced cell death, but also inhibited ER stress-induced cell death and suppressed the expression of ER stress-related factors such as C/EBO homologous protein (CHOP) in vivo. Furthermore, zonisamide inhibited the activation of caspase-3 in vitro. These results suggest that zonisamide affected ER stress via caspase-3. We think that ER stress, particularly the mechanism via caspase-3, is involved in part of the neuroprotective effect of zonisamide against the experimental models of Parkinson's disease.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 09/2014; 746. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.09.023 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The incidence of blindness is increasing, in part, because of abnormal ocular neovascularization. Anti-VEGF therapies have yielded impressive results; however, they are not a cure for blindness. Recently, metallothioneins (MTs) 1 and 2 have been implicated in the process of angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether MT-1 and MT-2 were also involved in ocular neovascularization. Methods: The concentrations of MT-1 and MT-2 (hereafter MT-1/2) were observed by ELISA. We examined the role of MT-1/2 in ocular neovascularization by using both an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model and a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model. We investigated the localization of MT-1/2 in retina. Furthermore, we investigated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and VEGF in OIR. In vitro, we investigated the degradation of HIF-1α. Results: The MT-1/2 were significantly elevated in proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. Ocular neovascularization, which was induced in both the OIR model and the CNV model, was decreased in MT-1/2 knockout (KO) mice. We confirmed that although MT-1/2 was expressed throughout the murine retina, its expression levels were highest in the endothelial cells. Further, OIR enhanced MT-1/2 expression in the retina. Interestingly, in the OIR model, both HIF-1α and VEGF levels were significantly decreased in the retina of MT-1/2 KO mice. In addition, we found that knockdown of MT-1/2 accelerated ubiquitination of HIF-1α. Conclusions: These results indicate that MT-1/2 are involved in retinal and choroidal neovascularization, and that MT-1/2 might be a new therapeutic target in diseases in which ocular angiogenesis is implicated.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 09/2014; 55(10). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-14545 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating disease, and heavy alcohol consumption is an underlying risk factor. The aim of this study was to study the mechanism of ethanol-induced endothelial cell damage and to evaluate the protective effect of cilostazol against ethanol-induced damage. We first evaluated transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and cell viability of human brain microvascular endothelial cells at the ethanol concentration shown to cause mild-to-moderate intoxication in the clinic. We also assessed the permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and the change in tight junction proteins. Furthermore, we studied the potential of cilostazol to protect endothelial cells from ethanol-induced dysfunction. Concentration- and time-dependent effects of ethanol on cell viability and TEER showed that TEER was reduced at each concentration of ethanol tested during exposures of >2 h, but cell viability was not changed. Permeability of FITC-dextran was enhanced, and both tight junction and adherens junction proteins were reduced by 3-h ethanol treatment. The permeability of FITC-dextran was ameliorated by administration of cilostazol in a concentration-dependent manner. The protective effect of cilostazol was obstructed by administration of a protein kinase A inhibitor. Using gelatin zymography, we found that the protective effect of cilostazol was by reducing matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, but it had no effect on reactive oxygen spices (ROS). Our results indicate that cilostazol protected endothelial cells against ethanol-induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting ROS-mediated activation of MMP-9.
    Current Neurovascular Research 09/2014; 11(4). DOI:10.2174/1567202611666140912113152 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a crucial risk factor for stroke and is associated with increased frequency and poor prognosis. Although endothelial dysfunction is a known contributor of stroke, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which chronic hyperglycemia may contribute to the worsened prognosis following stroke, especially focusing on mitochondrial alterations. We examined the effect of hyperglycemia on hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic mice. We also examined the effects of high-glucose exposure for 6 days on cell death, mitochondrial functions and morphology in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVECs) or human endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iCell endothelial cells). Hyperglycemia aggravated hemorrhagic transformation, but not infarction following stroke. High-glucose exposure increased apoptosis, capase-3 activity, and release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c in HBMVECs as well as affected mitochondrial functions (decreased cell proliferation, ATP contents, mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity, but not reactive oxygen species production). Furthermore, morphological aberration of mitochondria was observed in diabetic cells (a great deal of fragmentation, vacuolation, and cristae disruption). A similar phenomena were seen also in iCell endothelial cells. In conclusion, chronic hyperglycemia aggravated hemorrhagic transformation after stroke through mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological alteration, partially via MMP-9 activation, leading to caspase-dependent apoptosis of endothelial cells of diabetic mice. Mitochondria-targeting therapy may be a clinically innovative therapeutic strategy for diabetic complications in the future.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103818. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103818 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
628.27 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • Gifu Pharmaceutical University
      • • Department of Biofunctional Evaluation
      • • Department of Biofunctional Molecules
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 2008-2014
    • Gifu University
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 2009
    • RIKEN
      Вако, Saitama, Japan
  • 2004-2005
    • Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1996-2005
    • Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
      • Division of Pharmacology
      Hamamatu, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 1999
    • Osaka Medical College
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Takatuki, Ōsaka, Japan