Olivier Joulin

Université du Droit et de la Santé Lille 2, Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France

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Publications (7)24.06 Total impact

  • European Journal of Anaesthesiology - EUR J ANAESTH. 01/2010; 27:57-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation (FDAR) ensures appropriate ventricular filling at high heart rates and results from accelerated sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) activity independent of calcium removal from the cell. Because lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge may induce aberrations in calcium trafficking and protein phosphorylation, we tested whether LPS would abolish FDAR in rats. Following LPS injection, changes in force-frequency relationship and FDAR were studied in cardiomyocytes, isolated hearts and in vivo by echocardiography. Calcium uptake and phosphatase activities were studied in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicle preparations. Western blots of phospholamban and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and serine/threonine phosphatase activity were studied in heart preparations. In cardiomyocytes and isolated heart preparations, reductions in time constant of relaxation (tau) and time to 50% relaxation at increasing rate of pacing were blunted in LPS-treated rats compared with controls. Early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (Ea), a relaxation parameter which correlates in vivo with tau, was reduced in LPS rats compared with control rats. LPS impaired SR calcium uptake, reduced phospholamban phosphorylation and increased serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity. In vivo inhibition of phosphatase activity partially restored FDAR, reduced phosphatase activity and prevented phospholamban dephosphorylation in LPS rat hearts. LPS impaired phospholamban phosphorylation, cardiac force-frequency relationship and FDAR. Disruption of frequency-dependent acceleration of LV relaxation, which normally participates in optimal heart cavity filling, may be detrimental in sepsis, which is typically associated with elevated heart rates and preload dependency.
    Critical care (London, England) 03/2009; 13(1):R14. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    Olivier Joulin
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    ABSTRACT: L'état de choc septique est une des principales causes de mortalité hospitalière. Il est caractérisé par une vasoplègie, une tachycardie et s'y associe une défaillance myocardique chez de nombreux patients. Physiologiquement, la tachycardie est non seulement à l'origine d'une augmentation du débit par la multiplication des cycles cardiaques mais elle a de plus des effets propres qui augmentent la contractilité et la relaxation ventriculaire. Ces phénomènes sont appelés relation force-fréquence (FFR) et accélération de la relaxation par la fréquence (FDAR). La défaillance myocardique septique est caractérisée par une altération de la contractilité myocardique mais également par des modifications de la relaxation ventriculaire. Dans un premier temps notre travail a consisté à mettre en évidence la défaillance contractile cardiaque dans un modèle de choc septique par injection d'endotoxine. Il met également en avant l'implication de l'activation des caspases (protéases participant à la voie de l'apoptose) comme étant un des mécanismes de cette défaillance. Ensuite nous avons mis en avant le rôle de médiateurs circulants dans l'apparition de cette dysfonction. L'identité de ces médiateurs est probablement cytokinique. TNF-α et IL-1β ont déjà montré leur capacité à induire cette dysfonction mais dans notre modèle ils n'ont pas été nécessaires à son apparition, d'autres cytokines pourraient être impliquées. Enfin nous avons mis en évidence que cette dysfonction myocardique septique était associée à une altération de FFR et de FDAR et que cette particularité pourrait être liée à une augmentation de l'activité de phosphatases cardiomyocytaires. L'apport de ces connaissances supplémentaires sur les mécanismes impliqués dans le choc septique ne permet pas de modification directe du traitement à proposer aux patients septiques, mais il ouvre de nouvelles voies d'investigation qui pourraient permettre une amélioration des stratégies thérapeutiques du choc septique.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The glycocalyx constitutes the first line of the blood tissue interface and is thus involved in many physiological processes, deregulation of which may lead to microvascular dysfunction. Because administration of LPS is accompanied by severe microvascular dysfunction, the purpose of the study was to investigate microvascular glycocalyx function during endotoxemia. Bolus infusion of LPS (10 mg kg(-1)) to male Sprague-Dawley rats elicited the development of hyporeactivity to vasoactive agents and microvascular derangements, including decreased capillary density and significant increases in intermittent and stopped flow capillaries in the small intestine muscularis layer compared with controls. LPS elicited plasma hyluronan release and reduction in endothelial surface thickness, indicative of glycocalyx degradation. Because endothelial glycocalyx is extremely sensitive to free radicals, oxidative stress was evaluated by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine in microvascular beds and levels of heart malondialdehyde and plasma carbonyl proteins, which were all increased in LPS-treated rats. Activated protein C (240 microg kg(-1) h(-1)) enhanced systemic arterial pressure response to norepinephrine in LPS-treated rats. Activated protein C (240 microg kg(-1) h(-1)) prevented capillary perfusion deficit in the septic microvasculature that were associated with reduced oxidative stress and preservation of glycocalyx. Our findings support the conclusion that LPS induces major microcirculation dysfunction accompanied by microvascular oxidative stress and glycocalyx degradation that may be limited by activated protein C treatment.
    Shock 06/2008; 29(5):572-6. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to measure nitrite/nitrate and cytokine levels of serum obtained from septic shock patients and to describe potential depressant effects of human septic serum on rat cardiomyocytes. Serum was prepared from 10 non-septic patients and 10 patients with documented septic shock. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were exposed to 20 % serum in the medium. Cardiomyocyte contractility was assessed by measuring shortening fraction and shortening velocity. Serum levels of nitrite/nitrate, a marker of nitric oxide final metabolites, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL) 1beta, 6, 10, 8 and 12p70) were measured. Compared with serum from non-septic patients, serum of septic shock patients induced rapid reduction of the extent and velocity of shortening in isolated cardiomyocytes. Nitrite/nitrate, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 concentrations of tested serum for cardiomyocyte studies were not increased in septic serum compared with controls. In contrast, septic serum that induced a depression of in vitro contractility, had increased levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. We can conclude that the depression of in vitro contractility induced by septic serum is not directly dependent on elevated levels of nitric oxide metabolites, TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. Our results support the view that other cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, are potent circulating mediators of myocardial depression in cardiomyocytes.
    Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 02/2007; 56(3):291-7. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although most of the deleterious effects of sepsis-induced apoptosis have been attributed to increased lymphocyte cell death, caspase activation may directly alter cell function of different organ systems. We postulated that left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocyte caspase activation is directly involved in sepsis-induced heart contractile dysfunction. LV cardiomyocytes isolated 4 hours after rat treatment with endotoxin injection (10 mg/kg) displayed major reductions in contractile reserve and myofilament response to Ca2+. Concomitantly, endotoxin also induced increases in LV cardiomyocyte caspase-3, -8, and -9-like activities, which were associated with sarcomeric structure destruction and cleavage of components of the cardiac myofilament. Interestingly, zVAD.fmk treatment of septic rat prevented LV cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction, reductions in myofilament response to calcium, troponin T cleavage, and sarcomere destruction. Serum (10%) of endotoxin-treated rats induced contractile dysfunction, caspase-3-like activity increase, and troponin T cleavage of naive LV cardiomyocytes. The effects of septic serum were prevented in LV cardiomyocytes isolated from zVAD.fmk- or zDEVD.cmk-treated rats or LV cardiomyocytes preincubated with zVAD.fmk or zDEVD.cmk. The results show an important relationship between endotoxin-induced caspase activation and reduced contractile reserve and sarcomere disarray at the level of single LV cardiomyocytes.
    Circulation 06/2005; 111(20):2596-604. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • EMC - Urgenze. 15(1):1–11.