[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), the cell of origin, nature and biological consequences of initiating lesions, and order of subsequent mutations remain poorly understood, as AML is typically diagnosed without observation of a pre-leukaemic phase. Here, highly purified haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), progenitor and mature cell fractions from the blood of AML patients were found to contain recurrent DNMT3A mutations (DNMT3A(mut)) at high allele frequency, but without coincident NPM1 mutations (NPM1c) present in AML blasts. DNMT3A(mut)-bearing HSCs showed a multilineage repopulation advantage over non-mutated HSCs in xenografts, establishing their identity as pre-leukaemic HSCs. Pre-leukaemic HSCs were found in remission samples, indicating that they survive chemotherapy. Therefore DNMT3A(mut) arises early in AML evolution, probably in HSCs, leading to a clonally expanded pool of pre-leukaemic HSCs from which AML evolves. Our findings provide a paradigm for the detection and treatment of pre-leukaemic clones before the acquisition of additional genetic lesions engenders greater therapeutic resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited variation in genes that regulate innate immunity and inflammation may contribute to colorectal neoplasia risk. To evaluate this association, we conducted a nested case-control study of 451 colorectal cancer cases, 694 colorectal advanced adenoma cases and 696 controls of European descent within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 935 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 98 genes were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with colorectal neoplasia. Sixteen SNPs were associated with colorectal neoplasia risk at P < 0.01, but after adjustment for multiple testing, only rs2838732 (ITGB2) remained suggestively associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.83, P = 7.7 × 10(-5), adjusted P = 0.07). ITGB2 codes for the CD18 protein in the integrin beta chain family. The ITGB2 association was stronger for colorectal cancer (OR(per T allele) = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30-0.55, P = 2.4 × 10(-) (9)) than for adenoma (OR(per T allele) = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.69-1.03, P = 0.08), but it did not replicate in the validation study. The ITGB2 rs2838732 association was significantly modified by smoking status (P value for interaction = 0.003). Among never and former smokers, it was inversely associated with colorectal neoplasia (OR(per T allele) = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69 and OR(per T allele) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95, respectively), but no association was seen among current smokers. Other notable findings were observed for SNPs in BPI/LBP and MYD88. Although the results need to be replicated, our findings suggest that genetic variation in inflammation-related genes may be related to the risk of colorectal neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Experimental evidence has demonstrated an anti-neoplastic role for vitamin D in the colon and higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are consistently associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Genome-wide association studies have identified loci associated with levels of circulating 25(OH)D. The identified SNPs from four gene regions, collectively explain approximately 5% of the variance in circulating 25(OH)D. Methods: We investigated whether six polymorphisms in GC, CYP2R1, CYP24A1 and DHCR7/NADSYN1, genes previously shown to be associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels, were associated with CRC risk in 10,061 cases and 12,768 controls drawn from 13 studies included in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) and Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). We performed a meta-analysis of crude and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and associated confidence intervals for SNPs individually, SNPs simultaneously, and for a vitamin D additive genetic risk score (GRS). Results: We did not observe a statistically significant association between the 25(OH)D associated SNPs and CRC marginally, conditionally, or as a GRS, or for colon or rectal cancer separately or combined. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between SNPs associated with circulating 25(OH)D and risk of CRC. Additional work is warranted to investigate the complex relationship between 25(OH)D and CRC risk. Impact: There was no association observed between genetic markers of circulating 25(OH)D and CRC. These genetic markers account for a small proportion of the variance in 25(OH)D.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 08/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesised that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer.
We examined 13 338 colorectal cancer cases and 40 967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p value of 2.92×10(-4) was used to determine statistical significance of the associations.
Two correlated SNPs-rs10090154 and rs4242382-in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18; p=1.74×10(-5)), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites.
This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer; thus, adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multicancer risk region at 8q24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used an integrated analysis of copy number, gene expression, and RNA interference screens for identification of putative driver genes harbored in somatic copy number gains in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Somatic copy number gain data on 60 PDAC genomes were extracted from public data sets to identify genomic loci that are recurrently gained. Array-based data from a panel of 29 human PDAC cell lines were used to quantify associations between copy number and gene expression for the set of genes found in somatic copy number gains. The most highly correlated genes were assessed in a compendium of pooled short hairpin RNA screens on 27 of the same human PDAC cell lines.
A catalog of 710 protein-coding and 46 RNA genes mapping to 20 recurrently gained genomic loci were identified. The gene set was further refined through stringent integration of copy number, gene expression, and RNA interference screening data to uncover 34 candidate driver genes.
Among the candidate genes from the integrative analysis, ECT2 was found to have significantly higher essentiality in specific PDAC cell lines with genomic gains at the 3q26.3 locus, which harbors this gene, suggesting that ECT2 may play an oncogenic role in the PDAC neoplastic process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The search for expression quantitative trait loci has traditionally centred entirely on the process of transcription, whereas variants with effects on messenger RNA translation have not been systematically studied. Here we present a high-throughput approach for measuring translational cis-regulation in the human genome. Using ribosomal association as proxy for translational efficiency of polymorphic messenger RNAs, we test the ratio of polysomal/non-polysomal messenger RNA level as a quantitative trait for association with single nucleotide polymorphisms on the same messenger RNA transcript. We identify one important ribosomal distribution effect, from rs1131017 in the 5'-untranslated region of RPS26, that is in high linkage disequilibrium with the 12q13 locus for susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. The effect on translation is confirmed at the protein level by quantitative western blots, both ex vivo and after in vitro translation. Our results are a proof-of-principle that allelic effects on translation can be detected at a transcriptome-wide scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genomic variation, through effects on gene structure and expression, plays an important role in understanding disease predisposition, biology and clinical response to therapy. Transforming this knowledge into clinically relevant information that tailors interventions to an individual's specific genetic, physical, social and environmental profile is challenging. To illustrate how research initiatives at preclinical phases of development are attempting to address clinically important issues in oncology, six clinical problems related to cancers of the colon, prostate, breast, pancreas and brain (medulloblastoma) as well as metastatic disease of different origins are described. A unifying theme across applications is that healthy individuals previously indistinguishable in regards to cancer risk and cancer patients previously categorised as similar with regard to prognosis or drug response are being stratified into more refined subgroups with different clinical profiles. Effective matching of a broad range of tests with more tailored strategies for prevention and/or treatment will require well-designed clinical studies to evaluate benefits and costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Internal Medicine 06/2013; · 6.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using sequencing information to guide clinical decision-making requires coordination of a diverse set of people and activities. In clinical genomics, the process typically includes sample acquisition, template preparation, genome data generation, analysis to identify and confirm variant alleles, interpretation of clinical significance, and reporting to clinicians. We describe a software application developed within a clinical genomics study, to support this entire process. The software application tracks patients, samples, genomic results, decisions and reports across the cohort, monitors progress and sends reminders, and works alongside an electronic data capture system for the trial's clinical and genomic data. It incorporates systems to read, store, analyze and consolidate sequencing results from multiple technologies, and provides a curated knowledge base of tumor mutation frequency (from the COSMIC database) annotated with clinical significance and drug sensitivity to generate reports for clinicians. By supporting the entire process, the application provides deep support for clinical decision making, enabling the generation of relevant guidance in reports for verification by an expert panel prior to forwarding to the treating physician.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) play a pivotal role in the resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and its progression to blast crisis (BC), in part, through the alternative splicing of self-renewal and survival genes. To elucidate splice-isoform regulators of human BC LSC maintenance, we performed whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing, splice-isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), nanoproteomics, stromal coculture, and BC LSC xenotransplantation analyses. Cumulatively, these studies show that the alternative splicing of multiple prosurvival BCL2 family genes promotes malignant transformation of myeloid progenitors into BC LSCS that are quiescent in the marrow niche and that contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notably, sabutoclax, a pan-BCL2 inhibitor, renders marrow-niche-resident BC LSCs sensitive to TKIs at doses that spare normal progenitors. These findings underscore the importance of alternative BCL2 family splice-isoform expression in BC LSC maintenance and suggest that the combinatorial inhibition of prosurvival BCL2 family proteins and BCR-ABL may eliminate dormant LSCs and obviate resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify new genetic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a genome-wide association study in east Asians. By analyzing genome-wide data in 2,098 cases and 5,749 controls, we selected 64 promising SNPs for replication in an independent set of samples, including up to 5,358 cases and 5,922 controls. We identified four SNPs with association P values of 8.58 × 10(-7) to 3.77 × 10(-10) in the combined analysis of all east Asian samples. Three of the four were replicated in a study conducted in 26,060 individuals of European descent, with combined P values of 1.22 × 10(-10) for rs647161 (5q31.1), 6.64 × 10(-9) for rs2423279 (20p12.3) and 3.06 × 10(-8) for rs10774214 (12p13.32 near the CCND2 gene), derived from meta-analysis of data from both east Asian and European-ancestry populations. This study identified three new CRC susceptibility loci and provides additional insight into the genetics and biology of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Heritable factors contribute to development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying the genetic loci associated with colorectal tumor formation could elucidate the mechanisms of pathogenesis. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 14 studies, 12,696 cases of colorectal tumors (11,870 cancer, 826 adenoma), and 15,113 controls of European descent. The 10 most statistically significant, previously unreported findings were followed up in 6 studies; these included 3056 colorectal tumor cases (2098 cancer, 958 adenoma) and 6658 controls of European and Asian descent. RESULTS: Based on the combined analysis we identified a locus that reached the conventional genome-wide significance level at <5.0 x 10-8: an intergenic region on chromosome 2q32.3, close toNABP1 (most significant single nucleotide polymorphism: rs11903757; odds ratio [OR]=1.15 per risk allele;P =3.7 x 10-8). We also found evidence for 3 additional loci with P values <5.0 x 10-7: a locus within theLAMC1gene on chromosome 1q25.3 (rs10911251; OR=1.10 per risk allele;P =9.5 x 10-8), a locus within theCCND2gene on chromosome 12p13.32 (rs3217810 per risk allele; OR=0.84;P =5.9 x 10-8), and a locus in theTBX3gene on chromosome 12q24.21 (rs59336, OR=0.91 per risk allele;P =3.7 x 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: In a large GWAS, we associated polymorphisms close toNABP (which encodes a DNA-binding protein involved in DNA repair) with colorectal tumor risk. We also provided evidence for an association between colorectal tumor risk and polymorphisms inLAMC1 (this is the second gene in the laminin family to be associated with CRCs),CCND2 (which encodes for cyclin D2), andTBX3 (which encodes a T-box transcription factor and is a target of Wnt signaling to -catenin). The roles of these genes and their products in cancer pathogenesis warrant further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sequencing of cancer genomes has become a pivotal method for uncovering and understanding the deregulated cellular processes driving tumor initiation and progression. Whole-genome sequencing is evolving toward becoming less costly and more feasible on a large scale; consequently, thousands of tumors are being analyzed with these technologies. Interpreting these data in the context of tumor complexity poses a challenge for cancer genomics.CONTENT:The sequencing of large numbers of tumors has revealed novel insights into oncogenic mechanisms. In particular, we highlight the remarkable insight into the pathogenesis of breast cancers that has been gained through comprehensive and integrated sequencing analysis. The analysis and interpretation of sequencing data, however, must be considered in the context of heterogeneity within and among tumor samples. Only by adequately accounting for the underlying complexity of cancer genomes will the potential of genome sequencing be understood and subsequently translated into improved management of patients.SUMMARY:The paradigm of personalized medicine holds promise if patient tumors are thoroughly studied as unique and heterogeneous entities and clinical decisions are made accordingly. Associated challenges will be ameliorated by continued collaborative efforts among research centers that coordinate the sharing of mutation, intervention, and outcomes data to assist in the interpretation of genomic data and to support clinical decision-making.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.