[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entada africana roots are used in African traditional medicine for various diseases including inflammation. This application may be mediated through anti-angiogenic effects. Thus, in this study the anti-angiogenic activity of E. africana root extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform/methanol and methanol) was preliminarily evaluated by the quantitative determination of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in zebrafish embryos. A bioactivity-guided fractionation of chloroform/methanol extract yielded apigenin and robinetin as the main constituents from the most active fractions. In addition, a marked reduction on capillary formation was evidenced in chick chorioallantoic membrane after treatment with the active fractions or isolated compounds. Results obtained in this study suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of E. africana root may account for its use in inflammatory diseases and other related pathological conditions.
Natural Product Research 12/2014; · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four pregnanes: 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(R)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (1), 1-methoxy-pregnan-17(S)-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (2), 2,3-seco-pregnan-17(S)-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (4), 2α,3α,16α-trihydroxy-5α-pregnan-17(R)-20-yl acetate (7), three androstanes: 1-methoxy-androstan-1,4-dien-3,16-dione (3), 2,3-seco-androstan-2,3-dioic acid-16-oxo-dimethyl ester (5), 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid-16-oxo-2,19-lactone (6), together with three known pregnane derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Trichilia emetica ssp. suberosa. Their structures were determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry analysis, as well as by quantum chemical calculations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves of Vernonia nigritiana Oliv. & Hiern. (Asteraceae) were investigated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory properties, following a bioassay-oriented fractionation approach. Petroleum ether, chloroform and chloroform-methanol extracts inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. The chloroform extract was only about half as active as the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (ID50=237 and 93μg/cm(2), respectively). Phytochemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of nine polyhydroxylated stigmasterol glycosides and six polyhydroxylated stigmasterols. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS and chemical methods. Each compound exerted a significant anti-oedema activity, the most active being 1 (3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,26,29-tetrol) and 3 (3β-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy-5α-stigmasta-7,9(11),24(28)Z-triene-6β,16β,29-triol), only two and five fold less potent than the steroidal drug hydrocortisone (ID50=0.10, 0.21 and 0.04μmol/cm(2), respectively). Compound 1 (50μM) also completely inhibited the transcription factor NF-κB in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proangiogenic members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family and related receptors play a central role in the modulation of pathological angiogenesis. In order to identify plant compounds able to interfere in the VEGFs/VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) recognition by VEGF family members, the extracts of the aerial parts of Campsiandra guayanensis and Feretia apodanthera were screened by a competitive ELISA-based assay. By using this bioassay-oriented approach five proanthocyanindins, including the new natural compounds (2S)-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavan-(4β→8)-afzelechin (1) and (2S)-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavan-(4β→8)-epiafzelechin (2) and the known geranin B (3), proanthocyanidin A2 (4), and proanthocyanidin A1 (5), were isolated. The study of the antiangiogenic activities of compounds 1-5 using ELISA and SPR assays showed compound 1 as being the most active. The antiangiogenic activity of 1 was also confirmed in vivo by the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Our results indicated 1 as a new antiangiogenic compound inhibiting the interaction between VEGF-A or PlGF and their receptor VEGRF-1.
Journal of Natural Products 12/2012; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Roots from Vernonia kotschyana are on the national list of essential drugs in Mali (West-Africa). It is sold under the name Gastrosedal and it used against ailments like gastritis and gastric ulcer. To evaluate the anti-ulcer, immunomodulating activities and toxicity of 50 and 100°C water extracts, Vk50-I and Vk100-I respectively, from the roots of Vernonia kotschyana.
Characterization of extracts was carried out by GC, colorimetric and biological methods. Vk50-I and Vk100-I were administrated 50min before induction of gastric ulcers in mice with 0.3M HCl-60% EtOH. Inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity assay was carried out on brine shrimps.
Vk50-I (98% inulin) and Vk100-I (83% inulin) from Vernonia kotschyana significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in mice (100mg/kg). No immunomodulating activities or toxicity were found.
Our results show that inulin is probably partly responsible for the anti-ulcer activity of Gastrosedal. In addition, it is possible that water soluble polysaccharides (mainly inulin) have an indirect impact on the general health of the GI.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2012; 144(1):82-5. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers.
To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia.
Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use.
Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds.
Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2012; 143(1):221-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation of roots extracts Pseudrocedrela kotschyi and Trichilia emetica led to identification of 5 limonoid derivatives, Kotschyins D-H, and 11 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments in conjunction with mass spectrometry. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach was adopted to screen their Hsp90 binding capability and kotschyin D showed a significant affinity for the chaperone. Therefore, the characterization of the biological activity of kotschyin D by means of a panel of chemical and biological approaches, including limited proteolysis, molecular docking and biochemical and cellular assays, was performed. Our result indicated this compound as a type of client selective Hsp90 inhibitor, directly binding to the middle domain of the protein and possibly preventing its interaction with the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of dysmenorrhea with minimal side effects. Conventional therapy for dysmenorrhea, which usually includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), provides symptomatic relief, but presents increasing adverse effects with long-term use. This article is in the framework of a study supported by International Foundation for Science (IFS) on three medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysmenorrhea in Mali: Maytenus senegalensis Stereospermum kunthianum and Trichilia emetica.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 07/2011; 8(5 Suppl):90-6. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION : An estimated 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria occur each year worldwide, 90% in Africa, mostly among young children. In Cote d'Ivoire, malaria is 46.03% of disease states and 62.44% of hospital admissions. In children under 5 years, it is 42.67% of the reasons for consultation and 59.68% of hospital admissions. In pregnant women, it represents 22.91% of disease states and 36.07% of hospital admissions. In Africa, traditional medicine is the first resort for the vast majority of people, because of its accessibility both geographically, economically and culturally. However, some modern practitioners show an attitude of distrust of traditional medicine and its players, calling them irrational. This work had set out to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of traditional healers in the uncomplicated and complicated in the context of collaboration between traditional and modern medicine for the optimal management of critical cases. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The study focused on traditional healers practicing in the city of Abidjan. The study was conducted using individual interviews over a period of 30 days. The interviews were conducted in local languages, with the assistance, if necessary, translators. For data collection, we used a questionnaire containing four items: the socio-demographic characteristics of traditional healers, their knowledge on malaria, diagnostic practices and traditional therapies. RESULTS : Of the 60 healers and included in the study, only six were women (10%), a sex-ratio of a woman to 9 men. 66.7% of respondents traditional healers are herbalists and 25% of naturopaths.Only 8.3% were spiritualists. The etiology of malaria most commonly cited by the traditional healers were mosquito bites (16.7%), food (1.7%), solar (1.7%) and fatigue (1.7%) . 25% of traditional healers are associated with mosquitoes, sun and fatigue. Symptomatology most cited were fever (100%), dark urine (86%), the yellow or pale conjunctiva (80%), vomiting (71.7%), nausea (58.3%) and abdominal pain (48.3%). Traditional healers recognized three types of malaria: the white shape, form yellow / red and the black form. Traditional healers malarious patients surveyed were receiving both first (58.3%) than second-line (41.7%). 78.3% of them practiced an interview and physical examination of theirpatients before the diagnosis. In 13.3% of cases they were divinatory consultation. Medications used to treat malaria were herbal in 95% of cases. The main sign of healing was the lack of fever (58.3%). 90%of traditional healers interviewed referring cases of malaria black (severe malaria). This reference is made to modern health facilities (90.2%). 68.3% of respondents practiced traditional healers of malaria prophylaxis among pregnant women and children under 5 years.CONCLUSION : A description of clinical malaria by traditional practitioners in health is not very far from that of modern medicine. Nevertheless, the logics of our respondents are etiological more complex and linked to their cultural context. The management of cases is made from medicinal plants in treatment failure patients are usually referred to modern health facilities. The involvement of traditional healers in the detection and quick reference risk cases can contribute to reducing child mortality due to severe malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria continues to be of great concern in Togo, as it accounts for high mortality rates, principally in children. Although plant-based medicines are the only means in major malarious regions of the country, still very little is known about the medicinal plants and medical practices of the indigenous people.
The present study aimed to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization for the management of malaria and related symptoms in Togo Maritime Region.
Fifty Traditional Healers (TH) were selected with the help leaders of Togolese Traditional Healers Associations and information on their knowledge on the use of plants for malaria therapeutic purposes was gathered using a semi-structured interviews.
After enquiries, 52 plant species belonging to 49 genera and 29 families were recorded. The most represented families were Rubiaceae and Rutaceae with four species each. Traditional healers agreed more in the treatment of malaria (ICF=0.70), fever (ICF=0.33) and anemia (ICF=0.20). For the treatment of malaria, 38.46% (20/52) of the species cited in the study were of high fidelity level (FL=100%). The leaves (58.22%), leafy stem (33.78%) and fruits (8.52%) were the most used parts in concoctions. The main mode of preparation was decoction (69%) and the administration was essentially by oral route (79%) and body-bath (14%).
The issue of the study showed that Togo Maritime Region TH have a good knowledge of antimalarial plants. However the study must be extend to the whole country to lead to innovative strategies in malaria control. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2010; 134(1):183-90. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One new flavonoid glycoside, 3-O-kaempferol 4-O-(galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside, one new bergenin derivative, 11-0-caffeoylbergenin, along with other known flavonoids and phenolic derivatives, were isolated from the leaves of Securinega virosa. Their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. In vitro biological analysis of the isolated compounds showed that they were able to quench DPPH radicals and had a direct scavenging activity on superoxide anion. Kaempferol 3-O-(4-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 11-0-caffeoylbergenin (2), and glucogallin (6) exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, being also able to modulate hydroxyl radical formation more efficiently than the other compounds, acting as direct hydroxyl radical scavengers and chelating iron.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lyophilized decoction of Salvadora persica L. roots possesses a significant protective effect on ulceration induced by ethanol, indomethacin and cold restraint stress in rats. In this work, we study the effect of chronic intragastric administration of S. persica decoction on experimental acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced ulcer in rats. The ulcer index significantly decreased (U.I. 0.9 ± 1.6; P < 0.05) after treatment with a lyophilized decoction of S. persica (500 mg/kg, os), once daily for seven days, with respect to controls (U.I. 11.4 ± 2.3). The modification of gastric mucosa was observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming this result. In fact, in treated rats, the mucosa recovered to normal distribution. After S. persica treatment, some changes were detected in profiles of various cytoplasm organelles of parietal cells. Particularly, the intracellular canaliculi show an enlarged lumen with an increase in the number and length of microvilli. These morphological features of parietal cells after S. persica treatment suggest that the cells tend to recover a moderate secretory activity, even if the drug still discloses its inhibitory effect. Moreover, S. persica decoction possesses significant antiinflammatory activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the lyophilized decoction of Salvadora persica on ulceration induced by ethanol, indomethacin and cold restraint stress was investigated in rats. Pre-treatment tests in rats revealed that the extract possessed significant protective action against ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. The protective effect was not altered by indomethacin, administered as a prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibitor. Salvadora persica shows some increase in gastric mucus with a certain diminution in the ulcer index in cold stress-induced ulcers. However, the drug failed to heal ethanol and indomethacin-induced ulcers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pteleopsis suberosa Engl. et Diels (Combretaceae) is a tree distributed in many African countries. The decoction from the stem bark is orally administered for the treatment of gastric ulcers in traditional medicine. Previous pharmacological studies reported the anti-ulcer activity of extracts from P. suberosa stem bark. In the present study, the anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory effects of the n-butanol fraction (RBuOH) obtained from a methanol extract of P. suberosa bark were investigated on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Misoprostol (0.50 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (8.00 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as positive controls for anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Results showed that RBuOH treatment significantly reduced the incidence of gastric lesions (50 mg/kg, P<0.05; 100 and 200 mg/kg, P<0.01) and restored the decreased levels of total sulfhydryl groups (T-SH) and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) (50, 100 mg/kg, P<0.05; 200 mg/kg, P<0.01) in the stomach homogenate. Moreover, RBuOH treatment attenuated MDA levels as index of lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa. Administration of RBuOH at the same dosage (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced significantly (P<0.01) carrageenan-induced paw oedema in dose-dependent manner (from 42.81% to 87.81% inhibition, 5h after carrageenan injection). The anti-inflammatory effect of RBuOH at 200 mg/kg was comparable with that of indomethacin. Finally, RBuOH proved to possess elevated free radical scavenger capacity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (IC(50) 23.48 microg/ml) which may contribute to the observed anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory activities.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 01/2008; 115(2):271-5. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five new oleanane saponins (1-5) together with four know flavonol glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Stylosanthes erecta. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including 1D-TOCSY, DQF-COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopy, as well as ESIMS analysis. The aglycone moieties of 1-4 were assigned as new oleanane derivatives.
Journal of Natural Products 07/2007; 70(6):979-83. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen oleanane saponins (1-13), four of which were new compounds (1-4), were isolated from Pteleopsis suberosa Engl. et Diels stem bark (Combretaceae). Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry. The compounds were identified as 2alpha,3beta,19alpha,23,24-pentahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), 2alpha,3beta,19beta,23,24-pentahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), 2alpha,3beta,19alpha,23-tetrahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), and 2alpha,3beta,6beta,19alpha,24-pentahydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12- en-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4). The presence of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl function was not common in the oleanane class and the aglycons of these compounds were not found previously in the literature. Moreover, the isolated compounds were tested against Helicobacter pylori standard and vacA, and cagA clinical virulence genotypes. Results showed that compound 6 has an anti-H. pylori activity against three metronidazole-resistant strains (Ci 1 cagA, Ci 2 vacA, and Ci 3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine new ester saponins (1-9) were isolated from the roots of Entada africana. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including 1D and 2D TOCSY, DQF-COSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopy, as well as ESIMS analysis, and chemical methods. The aglycon moieties were found to be echinocystic acid for compounds 1, 2, 4-6, 8, and 9 and acacic acid for 3 and 7. All isolated compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity against the J774.A1, HEK-293, and WEHI-164 cell lines. Moderate to high cytotoxic potency was found for almost all compounds tested.
Journal of Natural Products 10/2006; 69(9):1323-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lannea microcarpa (Anacardiaceae) is a tropical tree used in African folk medicine and commercial dermopharmaceutical formulations. Fractionation and analysis of its polar extract allowed the identification of 4'-methoxy-myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, vitexin, isovitexin, gallic acid and epi-catechin, as the major constituents. In-vivo assay (the croton oil ear test in mice) showed that the extract had significant anti-inflammatory effect (ID50 = 900 microg cm(-2)) but ten times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 = 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Cytotoxicity and cutaneous irritation of the extract and its constituents were investigated. The crude extract and its major components did not affect cell viability in-vitro either in three different cultures (J774. A1, WEHI-164 and HEK-293) of cells grown in monolayers or in the reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, 3D model), nor did they cause release of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1alpha) or histomorphological modification of RHE.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2006; 58(7):981-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor