[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins such as gp96 are immunogenic and are widely used as vaccines in immunotherapy of cancers. The present study focuses on the use of peptide mimotopes as immunotherapeutic vaccines for prostate cancer. To this end, we developed a 15-mer gp96 peptide mimotope specifically reactive to MAT-LyLu gp96-peptide complex using combinatorial single-chain antibody and peptide phage display library. The immunogenicity of the synthesized gp96 mimotope was analyzed initially in normal BALB/c mice in combination with various adjuvants such as complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), aluminum salts (ALUM), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and liposome, of which CFA served as a positive control. The antibody response was determined and found that the gp96 mimotope with ALUM showed a significant increase in antibody titer, followed by GM-CSF and liposomes. Further, the T cell (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) populations from splenocytes, as well as IgG isotypes, interleukin-4, and interleukin-5 of gp96 mimotope with ALUM-immunized animals, were analyzed. The results suggest that the gp96 mimotope may elicit a potent and effective antitumor antibody response. Further, the study identifies ALUM and GM-CSF as adjuvant options to drive an appropriate protective immune response as these adjuvants have prior use in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neovascularization is critical for tumor growth and development. The cellular mediators for this process are yet to be defined. We discovered that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC), having the phenotype (CD133+, CD34+, VEGFR-2+), initiate neovascularization in response to TG1-1 mammary cells implanted in the inguinal mammary gland of Tie-2 GFP transgenic mice. The fluorescence tag allowed for tracing the migration of green fluorescent protein-tagged endothelial progenitor cells to tumor tissues. We discovered that 17-beta estradiol supplementation of ovariectomized mice significantly enhanced BM-EPC-induced neovascularization and secretion of angiogenic factors within the tumor microenvironment. Cell-based system analyses showed that estrogen-stimulated BM-EPCs secreted paracrine factors which enhanced TG1-1 cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, TG1-1 cell medium supplemented with estrogen-induced BM-EPC mediated tubulogenesis, which was an experimental in vivo representation of the neovasculature. Our data provide evidence of BM-EPC mammary tumor cell interactions and identify a novel cellular mediator of tumor progression that can be exploited clinically.
Cancer Research 09/2008; 68(15):6038-42. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1009 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy in prostate cancer (CaP) even as an adjunct has not been a success. In this communication, we report the pre-clinical efficacy of a nitroacridine derivative, C-1748 (9[2’-hydroxyethylamino]-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine) in CaP cell culture and human xenograft animal models. C-1748, a DNA intercalating agent has been derived from its precursor C-857 that was a potent anti-cancer drug, but failed clinical development due to “high” systemic toxicities. Chemical modifications such as the introduction of a “methyl” group imparted novel properties, the most interesting of which is the difference in the IC50 values between LnCaP (22.5 nM), a CaP cell line and HL-60, a leukemia cell line (>100 nM). Using γH2AX as an intervention marker of DNA double strand breaks, we concluded that C-1748 is more efficacious in CaP cells than in HL-60 cells. In hormone dependent cells, the androgen receptor (AR) was identified as an additional target of C-1748. In xenograft studies, administration of C-1748 intra-peritoneally inhibited tumor growth by 80-90% with minimal toxicity. These studies identify C-1748 as a novel acridine drug that has a high therapeutic index and low cytotoxicity on myelocytic cells with potential for clinical development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the editorial office formatting of Pre-clinical evaluation of 1-nitroacridine derived chemotherapeutic agent that has preferential cytotoxic activity towards prostate cancer (Cancer Biology & Therapy 2007; 6(10): 1632 - 1637) by Kiranmayi Tadi, Badithe T. Ashok, Yuangen Chen, Debabrata Banerjee, Barbara Wysocka-Skrzela, Jerzy Konopa, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz and Raj K. Tiwari, an error occurred on page 1634, the text description and legend for figure 3 are correct but the image is not correct. Figure 4 was used for both figure 3 and 4. Please refer to the image 3 posted below.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy in prostate cancer (CaP) even as an adjunct has not been a success. In this communication, we report the pre-clinical efficacy of a nitroacridine derivative, C-1748 (9[2'-hydroxyethylamino]-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine) in CaP cell culture and human xenograft animal models. C-1748, a DNA intercalating agent has been derived from its precursor C-857 that was a potent anti-cancer drug, but failed clinical development due to "high" systemic toxicities. Chemical modifications such as the introduction of a "methyl" group imparted novel properties, the most interesting of which is the difference in the IC(50) values between LnCaP (22.5 nM), a CaP cell line and HL-60, a leukemia cell line (>100 nM). Using gammaH2AX as an intervention marker of DNA double strand breaks, we concluded that C-1748 is more efficacious in CaP cells than in HL-60 cells. In hormone dependent cells, the androgen receptor (AR) was identified as an additional target of C-1748. In xenograft studies, administration of C-1748 intra-peritoneally inhibited tumor growth by 80-90% with minimal toxicity. These studies identify C-1748 as a novel acridine drug that has a high therapeutic index and low cytotoxicity on myelocytic cells with potential for clinical development.
Cancer biology & therapy 10/2007; 6(10):1632-7. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitroacridines are potent DNA-binding and cytotoxic agents in cancer cells, but could not be developed clinically due to high systemic toxicities. We are developing a 1-nitroacridine derivative, 9-(2'-hydroxyethylamino)-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine (C-1748), as an effective chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer. C-1748 demonstrates high antitumor efficacy against human prostate cancer xenografts with markedly low mutagenicity and toxicity in dogs compared with its parent 9-(2'-hydroxyethylamino)-1-nitroacridine (C-857). A surprising feature of C-1748 is the 40-fold difference in 50% inhibitory concentration between DU145 prostate cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells. In this study, we report the preclinical toxicity study of a single acute dose of C-1748 in Copenhagen rats and BALB/c mice, intraperitoneally and intravenously for 24 h and 7 days. The effect of C-1748 on hematology, cardiac and liver enzymes, and renal electrolytes was assessed by blood and serum analysis. The LD50 (lethal dose, 50%) for C-1748 was 9 and 13.42 mg/kg compared with 2.2 and 3 mg/kg for C-857 intraperitoneally and intravenously, respectively, in mice. In Copenhagen rats, LD50 was 15 and 14.4 mg/kg intraperitoneally and intravenously, respectively, compared to 4 and 1.3 mg/kg for C-857. No changes in blood cell counts were observed, which were in the normal range for rodents. No changes were observed in clinical chemistries of enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine phosphokinase, which were within the normal range of values. No genome alterations were seen in prostate cancer cell lines by comparative genomic hybridization together with a lack of systemic toxicity, making it a unique cancer cell-type-specific drug that needs further clinical evaluation for toxicity and synergy in combination chemotherapy regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies show a correlation between increased consumption of fruits and vegetables with reduced risk of ovarian cancer. One major bioactive compound found in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, is sulforaphane, derived from the breakdown of glucoraphanin. We observed potent antiproliferative effects of sulforaphane on human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 (IC(50) 40 micromol/L) and mouse ovarian cancer cell lines C3 and T3 (IC(50) 25 micromol/L each) by cell viability assays. The loss of viability is reflected by a down-regulation of cell cycle transition regulators cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), and cdk6. The upstream mediators of sulforaphane effects on the cell cycle in ovarian cancer are still unknown. However, because the Akt signal transduction pathway is overactivated in ovarian cancer, we investigated the effects of sulforaphane on this prosurvival pathway. Both total Akt protein and active phosphorylated levels of Akt (Ser(473)) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase were significantly decreased in sulforaphane-treated SKOV3, C3, and T3 cells with a concomitant inhibition of Akt kinase activity by sulforaphane in SKOV3 and C3 cells. This inhibitory effect of sulforaphane leads to a potent induction of apoptosis in all three cell lines, along with the cleavage of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase. Our study is the first to report the antiproliferative effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer and identifying the Akt pathway as a target of sulforaphane, with implications for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by diet-based chemoprevention.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 02/2007; 6(1):334-45. DOI:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0404 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a group of 4-substituted-1-nitroacridines with potent anti-tumor activity against prostate cancer and less toxic than parent 1-nitroacridines. The most active 9-(2′-hydroxyethylamino)-4-methyl-1-nitroacridine (C-1748) was selected for pre-clinical studies. The current study was undertaken to evaluate clinical and/or morphological adverse effects of C-1748 as a single intravenous dose at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 4.6 mg/kg administered to male Beagle dogs. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.5 mg/kg. Emesis was observed in all groups lasting an average of 30 min to 12 h post-dosing. At high dose, extreme aggression was observed in one dog followed by disorientation and depression lasting for 48 h a frequent observation with chemotherapy. Reductions in platelets and white blood cells were observed which was similar to that seen with other chemotherapeutic agents. A compensatory hyperplasia of lymph nodes and a transient and limited extravasation in the intestinal mucosa were also observed. Increases in aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine phosphokinase were transient with normal levels restored by day 9. These enzyme increases were accompanied by epithelial hypertrophy of larger bile ductules in the periportal triads of the liver. The low toxicity profile and high tumor target activity make this novel class of drug a promising chemotherapeutic agent.
Life Sciences 09/2006; 79(14-79):1334-1342. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.03.043 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers for thyroid cancer (TCa) lack specificity. To develop TCa specific biomarkers, SELDI-TOF-MS was used to examine the proteomic profile of biopsies obtained from papillary TCa along with adjacent normal tissue. Sixty-three potential biomarkers were categorized by univariate analysis into single biomarker candidates and segregated by multivariate analysis into normal and cancerous groups. Our studies demonstrate the sensitivity and reproducibility of this approach to detect biomarkers for TCa.
Journal of Proteome Research 05/2006; 5(4):856-61. DOI:10.1021/pr050349r · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cruciferous vegetables have been found to have anti-prostate cancer effects. The active compounds mediating these effects include indoles such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and isothiocyanates. I3C is unstable having tissue tropic effects and clinical utility has been partly addressed by the synthesis of a more stable dimer diindolylmethane (DIM).
Anti-proliferative activity was measured by XTT assay and cytosolic proteins quantitated by Western blot analysis.
DIM (IC(50) 50 microM) is a better anti-proliferative agent than I3C (IC(50) 150 microM) in androgen dependent LNCaP cells, inhibits DNA synthesis, and growth of R1881 stimulated LNCaP cells. Androgen receptor (AR), cyclin D1, and cdk4, induced by R1881, are downregulated by DIM. DIM downregulates phosphorylated Akt and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase and downstream inhibition of cyclin D1 and cdk4.
These studies provide evidence that DIM is a second-generation chemopreventive agent with a viable cellular target and has clinical potential as an anti-prostate cancer chemopreventive.
The Prostate 04/2006; 66(5):453-62. DOI:10.1002/pros.20350 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidences suggest that the progression and promotion of prostate cancer (CaP) can be modulated by diet. Since all men die with prostate cancer rather than of the disease, it is of particular interest to prevent or delay the progression of the disease by chemopreventive strategies. We have been studying the anticancer properties of compounds present in cruciferous vegetables such as indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a dimer of I3C that is formed under acidic conditions and unlike I3C is more stable with higher anti-cancer effects. In the present report, we demonstrate that DIM is a potent anti-proliferative agent compared to I3C in the hormone independent DU 145 CaP cells. The anti-prostate cancer effect is mediated by the inhibition of the Akt signal transduction pathway as DIM, in sharp contrast to I3C, induces the downregulation of Akt, p-Akt, and PI3 kinase. DIM also induced a G1 arrest in DU 145 cells by flow cytometry and downstream concurrent inhibition of cell cycle parameters such as cyclin D1, cdk4, and cdk6. Our data suggest a need for further development of DIM, as a chemopreventive agent for CaP, which justifies epidemiological evidences and molecular targets that are determinants for CaP dissemination/progression. The ingestion of DIM may benefit CaP patients and reduce disease recurrence by eliminating micro-metastases that may be present in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2006; 340(2):718-25. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.12.059 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable epidemiological evidence exists to link thyroid disease with differing patterns of dietary consumption, in particular, cruciferous vegetables. We have been studying the anti-thyroid cancer (TCa) activity of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) found in cruciferous vegetables and its acid catalyzed dimer, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). There are no studies as yet to elucidate the effect of these compounds on the altered proliferative patterns in goiter or thyroid neoplasia. In this study, we tested the anti-proliferative effects of I3C and DIM on four different thyroid cancer cell lines representative of papillary (B-CPAP and 8505-C) and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid (CGTH-W-1 and ML-1), and primary human goiter cells. Cell survival and IC50 values for I3C and DIM were calculated by the XTT assay and cell cycle distribution analysis was done by flow cytometry. DIM was found to be a better anti-proliferative agent than I3C in both papillary and follicular TCa resulting in a greater cytotoxic effect at a concentration over three fold lower than predicted by the molar ratio of DIM and I3C. The anti-proliferative activity of DIM in follicular TCa was mediated by a G1 arrest followed by induction of apoptosis. DIM also inhibited the growth of primary goiter cells by 70% compared to untreated controls. Contrary to traditional belief that cruciferous vegetables are "goitrogenic", DIM has anti-proliferative effects in glandular thyroid proliferative disease. Our preclinical studies provide a strong rationale for the clinical exploration of DIM as an adjuvant to surgery in thyroid proliferative disease.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2005; 337(3):1019-25. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.09.143 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anticancer effect of 1-nitro-9-hydroxyethylamino acridine (C-857), a compound belonging to the 1-nitroacridine class, has been well documented. Despite its therapeutic efficacy, the clinical development of C-857 has been impeded partly due to its high systemic toxicity. In an effort to enhance antitumor efficacy and lower toxicity, derivatives of C-857 have been synthesized with substitutions made at position C-4 and/or an esterified hydroxyl group in side chain at the C-9 position. The introduction of a methyl group at C-4 resulted in C-1748, which has a significantly higher therapeutic efficacy and is being clinically developed as an anticancer agent for solid tumors. The present study was undertaken to correlate the mutagenicity of C-857, C-1748, C-1790, C-1872 and C-1873 with their cytotoxicity and their anti-tumor efficacy. The mutagenicity of these drugs was determined using three Ames Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1537, TA98 and TA102. The bacteria were treated with different molar concentrations, ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-12) M, of the drugs and drug-induced histidine revertants were then counted after a 48 h incubation. C-1748 did not induce any revertants in both TA1537 and TA98 at a dose of 10(-6) M, whereas, C-857 at the same dose induced approximately 842 and approximately 1034 revertants respectively. In TA102, mutagenicity was lower than observed with TA98 and TA1537 with highest revertants observed at 10(-5) M with C-857 (approximately 606) and C-1748 (approximately 108). Higher mutagenicity was observed in the derivatives C-1790, C-1872 and C-1873 compared to C-1748, but lower than C-857. These studies demonstrate that C-1748 has the least mutagenic potential, with a much higher antitumor effect in prostate cancer and is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for clinical development.
Life Sciences 10/2005; 77(18):2312-23. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.03.020 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein gp96 induces a tumor-specific protective immunity in a variety of experimental tumor models. Because the primary sequences of the glycoprotein, gp96 are identical between tumor and normal tissues, the peptides associated with gp96 and/or the posttranslational modifications of gp96, determine its immunogenicity. Gp96-associated peptides constitute the antigenic repertoire of the source tissue; thus, purified gp96-peptide complexes have clinical significance as autologous cancer vaccines. However, the role of altered glycosylation and its contribution in the biological as well as immunologic activity of gp96 still remains uncharacterized. We examined the cancer-specific glycosylation patterns of gp96. To this end, monosaccharide compositions of gp96 were compared between normal rat prostate and two cancerous rat prostate tissues, nonmetastatic/androgen-dependent Dunning G and metastatic/androgen-independent MAT-LyLu, as well as two human nonmetastatic prostate cancer cell lines, androgen-dependent LnCaP and androgen-independent DU145. Marked differences were observed between the gp96 monosaccharide compositions of the normal and cancerous tissues. Furthermore, gp96 molecules from more aggressive cellular transformations were found to carry decreasing quantities of several monosaccharides as well as sum total content of neutral and amino sugars. We believe that the unique glycosylation patterns contribute to cellular phenotype and that the posttranslational modifications of gp96 may affect its functional attributes.
Cancer Research 08/2005; 65(14):6466-75. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4639 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a compound present as glucobracissin in cruciferous vegetables has anticancer activities which is in line with some of the epidemiological evidence that suggests a beneficial effect of consumption of cruciferous vegetables on cancer incidence and progression. The precise target of indole-3-carbinol has not been determined. We examined the effect of I3C on prostate cancer in a well-defined R3327 model using Copenhagen rats and the transplantable cell line, MAT-LyLu. This cell line derived from a tumor in Copenhagen rats is androgen independent and metastasizes to the lung and lymph nodes. Tumors were induced in Copenhagen rats by injecting MAT-LyLu subcutaneously and the animals treated with I3C that was administered either intraperitoneally or intravenously, in order to achieve maximal systemic exposure. This was a departure from the traditional chemopreventive route of indole-3-carbinol where the compound was incorporated in the diet. Our results indicate that I3C inhibited the incidence, growth and metastases of MAT-LyLu cells and both i.p. and i.v. injections of I3C were equally effective. Statistical analysis (Kaplan-Meier curves) clearly indicates a tumor-free and overall survival benefit as a result of treatment with I3C. These studies show for the first time that I3C in an injectible form has anti-prostate cancer activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on aging in India has been well documented since ancient times. As way back as 3000-1500 BC, the Indian medical system of Ayurveda was used as a means for the prevention of the effects of aging and generation of disease in organs or the whole organism, respectively. In recent years, the focus has been demographic studies on different aspects of aging and has been in isolation. Molecular aspects of aging have been addressed only by a few groups of scientists which has focused on regulation of gene expression, DNA damage and repair, development of immunochemical reagents to detect oxidative DNA damage and assessing the levels of circulating antibodies to reactive oxygen species modified DNA (ROS-DNA), etc. This review aims to recapitulate various research studies on aging since 3000 BC to date.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of an immune response to oncoproteins can lead to a cancer specific protective immunity. Several such oncoproteins are being examined as tumor targets with mixed results. We are evaluating the clinical utility of synthetic peptides that would mimic the antigen immunologically and elicit a tumor specific immune response. HER-2/neu, an oncoprotein whose expression in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis, lower disease free-survival and a propensity for metastases was chosen as a model. Antibodies, Ab2, Ab4 and Ab5 directed towards the extracellular domain of HER-2/neu were reacted to peptides from two synthetic phage display peptide libraries, LX-8 (12-mer peptide library containing disulfide bridge) and X-15 (linear 15-mer). The isolated peptides were sequenced and characterized for ability to produce high titer antibodies and cross-reactivity. The peptides isolated did not show any sequence homology to protein databases but did show a hierarchy of immunogenic epitopes. Antibodies generated against peptides selected against the same antibody Ab2 or Ab4 showed affinity variation. Phages selected against Ab2 were also able to compete with binding of Ab2 to HER-2/neu. These results validate our hypothesis that synthetic peptides that mimic the antigenic epitope of oncoprotein can be generated and their clinical utility rests on devising a screening mechanism to identify peptides that can elicit an immune response directed to the oncoprotein and if possible its antigenic variants.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2003; 11(4):465-71. DOI:10.3892/ijmm.11.4.465 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines play a major role in regulating both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Recent advances in our understanding of cell-mediated immune responses have focused on the antigen presentation machinery and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These proteins help the formation and stabilization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide interaction. A 96-kDa, ER-resident glycoprotein (gp96) is being evaluated as a therapeutic agent in cancer because of its ability to associate with a vast number of cellular peptides irrespective of size or sequence. Because the antigen presentation complex is assembled in the ER and a number of ER-resident proteins are modulated by cytokines, it is important to examine the regulation of gp96 in response to immune cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin 2 (IL-2). Defects in signaling pathway in either of the cytokines can result in suboptimal immune response. We examined the effect of the cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2 on the induction of gp96 in different cancer cell lines and examined the induction of DNA-binding proteins that recognize gamma interferon-activating sequence (GAS), present in the promoter region of gp96. The induction of GAS binding protein correlated with the induction of STAT 1 protein, a transcriptional regulator and mediator of IFN-gamma-mediated gene expression. The use of cytokines in inducing gp96 levels may have significance in maintaining high levels of gp96 for a sustained immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanical, physico-chemical characteristics of soil and the activity of indigenous microflora were studied in the agricultural soil steadily receiving petroleum refinery effluent at Mathura, U.P, India The data on the soil grain size and texture revealed that the soil in the test region was basically loam or silty loam. Physic-chemical analysis showed considerable variability in the soil pH, temperature, moisture content and water holding capacity (WHC). A substantially higher microbial activity was noticed at the test sites as evident from the total variable (10(5) to 10(9) CFU g-1 soil) bacterial population. In addition, a significant population of proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria, rhizobium and actinomycetes was detected. Oligotrophs were isolated and characterized into four types (I-IV). A fraction of oligotrophic bacteria, particularly those belonging to type II and type IV exhibited appreciable in distilled water. Invariably higher microbial biomass ranging from 366 to 1604 mg CO2. 100 g-1 soil, clearly implied that the soil in the test region was very well nourished and the refinery waste was providing enough nitrites to support the growth of soil microflora.
Indian journal of environmental health 11/2002; 44(4):282-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of action of the anti-estrogen indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, is being examined in our laboratory with a view to promote the use of this naturally occurring chemopreventive as an alternative to synthetic anti-estrogens in human breast cancer. Our previous results clearly demonstrated that despite its low affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER), I3C abrogated estradiol-mediated cellular and biochemical effects in estradiol-responsive cells and tissues. In an earlier report, we identified ER phosphorylation as one of the targets of I3C, and in this communication we describe the consequence of inhibition of ER phosphorylation. Estradiol-induced DNA-binding proteins that bound to several DNA-responsive elements were inhibited by I3C and this effect was not at the level of DNA-protein physical interaction as inclusion of I3C in vitro in the reaction mix did not affect the binding. We analyzed the spectrum of genes induced by estradiol and modulated and/or intercepted by I3C. Our results conclude that although estradiol-mediated functions are affected by I3C, its biochemical targets are multiple and some of these may be modulated by the oligomeric products of I3C.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention 09/2002; 11 Suppl 2:S86-93. · 3.03 Impact Factor