C P Reynolds

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

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Publications (94)550.87 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To gain a greater understanding of the potential of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237 in the treatment of pediatric malignancies. METHODS: The activity of MLN8237 was evaluated against 28 neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma cell lines, and its in vivo efficacy was studied over a range of doses against 12 pediatric tumor xenograft models. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and genomic studies were undertaken. RESULTS: In vitro neuroblastoma cell lines were generally more sensitive to MLN8237 than Ewing sarcoma lines. MLN8237 demonstrated significant activity in vivo against solid tumor models at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD); however, only 2 of 6 neuroblastoma models had objective responses at 0.25MTD. In contrast, MLN8237 induced objective responses at its MTD and at 0.5MTD in three ALL models and in two out of three at 0.25MTD. Pharmacokinetic studies at 0.5MTD demonstrated a T (max) of 0.5 h, C (max) of 24.8 muM, AUC((0-24)) of 60.3 muM h, and 12 h trough level of 1.2 muM. Mitotic indices increased 6-12 h after MLN8237 administration. AURKA copy number variation was frequent in xenografts, and expression was highly correlated with copy number. CONCLUSIONS: Objective responses were more frequent in tumors with decreased AURKA copy number (5/8) compared to those with increased gene copy number (2/14). This report confirms the significant activity against both solid tumor and ALL xenografts at the MTD, with a steep dose response. These data support clinical development of MLN8237 in childhood cancer. Because of the steep dose-response relationship, such studies should target achieving trough levels of 1 muM or higher for sustained periods of treatment
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 11/2011; 68(5). · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(7):49-49.
  • EJC Supplements 10/2008; 6(12):60-60. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2008; 6(12):176-176.
  • EJC Supplements 11/2006; 4(12):101-101. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • EJC Supplements 11/2006; 4(12):34-35. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2006; 4(12):98-98.
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    ABSTRACT: In the Children's Oncology Group, risk group assignment for neuroblastoma is critical for therapeutic decisions, and patients are stratified by International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, MYCN status, ploidy, Shimada histopathology, and diagnosis age. Age less than 365 days has been associated with favorable outcome, but recent studies suggest that older age cutoff may improve prognostic precision. To identify the optimal age cutoff, we retrospectively analyzed data from the Pediatric Oncology Group biology study 9047 and Children's Cancer Group studies 321p1-p4, 3881, 3891, and B973 on 3,666 patients (1986 to 2001) with documented ages and follow-up data. Twenty-seven separate analyses, one for each different age cutoff (adjusting for MYCN and stage), tested age influence on outcome. The cutoff that maximized outcome difference between younger and older patients was selected. Thirty-seven percent of patients were younger than 365 days, and 64% were > or = 365 days old (4-year event-free survival [EFS] rate +/- SE: 83% +/- 1% [n = 1,339] and 45% +/- 1% [n = 2,327], respectively; P < .0001). Graphical analyses revealed the continuous nature of the prognostic contribution of age to outcome. The optimal 460-day cutoff we selected maximized the outcome difference between younger and older patients. Forty-three percent were younger than 460 days, and 57% were > or = 460 days old (4-year EFS rate +/- SE: 82% +/- 1% [n = 1,589] and 42% +/- 1% [n = 2,077], respectively; P < .0001). Using a 460-day cutoff (assuming stage 4, MYCN-amplified patients remain high-risk), 5% of patients (365 to 460 days: 4-year EFS 92% +/- 3%; n = 135) fell into a lower risk group. The prognostic contribution of age to outcome is continuous in nature. Within clinically relevant risk stratification, statistical support exists for an age cutoff of 460 days.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2005; 23(27):6459-65. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    C P Anderson, C P Reynolds
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) initially respond to aggressive, alkylator-based therapy only to die from recurrent disease that is refractory to chemotherapy, including alkylating agents. We examined the ability of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-mediated glutathione (GSH) depletion to modulate melphalan (L-PAM) resistance in five NB cell lines established after progressive disease following myeloablative therapy (high-dose melphalan, carboplatin, etoposide and total body irradiation) supported by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT), and in 15 NB cell lines established at diagnosis or after non-myeloablative therapy (pre-AHSCT). Four of five post-AHSCT NB cell lines and 10 of 15 pre-AHSCT NB cell lines were sensitive to single agent BSO (LC(90) <300 microM BSO), while two of five post-AHSCT lines and one of 15 pre-AHSCT lines showed high-level resistance to L-PAM (LC(90)>30 microM). Fixed ratio analysis demonstrated BSO/L-PAM synergy (combination index <1) for all five post-AHSCT and for all 15 pre-AHSCT cell lines tested. Multi-log cytotoxicity (often exceeding four logs of cell kill) was observed in post-AHSCT L-PAM-resistant cell lines (including p53 non-functional lines) only when clinically achievable concentrations of BSO were combined with myeloablative concentrations of L-PAM. We conclude that most neuroblastoma cell lines, including post-AHSCT NB cell lines that are highly resistant to myeloablative levels of L-PAM and lack p53 function, are sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of L-PAM and BSO. However, some L-PAM-resistant NB cell lines (especially those lacking p53 function) require dose escalation of L-PAM to myeloablative concentrations in order to demonstrate significant synergistic cytotoxicity. Thus, optimal clinical application of BSO/L-PAM may require AHSCT.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 08/2002; 30(3):135-40. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    P H O'Donnell, W-X Guo, C P Reynolds, B J Maurer
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    ABSTRACT: The retinoid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), mediates p53-independent cytotoxicity and can increase reactive oxygen species and ceramide in solid tumor cell lines. We determined changes in ceramide and cytotoxicity upon treatment with 4-HPR (3-12 microM) in six human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines: T cell (MOLT-3, MOLT-4, CEM), pre-B-cell (NALM-6, SMS-SB), and null cell (NALL-1). Exposure to 4-HPR (12 microM) for 96 h caused 4.7 (MOLT-3), 3.5 (MOLT-4), 3.9 (CEM), 2.9 (NALM-6), 4.7 (SMS-SB), AND 4.5 (NALL-1) logs of cell kill. The average 4-HPR concentration that killed 99% of cells (LC(99)) for all six lines was 4.8 microM (range: 1.5-8.9 microM). Treatment with 4-HPR (9 microM) for 24 h resulted in an 8.9 +/- 1.0-fold (range: 4.9-15.7-fold) increase of ceramide. Ceramide increase was time- and dose-dependent and abrogated by inhibitors of de novo ceramide synthesis. Concurrent inhibition of ceramide glycosylation/acylation by d,l-threo-(1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol) (PPMP) further increased ceramide levels, and synergistically increased 4-HPR cytotoxicity in four of six ALL cell lines. 4-HPR was minimally cytotoxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line, and increased ceramide <2-fold. Thus, 4-HPR was cytotoxic and increased ceramide in ALL cell lines, but not in non-malignant lymphoid cell types.
    Leukemia 05/2002; 16(5):902-10. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • C Patrick Reynolds
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 04/2002; 94(5):319-21. · 14.34 Impact Factor
  • C P Reynolds, R S Lemons
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro studies that showed RA could cause growth arrest and differentiation of myelogenous leukemia and neuroblastoma led to clinical trials of retinoids in APL and neuroblastoma that increased survival for both of those diseases. In the case of APL, ATRA has been the drug of choice, and preclinical and clinical data support direct combinations of ATRA with cytotoxic chemotherapy. For neuroblastoma, a phase I study defined a dose of 13-cis-RA, which was tolerable in patients after myeloablative therapy, and a phase III trial that showed postconsolidation therapy with 13-cis-RA improved EFS for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Preclinical studies in neuroblastoma indicate that ATRA or 13-cis-RA can antagonize cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation, so use of 13-cis-RA in neuroblastoma is limited to maintenance after completion of cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation. A limitation on the antitumor benefit of ATRA in APL is the marked decrease in drug levels that occurs during therapy as a result of induction of drug metabolism, resulting in a shorter drug half-life and decreased plasma levels. Although early studies sought to overcome the pharmacologic limitations of ATRA therapy in APL, the demonstration that ATO is active against APL in RA-refractory patients has led to a focus on studies employing ATO. Use of 13-cis-RA in neuroblastoma has avoided the decreased plasma levels seen with ATRA. It is likely that recurrent disease seen during or after 13-cis-RA therapy in neuroblastoma is due to tumor cell resistance to retinoid-mediated differentiation induction. Studies in neuroblastoma cell lines resistant to 13-cis-RA and ATRA have shown that they can be sensitive, and in some cases collaterally hypersensitive, to the cytotoxic retinoid fenretinide. Fenretinide induces tumor cell cytotoxicity rather than differentiation, acts independently from RA receptors, and in initial phase I trials has been well tolerated. Clinical trials of fenretinide, alone and in combination with ceramide modulators, are in development.
    Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 11/2001; 15(5):867-910. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer (GM2)/GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-8NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer (GD2) synthetase [beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase (GalNAc-T)] mRNA, which encodes a key glycosyltransferase for ganglioside GD2 synthesis, was assessed as a molecular marker for detecting metastatic neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow (BM). GalNAc-T mRNA expression by neuroblastoma cell lines (n = 15), primary untreated neuroblastoma tumors (n = 29), morphologically normal BM (n = 22), peripheral blood stem cells (n = 10) from patients with cancers other than neuroblastoma, and blood mononuclear cells from normal donors (n = 17) was assessed by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and electrochemiluminescence detection assay (RT-PCR/ECL). BM harvested from 15 neuroblastoma patients was tested before and after ex vivo immunomagnetic bead purging, and results were compared to immunocytological analysis of the same specimens. All neuroblastoma cell lines (mean, 653 x 10(3) ECL units) and primary tumors (mean, 683 x 10(3) ECL units) were positive for significant expression of GalNAc-T mRNA compared to normal blood and BM cells. The RT-PCR/ECL assay could detect GalNAc-T mRNA in 100 pg of total RNA, and in a mixture of one neuroblastoma cell among 10(7) normal BM or blood cells. Eight of 15 autologous BM cells harvested from patients with neuroblastoma had tumor cells detectable by immunocytology, and all 15 were positive for GalNAc-T mRNA. After ex vivo purging, none of the BM cells was immunocytology-positive, but six remained positive by the RT-PCR/ECL assay. GalNAc-T mRNA provides a specific and sensitive molecular marker for RT-PCR/ECL detection of infrequent neuroblastoma cells in BM.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2001; 159(2):493-500. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastomas can acquire a sustained high-level drug resistance during chemotherapy and especially myeloablative chemoradiotherapy. p53 mutations are rare in primary neuroblastomas, but a loss of p53 function could play a role in multidrug resistance. We determined p53 function by measuring induction of p21 and/or MDM2 proteins in response to melphalan (L-PAM) in seven L-PAM-sensitive and 11 L-PAM-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines. p53 was functional in seven/seven drug-sensitive but in only 4/11 drug-resistant cell lines (P = 0.01). In four of the seven cell lines lacking p53 function, mutations of p53 were detected by the microarray GeneChip p53 Assay and automated sequencing, whereas six cell lines with functional p53 had no evidence of p53 mutations. All of the cell lines with wild-type (wt) p53 showed a strong transactivation of the p53-HBS/CAT reporter gene, whereas the four cell lines with mutant p53 failed to transactivate p53 HBS/CAT. Overexpression of MDM2 protein (relative to p53 functional lines) was seen in two p53-nonfunctional cell lines with wt p53; one showed genomic amplification of MDM2. Nonfunctional and mutated p53 was detected in a resistant cell line, whereas a sensitive cell line derived from the same patient before treatment had functional and wt p53. Loss of p53 function was selectively achieved by transduction of human papillomavirus 16 E6 (which degrades p53) into two drug-sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with intact p53, causing high-level drug resistance to L-PAM, carboplatin, and etoposide. These data obtained with neuroblastoma cell lines suggest that the high-level drug resistance observed in some recurrent neuroblastomas is attributable to p53 mutations and/or a loss of p53 function acquired during chemotherapy. If confirmed in patient tumor samples, these data support development of p53-independent therapies for consolidation and/or salvage of recurrent neuroblastomas.
    Cancer Research 09/2001; 61(16):6185-93. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    H Wang, B J Maurer, C P Reynolds, M C Cabot
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    ABSTRACT: The retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR; fenretinide) is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines, and we previously showed an association between ceramide generation and 4-HPR cytotoxicity for neuroblastoma cell lines (B. J. Maurer et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (Bethesda), 91: 1138-1146, 1999). Here we determine whether the increased ceramide mediated by 4-HPR in the CHLA-90 human neuroblastoma cell line results from de novo ceramide synthesis. Treatment of CHLA-90 with 4-HPR for 2 h, in the presence of [(3)H]palmitic acid, caused sequential formation of [(3)H]sphinganine (220% over control) and [(3)H]ceramide (160% over control), with sphinganine returning to baseline at 4 h, and ceramide continuing to increase (215% over control). 4-HPR treatment did not accelerate cellular decay of sphingomyelin. Preincubation of cells with either L-cycloserine, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), or fumonisin B(1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthase, retarded ceramide formation in response to 4-HPR treatment, although sphinganine was still generated when 4-HPR and FB(1) were present. Data from in vitro enzyme assays using microsomes showed that preexposure of intact cells to 4-HPR resulted in a time (175% over control; 6 h)- and dose-dependent increase (173% over control; 10 microM) in SPT activity as well as a time (265% over control)- and dose-dependent increase (215% above control; 10 microM) in ceramide synthase activity. Our results show that 4-HPR-mediated ceramide generation is derived from the de novo synthetic pathway by coordinate activation of SPT and ceramide synthase. Knowledge of these biochemical events is of utility when downstream modulators of ceramide metabolism are used to heighten the cytotoxic response to chemotherapy.
    Cancer Research 08/2001; 61(13):5102-5. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several lines of evidence es tablish that chromosome band 1p36 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma primary tumors and cell lines, suggesting that a tumor suppressor gene within this region is involved in the development of this tumor. We analyzed the status of 1p36 in primary neuroblastomas and cell lines to define the region of consistent rearrangement. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies of primary neuro blastomas identified allelic loss in 135 of 503 tumors (27%), with the smallest region of overlap (SRO) defined distal to D15214 (1p36.3). No homozygous deletions were detected at 120 loci mapping to 1p36.1-p36.3 in a panel of 46 neuroblastoma cell lines. A recently identified patient with neuroblastoma was found to have a constitutional deletion within 1p36.2-p36.3, and this deletion, when combined with the LOH results, defined a smaller SRO of one megabase within 1p36.3. We constructed a comprehensive integrated map of chromosome 1 containing 11,000 markers and large-insert clones, a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of 1p36, and a P1-artificial chromosome (PAC) contig spanning the SRO, to further characterize the region of interest. Over 768 kb (75%) of the SRO has been sequenced to completion. Further analysis of distal 1p identified 113 transcripts localizing to 1p36, 21 of which were mapped within the SRO. This analysis will identify suitable positional candidate transcripts for mutational screening and subsequent identification of the 1p36.3 neuroblastoma suppressor gene.
    Medical and Pediatric Oncology 02/2001; 36(1):37-41.
  • C P Reynolds, R C Seeger
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 01/2001; 23(3):150-2. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MRP1 expression by neuroblastomas was evaluated by Northern blot analysis in 21 cell lines and 90 primary untreated tumors. Cytotoxicity assay in cell lines was performed for five anticancer drugs used in treating neuroblastoma. MRP1 expression did not correlate with drug resistance or with MYCN RNA expression in cell lines. MRP1 expression was higher in drug-sensitive cell lines established after chemotherapy relative to cell lines at diagnosis, but highly drug-resistant cell lines showed low MRP1 expression. Positive expression of MRP1 RNA in primary tumors was associated with a poorer survival relative to MRP1-negative tumors. However, MRP1 expression levels did not correlate with age, stage, MYCN amplification, or MYCN expression, and higher MRP1 expression was not associated with a worse outcome. In neuroblastoma, positive MRP1 RNA expression at diagnosis has prognostic significance, but high drug resistance is conferred by mechanisms other than MRP1.
    Medical and Pediatric Oncology 01/2001; 35(6):619-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastomas often acquire sustained drug resistance during therapy. Sensitivities to carboplatin, etoposide, or melphalan were determined for 18 neuroblastoma cell lines; eight were sensitive and ten were resistant. As p53 mutations are rare in neuroblastomas studied at diagnosis, we determined if acquired p53 mutations and loss of function conferred multidrug resistance. Loss of p53 function (p53-LOF), defined as a failure to induce p21 and/or MDM2 in response to melphalan, was seen in 1/8 drug-sensitive and 6/10 drug-resistant cell lines. In four cell lines p53-LOF was associated with mutations in the DNA binding region of p53, while three cell lines with LOF and four cell lines with functional p53 had no evidence of p53 muta-tions. Nonfunctional and mutated p53 was detected in one resistant cell line, while a sensitive cell line derived from the same patient prior to treatment had functional and wild type (wt) p53. We transfected HPV 16 E6 (which mediates degradation of p53, causing LOF) into two drug-sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with functional p53. LC(90) values of HPV 16 E6 transfected cell lines were 3-7-fold (melphalan), 8-109-fold (carboplatin), and 2-158-fold (etoposide) greater than that of LXSN-transfected controls. These data suggest that some neuroblastomas acquire p53 mutations during therapy, which is associated with a loss of p53 function, and can confer high-level multidrug resistance.
    Medical and Pediatric Oncology 01/2001; 35(6):563-8.
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    ABSTRACT: High-dose, pulse-13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA) given after intensive cytotoxic therapy improves event-free survival for high-risk neuroblastoma (NB), but more than 50% of patients have tumor recurrence. We conducted multistep selection for resistance to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in NB cell lines with (SMS-KCNR and LA-N-5) or without (SMS-LHN) MYCN genomic amplification. After 12 exposures to 10 microM ATRA, the two MYCN-amplified cell lines (KCNR 12X RR and LA-N-5 12X RR) showed partial resistance to the cytostatic/differentiation effects of ATRA; complete resistance was seen in LHN 12X RR. ATRA-selected cells showed general RA resistance (cross-resistance to 13-cis-RA). Transient (KCNR 12 X RR, LA-N-5 12X RR) or sustained (LHN 12X RR) novel overexpression of c-myc was associated with RA resistance. RA-insensitive overexpression of MYCN by transduction in SMS-LHN also conferred RA resistance. Both parental and RA-resistant lines showed 2-4 logs of cell kill in response to N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4- HPR, fenretinide). Compared to parental lines, 4-HPR achieved 1-3 log greater cell kills in RA-resistant LHN 12X RR, LA-N-5 12X RR, KCNR 12X RR, and MYCN-transduced SMS-LHN or SK-N-RA. NB cell lines (n = 26) from 21 different patients showed that 16 of 26 (62%) were sensitive to 4-HPR (LC(90) < 10 microM), including lines established at relapse after myeloablative and/or 13-cis-RA therapy. Thus, RA-resistant NB cell lines can be sensitive (and in some cases collaterally hypersensitive) to 4-HPR.
    Medical and Pediatric Oncology 12/2000; 35(6):597-602.

Publication Stats

4k Citations
550.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2002
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • • Division of Hematology-Oncology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2001
    • John Wayne Cancer Institute
      Santa Monica, California, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Division of Oncology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1994–2001
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of Southern California
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Hematology
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Wolfson Childrens Hospital
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 1993–2000
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1998
    • New York Medical College
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1995
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1990–1991
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1981
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States