[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MChip uses data from the hybridization of amplified viral RNA to 15 distinct oligonucleotides that target the influenza A matrix (M) gene segment. An artificial neural network (ANN) automates the interpretation of subtle differences in fluorescence intensity patterns from the microarray. The complete process from clinical specimen to identification including amplification of viral RNA can be completed in <8 hours for under US$10.
The work presented here represents an effort to expand and test the capabilities of the MChip to differentiate influenza A/H1N1 of various species origin.
The MChip ANN was trained to recognize fluorescence image patterns of a variety of known influenza A viruses, including examples of human H1N1, human H3N2, swine H1N1, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1, and a wide variety of avian, equine, canine, and swine influenza viruses. Robustness of the MChip ANN was evaluated using 296 blinded isolates.
Training of the ANN was expanded by the addition of 71 well-characterized influenza A isolates and yielded relatively high accuracy (little misclassification) in distinguishing unique H1N1 strains: nine human A/H1N1 (88·9% correct), 35 human A/H3N2 (97·1% correct), 31 North American swine A/H1N1 (80·6% correct), 14 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 (87·7% correct), and 23 negative samples (91·3% correct). Genetic diversity among the swine H1N1 isolates may have contributed to the lower success rate for these viruses.
The current study demonstrates the MChip has the capability to differentiate the genetic variations among influenza viruses with appropriate ANN training. Further selective enrichment of the ANN will improve its ability to rapidly and reliably characterize influenza viruses of unknown origin.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 11/2010; 4(6):411-6. · 1.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its identification in April 2009, an A(H1N1) virus containing a unique combination of gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine lineages has continued to circulate in humans. The lack of similarity between the 2009 A(H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Its low genetic diversity suggests that the introduction into humans was a single event or multiple events of similar viruses. Molecular markers predictive of adaptation to humans are not currently present in 2009 A(H1N1) viruses, suggesting that previously unrecognized molecular determinants could be responsible for the transmission among humans. Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have caused dramatic economic losses to the poultry industry of Vietnam and continue to pose a serious threat to public health. As of June 2008, Vietnam had reported nearly one third of worldwide laboratory confirmed human H5N1 infections. To better understand the emergence, spread and evolution of H5N1 in Vietnam we studied over 300 H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from Vietnam since their first detection in 2001. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that six genetically distinct H5N1 viruses were introduced into Vietnam during the past seven years. The H5N1 lineage that evolved following the introduction in 2003 of the A/duck/Hong Kong/821/2002-like viruses, with clade 1 hemagglutinin (HA), continued to predominate in southern Vietnam as of May 2007. A virus with a clade 2.3.4 HA newly introduced into northern Vietnam in 2007, reassorted with pre-existing clade 1 viruses, resulting in the emergence of novel genotypes with neuraminidase (NA) and/or internal gene segments from clade 1 viruses. A total of nine distinct genotypes have been present in Vietnam since 2001, including five that were circulating in 2007. At least four of these genotypes appear to have originated in Vietnam and represent novel H5N1 viruses not reported elsewhere. Geographic and temporal analyses of H5N1 infection dynamics in poultry suggest that the majority of viruses containing new genes were first detected in northern Vietnam and subsequently spread to southern Vietnam after reassorting with pre-existing local viruses in northern Vietnam. Although the routes of entry and spread of H5N1 in Vietnam remain speculative, enhanced poultry import controls and virologic surveillance efforts may help curb the entry and spread of new HPAI viral genes.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(10):e3462. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two genetically distinct lineages of H1N1 influenza A viruses, circulated worldwide before 1994, were antigenically indistinguishable. In 1994, viruses emerged in China, including A/Beijing/262/95, with profound antigenic differences from the contemporary circulating H1N1 strains. Haemagglutinin sequence comparisons of either a predecessor virus, A/Hebei/52/94, or one representative of the cocirculating A/Bayern/7/95-like clade, A/Shenzhen/227/95, revealed a deletion of K at position 134 (H3 numbering) in the antigenic variants. The K134 deletion conferred a selective advantage to the Chinese deletion lineage, such that it eventually gave rise to currently circulating H1 viruses. Using reverse genetics to generate viruses with either an insertion or deletion of aa 134, we have confirmed that the K134 deletion, rather than a constellation of sublineage specific amino acid changes, was sufficient for the antigenic difference observed in the Chinese deletion lineage, and reinsertion of K134 revealed the requirement of a compatible neuraminidase surface glycoprotein for viral growth.
Journal of General Virology 01/2008; 88(Pt 12):3209-13. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The robustness of a recently developed diagnostic microarray for influenza, the MChip, was evaluated with 16 historic subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (A/H1N1), including A/Brevig Mission/1/1918. The matrix gene segments from all 16 viruses were successfully detected on the array. An artificial neural network trained with temporally related A/H1N1 viruses identified A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 as influenza virus A/H1N1 with 94% probability.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2007; 45(11):3807-10. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous reports demonstrated an alarming increase in resistance to adamantanes among influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2001-2005. To continue monitoring drug resistance, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses isolated globally in 2005-2006. The results obtained by pyrosequencing indicate that 96.4% (n=761) of A(H3N2) viruses circulating in the United States were adamantane resistant. Drug resistance has reached 100% among isolates from some Asian countries. Analysis of correlation between the appearance of drug resistance and the evolutionary pathway of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene suggests at least 2 separate introductions of resistance into circulating populations that gave rise to identifiable subclades. It also indicates that resistant A(H3N2) viruses may have emerged in Asia in late 2001. Among A(H1N1) viruses isolated worldwide, resistance reached 15.5% in 2005-2006; in the United States alone, it was 4.0%. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and M genes indicates that the acquisition of resistance in A(H1N1) viruses can be linked to a specific genetic group and was not a result of reassortment between A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses. The results of the study highlight the necessity of close monitoring of resistance to existing antivirals as wells as the need for new therapeutics.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2007; 196(2):249-57. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous work, a simple diagnostic DNA microarray that targeted only the matrix gene segment of influenza A (MChip) was developed and evaluated with patient samples. In this work, the analytical utility of the MChip for detection and subtyping of an emerging virus was evaluated with a diverse set of A/H5N1 influenza viruses. A total of 43 different highly pathogenic A/H5N1 viral isolates that were collected from diverse geographic locations, including Vietnam, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Kazakhstan, representing human, feline, and a variety of avian infections spanning the time period 2003-2006 were used in this study. A probabilistic artificial neural network was developed for automated microarray image interpretation through pattern recognition. The microarray assay and subsequent subtype assignment by the artificial neural network resulted in correct identification of 24 "unknown" A/H5N1 positive samples with no false positives. Analysis of a data set composed of A/H5N1, A/H3N2, and A/H1N1 positive samples and negative controls resulted in a clinical sensitivity of 97% and a clinical specificity of 100%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design and characterization of a low-density microarray for subtyping influenza A is presented. The microarray consisted of 15 distinct oligonucleotides designed to target only the matrix gene segment of influenza A. An artificial neural network was utilized to automate microarray image interpretation. The neural network was trained to recognize fluorescence image patterns for 68 known influenza viruses and subsequently used to identify 53 unknowns in a blind study that included 39 human patient samples and 14 negative control samples. The assay exhibited a clinical sensitivity of 95% and clinical specificity of 92%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global surveillance of influenza is critical for improvements in disease management and is especially important for early detection, rapid intervention, and a possible reduction of the impact of an influenza pandemic. Enhanced surveillance requires rapid, robust, and inexpensive analytical techniques capable of providing a detailed analysis of influenza virus strains. Low-density oligonucleotide microarrays with highly multiplexed "signatures" for influenza viruses offer many of the desired characteristics. However, the high mutability of the influenza virus represents a design challenge. In order for an influenza virus microarray to be of utility, it must provide information for a wide range of viral strains and lineages. The design and characterization of an influenza microarray, the FluChip-55 microarray, for the relatively rapid identification of influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 are described here. In this work, a small set of sequences was carefully selected to exhibit broad coverage for the influenza A and B viruses currently circulating in the human population as well as the avian A/H5N1 virus that has become enzootic in poultry in Southeast Asia and that has recently spread to Europe. A complete assay involving extraction and amplification of the viral RNA was developed and tested. In a blind study of 72 influenza virus isolates, RNA from a wide range of influenza A and B viruses was amplified, hybridized, labeled with a fluorophore, and imaged. The entire analysis time was less than 12 h. The combined results for two assays provided the absolutely correct types and subtypes for an average of 72% of the isolates, the correct type and partially correct subtype information for 13% of the isolates, the correct type only for 10% of the isolates, false-negative signals for 4% of the isolates, and false-positive signals for 1% of the isolates. In the overwhelming majority of cases in which incomplete subtyping was observed, the failure was due to the nucleic acid amplification step rather than limitations in the microarray.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2006; 44(8):2863-71. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA microarrays have proven to be powerful tools for gene expression analyses and are becoming increasingly attractive for diagnostic applications, e.g., for virus identification and subtyping. The selection of appropriate sequences for use on a microarray poses a challenge, particularly for highly mutable organisms such as influenza viruses, human immunodeficiency viruses, and hepatitis C viruses. The goal of this work was to develop an efficient method for mining large databases in order to identify regions of conservation in the influenza virus genome. From these regions of conservation, capture and label sequences capable of discriminating between different viral types and subtypes were selected. The salient features of the method were the use of phylogenetic trees for data reduction and the selection of a relatively small number of capture and label sequences capable of identifying a broad spectrum of influenza viruses. A detailed experimental evaluation of the selected sequences is described in a companion paper. The software is freely available under the General Public License at http://www.colorado.edu/chemistry/RGHP/software/.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2006; 44(8):2857-62. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the 2001-2002 influenza season, human influenza A (H1N2) reassortant viruses were detected globally. The hemagglutinin (HA) of these H1N2 viruses was similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, while their neuraminidase (NA) was antigenically and genetically related to that of recent human influenza H3N2 reference viruses such as A/Moscow/10/99. All six internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants originated from an H3N2 virus. After being detected only in eastern Asia during the past 10 years, Influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses reappeared in many countries outside of Asia in 2001. Additionally, reassortant influenza B viruses possessing an HA similar to that of B/Shandong/7/97, a recent B/Victoria/2/87 lineage reference strain, and an NA closely related to that of B/Sichuan/379/99, a recent B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage reference strain, were isolated globally and became the predominant influenza B epidemic strain. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses because it contains A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) like viruses whose H1 HA or N2 NA are antigenically similar to those of recent circulating H1N2 viruses. On the other hand, widespread circulation of influenza B Victoria lineage viruses required inclusion of a strain from this lineage in influenza vaccines for the 2002-2003 season.
Virus Research 08/2004; 103(1-2):55-60. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reassortant influenza A viruses bearing the H1 subtype of hemagglutinin (HA) and the N2 subtype of neuraminidase (NA) were isolated from humans in the United States, Canada, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Oman, Egypt, and several countries in Europe during the 2001-2002 influenza season. The HAs of these H1N2 viruses were similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, and the NAs were antigenically and genetically related to those of recent human H3N2 reference strains, such as A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2). All 6 internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants examined originated from an H3N2 virus. This article documents the first widespread circulation of H1N2 reassortants on 4 continents. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses, because it contains the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) and A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like viruses, which have H1 and N2 antigens that are similar to those of recent H1N2 viruses.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2002; 186(10):1490-3. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From February through May of 1999, 13 cases of Influenza A virus (FLUAV), type H1N1 were reported at a Department of Defense influenza surveillance sentinel site in Lima, Peru. Genetic and antigenic analysis by hemagglutination inhibition and direct nucleotide sequencing of the HA1 region of the hemagglutinin gene were performed on two isolates, A/Peru/1641/99 and A/Peru/1798/99. Both isolates were distinct from the Bayern/7/95-like viruses circulating in the Americas and closely related to a Beijing/262/95-like variant, A/New Caledonia/20/99. With the exception of travel-related cases, the detection of these isolates represents the first appearance of New Caledonia/20/99-like viruses in the Americas. Since the characterization of these Peru isolates, a number of New Caledonia/20/99-like viruses have been reported worldwide. For the 2000/01 and 2001/02 influenza seasons, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the inclusion of A/New Caledonia/20/99 as the H1N1 vaccine component for both the southern and northern hemispheres.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1979 and 1989, families enrolled in the Houston Family Study were prospectively monitored for influenza virus infections. Reinfection with the H3N2 subtype occurred in a number of family members, and 6 pairs of isolates (interval between collection of first and second isolate, 2-5 years) were available for molecular analysis. Changes in the hemagglutinin genes of pairs of viruses isolated from the same individuals were examined to determine the molecular basis for reinfection. The findings of this study indicate that reinfection of an individual by viruses of the same subtype may occur within a relatively short period of time when the paired strains have genetically distinct hemagglutinin genes in which amino acid changes are present in the defined antigenic sites.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2002; 185(7):980-5. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The hemagglutinins (HA) of human influenza viruses adapt during growth in chicken eggs. Amino acid replacements in HAs of egg-grown viruses generally appear on the terminal branches of phylogenetic trees. Our method for predicting human influenza HA evolution, which tracks replacements at positively selected codons across trees, is more accurate with terminal mutations excluded. Methods: We extracted the sequence data that contain the majority of egg-adapted replacements from our original data set, and replicated our prediction tests analyzing both internal and terminal mutations. We contrasted these results with those obtained analyzing (1) only internal mutations and (2) analyzing all mutations in our full data set. Results: Excluding egg-adapted replacements did not increase the accuracy of our predictions when other terminal mutations remained in the analysis. Deleting all terminal mutations produced the best prediction of success of viral lineages. Conclusions: Amino acid replacements on terminal branches interfered with our ability to identify which codons were under positive selection. Therefore, we recommend limiting such analyses to the internal branches of phylogenetic trees. The effects of terminal mutations may be caused by the criteria used for selecting viruses for HA sequencing.
International Congress Series 01/2001; 1219:147-153.