David R Sherman

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (70)570.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a pathogenic bacterium responsible for 12 million active cases of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. The complexity and critical regulatory components of MTB pathogenicity are still poorly understood despite extensive research efforts. In this study, we constructed the first systems-scale map of transcription factor (TF) binding sites and their regulatory target proteins in MTB. We constructed FLAG-tagged overexpression constructs for 206 TFs in MTB, used ChIP-seq to identify genome-wide binding events and surveyed global transcriptomic changes for each overexpressed TF. Here we present data for the most comprehensive map of MTB gene regulation to date. We also define elaborate quality control measures, extensive filtering steps, and the gene-level overlap between ChIP-seq and microarray datasets. Further, we describe the use of TF overexpression datasets to validate a global gene regulatory network model of MTB and describe an online source to explore the datasets.
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    ABSTRACT: Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources. MTB proteins were used as single antigens or combinatorial matrices in proliferation and cytokine secretion readouts. Overall, our study found that 44 MTB proteins were antigenic, including 27 not previously characterized as CD4 T-cell antigens. Antigen truncation, peptide, NTM homology, and HLA class II tetramer studies confirmed malate synthase G (encoded by gene Rv1837) as a CD4 T-cell antigen. This simple, scalable system has potential utility for the identification of candidate MTB vaccine and biomarker antigens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tube.2015.03.001 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infects 30% of all humans and kills someone every 20-30 s. Here we report genome-wide binding for ~80% of all predicted MTB transcription factors (TFs), and assayed global expression following induction of each TF. The MTB DNA-binding network consists of ~16,000 binding events from 154 TFs. We identify >50 TF-DNA consensus motifs and >1,150 promoter-binding events directly associated with proximal gene regulation. An additional ~4,200 binding events are in promoter windows and represent strong candidates for direct transcriptional regulation under appropriate environmental conditions. However, we also identify >10,000 'dormant' DNA-binding events that cannot be linked directly with proximal transcriptional control, suggesting that widespread DNA binding may be a common feature that should be considered when developing global models of coordinated gene expression.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:5829. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6829 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses and responds to the shifting and hostile landscape of the host. To characterize the underlying intertwined gene regulatory network governed by approximately 200 transcription factors of M. tuberculosis, we have assayed the global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing each transcription factor from an inducible promoter.ResultsWe cloned and overexpressed 206 transcription factors in M. tuberculosis to identify the regulatory signature of each. We identified 9,335 regulatory consequences of overexpressing each of 183 transcription factors, providing evidence of regulation for 70% of the M. tuberculosis genome. These transcriptional signatures agree well with previously described M. tuberculosis regulons. The number of genes differentially regulated by transcription factor overexpression varied from hundreds of genes to none, with the majority of expression changes repressing basal transcription. Exploring the global transcriptional maps of transcription factor overexpressing (TFOE) strains, we predicted and validated the phenotype of a regulator that reduces susceptibility to a first line anti-tubercular drug, isoniazid. We also combined the TFOE data with an existing model of M. tuberculosis metabolism to predict the growth rates of individual TFOE strains with high fidelity.ConclusionThis work has led to a systems-level framework describing the transcriptome of a devastating bacterial pathogen, characterized the transcriptional influence of nearly all individual transcription factors in M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated the utility of this resource. These results will stimulate additional systems-level and hypothesis-driven efforts to understand M. tuberculosis adaptations that promote disease.
    Genome Biology 11/2014; 15(502). DOI:10.1186/s13059-014-0502-3 · 10.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses and responds to the shifting and hostile landscape of the host. To characterize the underlying intertwined gene regulatory network governed by approximately 200 transcription factors of M. tuberculosis, we have assayed the global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing each transcription factor from an inducible promoter.ResultsWe cloned and overexpressed 206 transcription factors in M. tuberculosis to identify the regulatory signature of each. We identified 9,335 regulatory consequences of overexpressing each of 183 transcription factors, providing evidence of regulation for 70% of the M. tuberculosis genome. These transcriptional signatures agree well with previously described M. tuberculosis regulons. The number of genes differentially regulated by transcription factor overexpression varied from hundreds of genes to none, with the majority of expression changes repressing basal transcription. Exploring the global transcriptional maps of transcription factor overexpressing (TFOE) strains, we predicted and validated the phenotype of a regulator that reduces susceptibility to a first line anti-tubercular drug, isoniazid. We also combined the TFOE data with an existing model of M. tuberculosis metabolism to predict the growth rates of individual TFOE strains with high fidelity.Conclusion This work has led to a systems-level framework describing the transcriptome of a devastating bacterial pathogen, characterized the transcriptional influence of nearly all individual transcription factors in M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated the utility of this resource. These results will stimulate additional systems-level and hypothesis-driven efforts to understand M. tuberculosis adaptations that promote disease.
    Genome Biology 11/2014; 15(11):502. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1701638048134699 · 10.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune response plays an important but unknown role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To define the function of innate immunity during tuberculosis, we evaluated MTB replication dynamics during murine infection. Our data show that the early pulmonary innate immune response limits MTB replication in a MyD88-dependent manner. Strikingly, we found that little MTB death occurs during the first two weeks of infection. In contrast, MTB deficient in the surface lipid phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM) exhibited significant death rates and consequently total bacterial numbers were reduced. Host restriction of PDIM-deficient MTB was not alleviated by the absence of interferon-γ, iNOS, or the phagocyte oxidase subunit p47. Taken together, these data indicate that PDIM protects MTB from an early innate host response that is independent of IFN-γ, reactive nitrogen intermediates, and reactive oxygen species. By employing a pathogen replication tracking tool to evaluate MTB replication and death during infection, we identify both host and pathogen factors affecting the outcome of infection.
    Infection and Immunity 10/2014; DOI:10.1128/IAI.01340-13 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The resilience of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is largely due to its ability to effectively counteract and even take advantage of the hostile environments of a host. In order to accelerate the discovery and characterization of these adaptive mechanisms, we have mined a compendium of 2325 publicly available transcriptome profiles of MTB to decipher a predictive, systems-scale gene regulatory network model. The resulting modular organization of 98% of all MTB genes within this regulatory network was rigorously tested using two independently generated datasets: a genome-wide map of 7248 DNA-binding locations for 143 transcription factors (TFs) and global transcriptional consequences of overexpressing 206 TFs. This analysis has discovered specific TFs that mediate conditional co-regulation of genes within 240 modules across 14 distinct environmental contexts. In addition to recapitulating previously characterized regulons, we discovered 454 novel mechanisms for gene regulation during stress, cholesterol utilization and dormancy. Significantly, 183 of these mechanisms act uniquely under conditions experienced during the infection cycle to regulate diverse functions including 23 genes that are essential to host-pathogen interactions. These and other insights underscore the power of a rational, model-driven approach to unearth novel MTB biology that operates under some but not all phases of infection.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1093/nar/gku777 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    David R. Sherman, Christoph Grundner
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    ABSTRACT: The flow of information from the outside to the inside of bacterial cells is largely directed by protein kinases. In addition to histidine/aspartate phosphorelays of two-component response regulators, recent work in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) reinforces the idea that phosphorylation on serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr) is central to bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, and that the corresponding phosphosystems are highly similar to those in eukaryotes. In this way, eukaryotes are a useful guide to understanding Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation (O-phosphorylation) in prokaryotes such as Mtb. However, as novel functions and components of bacterial O-phosphorylation are identified, distinct differences between pro- and eukaryotic phosphosignaling systems become apparent. The emerging picture of O-phosphorylation in Mtb is complicated, goes beyond the eukaryotic paradigms, and shows the limitations of viewing bacterial phosphosignaling within the confines of the “eukaryotic-like” model. Here, we summarize recent findings about Ser/Thr and the recently discovered Tyr phosphorylation pathways in Mtb, highlight the similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic O-phosphorylation, and pose additional questions about signaling components, pathway organization, and ultimately, the cellular roles of O-phosphorylation in Mtb physiology and pathogenesis.
    Molecular Microbiology 08/2014; 94(2). DOI:10.1111/mmi.12747 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we identified antifolates with potent, targeted activity against whole-cell Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of antifolate-treated cultures revealed metabolic disruption, including decreased pools of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted altered regulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis and utilization of these two compounds. Supplementation with amino acids or S-adenosylmethionine was sufficient to rescue cultures from antifolate treatment. Instead of the "thymineless death" that characterizes folate pathway inhibition in a wide variety of organisms, these data suggest that MTB is vulnerable to a critical disruption of the reactions centered around S-adenosylmethionione, the activated methyl cycle.
    Chemistry & Biology 06/2014; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.04.009 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reversible protein phosphorylation determines growth and adaptive decisions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). At least 11 two-component systems and 11 Ser/Thr protein kinases (STPKs) mediate phosphorylation on Asp, His, Ser, and Thr. In contrast, protein phosphorylation on Tyr has not been described previously in Mtb. Here, using a combination of phospho-enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry, we show extensive protein Tyr phosphorylation of diverse Mtb proteins, including STPKs. Several STPKs function as dual-specificity kinases that phosphorylate Tyr in cis and in trans, suggesting that dual-specificity kinases have a major role in bacterial phospho-signaling. Mutation of a phosphotyrosine site of the essential STPK PknB reduces its activity in vitro and in live Mtb, indicating that Tyr phosphorylation has a functional role in bacterial growth. These data identify a previously unrecognized phosphorylation system in a human pathogen that claims ∼1.4 million lives every year.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323894111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by drug tolerance and little or no bacterial replication. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in reaeration. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability and gross morphological defects in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle-active disease, latency, and reactivation.
    PLoS Biology 01/2014; 12(1):e1001746. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001746 · 11.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria are able to adapt to dramatically different microenvironments, but in many organisms, the signaling pathways, transcriptional programs, and downstream physiological changes involved in adaptation are not well-understood. Here, we discovered that osmotic stress stimulates a signaling network in Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulated by the eukaryotic-like receptor Ser/Thr protein kinase PknD. Expression of the PknD substrate Rv0516c was highly induced by osmotic stress. Furthermore, Rv0516c disruption modified peptidoglycan thickness, enhanced antibiotic resistance, and activated genes in the regulon of the alternative σ-factor SigF. Phosphorylation of Rv0516c regulated the abundance of EspA, a virulence-associated substrate of the type VII ESX-1 secretion system. These findings identify an osmosensory pathway orchestrated by PknD, Rv0516c, and SigF that enables adaptation to osmotic stress through cell wall remodeling and virulence factor production. Given the widespread occurrence of eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases in bacteria, these proteins may play a broad role in bacterial osmosensing.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1321205110 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enzyme pantothenate synthetase, PanC, is an attractive drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is essential for the in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis and for survival of the bacteria in the mouse model of infection. PanC is absent from mammals. We developed an enzyme-based assay to identify inhibitors of PanC, optimized it for high-throughput screening, and tested a large and diverse library of compounds for activity. Two compounds belonging to the same chemical class of 3-biphenyl-4- cyanopyrrole-2-carboxylic acids had activity against the purified recombinant protein, and also inhibited growth of live M. tuberculosis in manner consistent with PanC inhibition. Thus we have identified a new class of PanC inhibitors with whole cell activity that can be further developed.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e72786. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072786 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of new drug targets is vital for the advancement of drug discovery against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially given the increase of resistance worldwide to first- and second-line drugs. Because traditional target-based screening has largely proven unsuccessful for antibiotic discovery, we have developed a scalable platform for target identification in M. tuberculosis that is based on whole-cell screening, coupled with whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants and recombineering to confirm. The method yields targets paired with whole-cell active compounds, which can serve as novel scaffolds for drug development, molecular tools for validation, and/or as ligands for co-crystallization. It may also reveal other information about mechanisms of action, such as activation or efflux. Using this method, we identified resistance-linked genes for eight compounds with anti-tubercular activity. Four of the genes have previously been shown to be essential: AspS, aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, Pks13, a polyketide synthase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis, MmpL3, a membrane transporter, and EccB3, a component of the ESX-3 type VII secretion system. AspS and Pks13 represent novel targets in protein translation and cell-wall biosynthesis. Both MmpL3 and EccB3 are involved in membrane transport. Pks13, AspS, and EccB3 represent novel candidates not targeted by existing TB drugs, and the availability of whole-cell active inhibitors greatly increases their potential for drug discovery.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75245. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075245 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have taken the first steps towards a complete reconstruction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network based on ChIP-Seq and combined this reconstruction with system-wide profiling of messenger RNAs, proteins, metabolites and lipids during hypoxia and re-aeration. Adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have a prominent role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. Using ChIP-Seq combined with expression data from the induction of the same factors, we have reconstructed a draft regulatory network based on 50 transcription factors. This network model revealed a direct interconnection between the hypoxic response, lipid catabolism, lipid anabolism and the production of cell wall lipids. As a validation of this model, in response to oxygen availability we observe substantial alterations in lipid content and changes in gene expression and metabolites in corresponding metabolic pathways. The regulatory network reveals transcription factors underlying these changes, allows us to computationally predict expression changes, and indicates that Rv0081 is a regulatory hub.
    Nature 07/2013; DOI:10.1038/nature12337 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of CD8(+) T cell antigens/epitopes expressed by human pathogens with large genomes is especially challenging, yet necessary for vaccine development. Immunity to tuberculosis, a leading cause of mortality worldwide, requires CD8(+) T cell immunity, yet the repertoire of CD8 antigens/epitopes remains undefined. We used integrated computational and proteomic approaches to screen 10% of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteome for CD8 Mtb antigens. We designed a weighting schema based upon a Multiple Attribute Decision Making:framework to select 10% of the Mtb proteome with a high probability of containing CD8(+) T cell epitopes. We created a synthetic peptide library consisting of 15-mers overlapping by 11 aa. Using the interferon-γ ELISPOT assay and Mtb-infected dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells, we screened Mtb-specific CD8(+) T cell clones restricted by classical MHC class I molecules (MHC class Ia molecules), that were isolated from Mtb-infected humans, against this library. Three novel CD8 antigens were unambiguously identified: the EsxJ family (Rv1038c, Rv1197, Rv3620c, Rv2347c, Rv1792), PE9 (Rv1088), and PE_PGRS42 (Rv2487c). The epitopes are B5701-restricted EsxJ24-34, B3905-restricted PE953-67, and B3514-restricted PE_PGRS4248-56, respectively. The utility of peptide libraries in identifying unknown epitopes recognized by classically restricted CD8(+) T cells was confirmed, which can be applied to other intracellular pathogens with large size genomes. In addition, we identified three novel Mtb epitopes/antigens that may be evaluated for inclusion in vaccines and/or diagnostics for tuberculosis.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67016. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067016 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed whole genome-based transcriptional profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subjected to prolonged hypoxia to guide the discovery of novel potential Ags, by a combined bioinformatic and empirical approach. We analyzed the fold induction of the 100 most highly induced genes at 7 d of hypoxia, as well as transcript abundance, peptide-binding prediction (ProPred) adjusted for population-specific MHC class II allele frequency, and by literature search. Twenty-six candidate genes were selected by this bioinformatic approach and evaluated empirically using IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT using immunodominant Ags (Acr-1, CFP-10, ESAT-6) as references. Twenty-three of twenty-six proteins induced an IFN-γ response in PBMCs of persons with active or latent tuberculosis. Five novel immunodominant proteins-Rv1957, Rv1954c, Rv1955, Rv2022c, and Rv1471-were identified that induced responses similar to CFP-10 and ESAT-6 in both magnitude and frequency. IL-2 responses were of lower magnitude than were those of IFN-γ. Only moderate evidence of infection stage-specific recognition of Ags was observed. Reconciliation of bioinformatic and empirical hierarchies of immunodominance revealed that Ags could be predicted, providing transcriptomic data were combined with peptide-binding prediction adjusted by population-specific MHC class II allele frequency.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; 189(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202281 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a highly successful pathogen that infects over a billion people. As with most organisms, MTB adapts to stress by modifying its transcriptional profile. Remodeling of the transcriptome requires both altering the transcription rate and clearing away the existing mRNA through degradation, a process that can be directly regulated in response to stress. To understand better how MTB adapts to the harsh environs of the human host, we performed a global survey of the decay rates of MTB mRNA transcripts. Decay rates were measured for 2139 of the ∼4000 MTB genes, which displayed an average half-life of 9.5 min. This is nearly twice the average mRNA half-life of other prokaryotic organisms where these measurements have been made. The transcriptome was further stabilized in response to lowered temperature and hypoxic stress. The generally stable transcriptome described here, and the additional stabilization in response to physiologically relevant stresses, has far-ranging implications for how this pathogen is able to adapt in its human host.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2012; 41(1). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks1019 · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2012; 53:S34–S35. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.088 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a T cell Ag that is a potential vaccine candidate, but it is also a virulence factor that mediates pathogenicity. To better understand the effects of ESAT-6 on the immune response, we studied the effect of ESAT-6 on human dendritic cells (DCs). Peripheral blood monocytes were treated with GM-CSF and IL-4 to yield immature DCs, which were matured by addition of LPS and CD40 ligand (CD40L), with or without ESAT-6. ESAT-6 inhibited LPS/CD40L-induced DC expression of costimulatory molecules, reduced DC-stimulated allogeneic T cell proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-γ production, and enhanced IL-17 production. ESAT-6-treated DCs also increased IL-17 and reduced IFN-γ production by M. tuberculosis-specific autologous T cells. ESAT-6 inhibited LPS/CD40L-induced DC production of IL-12 and enhanced that of IL-23 and IL-1β, without affecting secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-8 through specific interaction with immature DCs. The effects of ESAT-6 were not mediated through cAMP or p38 MAPK. Medium from ESAT-6-conditioned DCs increased IL-17 and reduced IFN-γ production by T cells stimulated with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, and ESAT-6-induced IL-17 production was blocked by neutralizing both IL-23 and IL-1β. ESAT-6 reduced LPS/CD40L-stimulated transcription of IL-12p35 and enhanced that of IL-23p19 through inhibition of IFN regulatory factor-1 and upregulation of activating transcription factor-2 and c-Jun, transcriptional regulators of IL-12p35 and IL-23p19, respectively. We conclude that ESAT-6 increases DC production of IL-23 and IL-1β while inhibiting that of IL-12, thus enhancing Th17 at the expense of protective Th1 responses.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2012; 189(6):3092-103. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1200573 · 5.36 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
570.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Global Health
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2012–2014
    • Seattle BioMed
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2014
    • Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Centre for the Study of Host Resistance
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996–1998
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
    • Hamilton College
      Клинтон, New York, United States
  • 1995
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      Hamilton, Ohio, United States