David S. Salomon

Leidos Biomedical Research, Фредерик, Maryland, United States

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Publications (260)1165.81 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cripto-1, a member of the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1-FRL-1-Cryptic family, is critical for early embryonic development. Together with its ligand Nodal, Cripto-1 has been found to be associated with the undifferentiated status of mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Several studies have clearly shown that Cripto-1 is involved in regulating branching morphogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the mammary gland both in vitro and in vivo and together with the cofactor GRP78 is critical for the maintenance of mammary stem cells ex vivo. Our previous studies showed that mammary-specific overexpression of human Cripto-1 exhibited dramatic morphological alterations in nulliparous mice mammary glands. The present study shows a novel mechanism for Cripto-1 regulation of mammary gland development through direct effects on progesterone receptor expression and pathways regulated by progesterone in the mammary gland. We demonstrate a strict temporal regulation of mouse Cripto-1 (mCripto-1) expression that occurs during mammary gland development and a stage-specific function of mCripto-1 signaling during mammary gland development. Our data suggest that Cripto-1, like the progesterone receptor, is not required for the initial ductal growth but is essential for subsequent side branching and alveologenesis during the initial stages of pregnancy. Dissection of the mechanism by which this occurs indicates that mCripto-1 activates receptor activator NF-κB/receptor activator NF-κB ligand, and NF-κB signaling pathways.
    American Journal Of Pathology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.07.023 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cripto-1 (CR-1) is a multifunctional embryonic protein that is re-expressed during inflammation, wound repair, and malignant transformation. CR-1 can function either as a tethered co-receptor or shed as a free ligand underpinning its flexible role in cell physiology. CR-1 has been shown to mediate cell growth, migration, invasion, and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The main signaling pathways mediating CR-1 effects include Nodal-dependent (Smad2/3) and Nodal-independent (Src/p44/42/Akt) signaling transduction pathways. In addition, there are several naturally occurring binding partner proteins (BPPs) for CR-1 that can either agonize or antagonize its bioactivity. We will review the collective role of CR-1 as an extracellular protein, discuss caveats to consider in developing a quantitation assay, define possible mechanistic avenues applicable for drug discovery, and report on our experimental approaches to overcome these problematic issues.
    Connective tissue research 09/2015; 56(5):1-17. DOI:10.3109/03008207.2015.1077239 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Nadia P Castro · David S Salomon
    Aging 08/2015; · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):2226-2226. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-2226 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2015; 75(15 Supplement):912-912. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2015-912 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents the poorest prognosis among the breast cancer subtypes and no current standard therapy. Here, we performed an in-depth molecular analysis of a mouse model that establishes spontaneous lung metastasis from JygMC(A) cells. These primary tumors resembled the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) both phenotypically and molecularly. Morphologically, primary tumors presented both epithelial and spindle-like cells but displayed only adenocarcinoma-like features in lung parenchyma. The use of laser-capture microdissection combined with Nanostring mRNA and microRNA analysis revealed overexpression of either epithelial and miRNA-200 family or mesenchymal markers in adenocarcinoma and mesenchymal regions, respectively. Cripto-1, an embryonic stem cell marker, was present in spindle-like areas and its promoter showed activity in primary tumors. Cripto-1 knockout by the CRISPR-Cas9 system inhibited tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. Our findings show characterization of a novel mouse model that mimics the TNBC and reveal Cripto-1 as a TNBC target hence may offer alternative treatment strategies for TNBC.
    Oncotarget 05/2015; 6(14):11910-29. DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4182 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the EGF-CFC (Cripto, FRL-1, Cryptic) protein family are increasingly recognized as key mediators of cell movement and cell differentiation during vertebrate embryogenesis. The founding member of this protein family, CRIPTO, is overexpressed in various human carcinomas. Yet, the biological role of CRIPTO in this setting remains unclear. Here, we find CRIPTO expression as especially high in a subgroup of primary prostate carcinomas with poorer outcome, wherein resides cancer cell clones with mesenchymal traits. Experimental studies in PCa models showed that one notable function of CRIPTO expression in prostate carcinoma cells may be to augment PI3K/AKT and FGFR1 signaling, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and sustains a mesenchymal state. In the observed signaling events, FGFR1 appears to function parallel to AKT, and the two pathways act cooperatively to enhance migratory, invasive and transformation properties specifically in the CRIPTO overexpressing cells. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel molecular network, involving CRIPTO, AKT, and FGFR signaling, in favor of the emergence of mesenchymal-like cancer cells during the development of aggressive prostate tumors.
    Oncotarget 05/2015; DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.2740 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stemness was recently depicted as a dynamic condition in normal and tumor cells. We found that the embryonic protein Cripto-1 (CR1) was expressed by normal stem cells at the bottom of colonic crypts and by cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colorectal tumor tissues. CR1-positive populations isolated from patient-derived tumor spheroids exhibited increased clonogenic capacity and expression of stem cell-related genes. CR1 expression in tumor spheroids was variable over time, being subject to a complex regulation of the intracellular, surface and secreted protein, which was related to changes of the clonogenic capacity at the population level. CR1 silencing induced CSC growth arrest in vitro with a concomitant decrease of Src/Akt signaling, while in vivo it inhibited the growth of CSC-derived tumor xenografts and reduced CSC numbers. Importantly, CR1 silencing in established xenografts through an inducible expression system decreased CSC growth in both primary and metastatic tumors, indicating an essential role of CR1 in the regulation the CSC compartment. These results point to CR1 as a novel and dynamically regulated effector of stem cell functions in colorectal cancer.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 03/2015; 22(10). DOI:10.1038/cdd.2015.19 · 8.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the encapsulation of paclitaxel into liposomes has been extensively studied, its significant hydrophobic and uncharged character has generated substantial difficulties concerning its efficient encapsulation into the inner water core of liposomes. We found that a more hydrophilic paclitaxel molecule, 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel, retained tubulin polymerization stabilization activity. The hydrophilic nature of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel allowed its efficient encapsulation into the inner water core of liposomes, which was successfully accomplished using a remote loading method with a solubility gradient between 40% ethylene glycol and Cremophor EL/ethanol in PBS. Trastuzumab was then conjugated onto the surface of liposomes as immunoliposomes to selectively target human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-overexpressing cancer cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that the immunoliposomes enhanced the toxicity of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells and showed more rapid suppression of cell growth. The immunoliposomes strongly inhibited the tumor growth of HT-29 cells xenografted in nude mice. Notably, mice survived when treated with the immunoliposomes formulation, even when administered at a lethal dose of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel in vivo. This data successfully demonstrates immunoliposomes as a promising candidate for the efficient delivery of paclitaxel glycoside.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107976. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107976 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cripto-1 (CR-1)/Teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor1 (TDGF-1) is a cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein that can function either in cis (autocrine) or in trans (paracrine). The cell membrane cis form is found in lipid rafts and endosomes while the trans acting form lacking the GPI anchor is soluble. As a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/Cripto-1-FRL-1-Cryptic (CFC) family, CR-1 functions as an obligatory co-receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members, Nodal and growth and differentiation factors 1 and 3 (GDF1/3) by activating Alk4/Alk7 signaling pathways that involve Smads 2, 3 and 4. In addition, CR-1 can activate non-Smad-dependent signaling elements such as PI3K, Akt and MAPK. Both of these pathways depend upon the 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78). Finally, CR-1 can facilitate signaling through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch/Cbf-1 pathways by functioning as a chaperone protein for LRP5/6 and Notch, respectively. CR-1 is essential for early embryonic development and maintains embryonic stem cell pluripotentiality. CR-1 performs an essential role in the etiology and progression of several types of human tumors where it is expressed in a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and facilitates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this context, CR-1 can significantly enhance tumor cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Collectively, these facts suggest that CR-1 may be an attractive target in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of several types of human cancer.
    Seminars in Cancer Biology 08/2014; 29. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.08.003 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that cancer niche can perform an active role in the regulation of tumor cell maintenance and progression through extracellular vesicles-based intercellular communication. However, it has not been reported whether this vesicle-mediated communication affects the malignant transformation of normal stem cells/progenitors. We have previously reported that the conditioned medium derived from the mouse Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cell line can convert mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) into cancer stem cells (CSCs), indicating that normal stem cells when placed in an aberrant microenvironment can give rise to functionally active CSCs. Here, we focused on the contribution of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) that are secreted from LLC cells to induce the transformation of miPSCs into CSCs. We isolated tEVs from the conditioned medium of LLC cells, and then the differentiating miPSCs were exposed to tEVs for 4 weeks. The resultant tEV treated cells (miPS-LLCev) expressed Nanog and Oct3/4 proteins comparable to miPSCs. The frequency of sphere formation of the miPS-LLCev cells in suspension culture indicated that the self-renewal capacity of the miPS-LLCev cells was significant. When the miPS-LLCev cells were subcutaneously transplanted into Balb/c nude mice, malignant liposarcomas with extensive angiogenesis developed. miPS-LLCevPT and miPS-LLCevDT, the cells established from primary site and disseminated liposarcomas, respectively, showed their capacities to self-renew and differentiate into adipocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, we confirmed the secondary liposarcoma development when these cells were transplanted. Taken together, these results indicate that miPS-LLCev cells possess CSC properties. Thus, our current study provides the first evidence that tEVs have the potential to induce CSC properties in normal tissue stem cells/progenitors.
    Journal of Cancer 07/2014; 5(7):572-84. DOI:10.7150/jca.8865 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The self-renewal and differentiation properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regulated and maintained by the CSC niche. However, the mechanism of this maintenance, especially the maintenance contributed by differentiated cancer cells, remains to be fully elucidated. Recently, we have established a model of CSCs, miPS-LLCcm, from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs). In vitro cultured miPS-LLCcm cells were autonomously balanced with stem-like cells and differentiated cells including vascular endothelial cells. Under these conditions, the CSC properties appeared to be stable in the presence of the factor(s) secreted by the differentiated cells. The factor(s) activated Notch signaling and promoted self-renewal of CSCs. In addition, the secreted factor(s) appeared to regulate the differentiation lineage of CSCs. Our results indicate that the differentiated progenies of CSCs containing vascular endothelium play important roles for regulating the CSC's properties. Therefore, miPS-LLCcm cells create their own in vitro niche to maintain themselves in the hierarchy of differentiating CSCs. What's new? Cancer stem cells wreak their devastation by taking root in a supportive microenvironment that provides needed factors for both self-renewal and differentiation. But how does the microenvironment, or niche, sustain the stem cells? To investigate, these authors established a CSC system in vitro and assessed whether the progeny cells of CSCs need to stay nearby to create the stem cell niche. They found that the differentiated progeny cells do release factors that maintain the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in the stem cells, in part through the Notch signaling pathway. Understanding this dynamic will help researchers develop strategies to hinder cancer stem cells' ability to take hold.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; 135(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28648 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor EGFR-activating mutations that can be therapeutically targeted by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as erlotinib and gefitinib. Unfortunately, a subset of patients with EGFR mutations are refractory to EGFR-TKIs. Resistance to EGFR inhibitors reportedly involves SRC activation and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we have demonstrated that overexpression of CRIPTO1, an EGF-CFC protein family member, renders EGFR-TKI-sensitive and EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells resistant to erlotinib in culture and in murine xenograft models. Furthermore, tumors from NSCLC patients with EGFR-activating mutations that were intrinsically resistant to EGFR-TKIs expressed higher levels of CRIPTO1 compared with tumors from patients that were sensitive to EGFR-TKIs. Primary NSCLC cells derived from a patient with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that was intrinsically erlotinib resistant were CRIPTO1 positive, but gained erlotinib sensitivity upon loss of CRIPTO1 expression during culture. CRIPTO1 activated SRC and ZEB1 to promote EMT via microRNA-205 (miR-205) downregulation. While miR-205 depletion induced erlotinib resistance, miR-205 overexpression inhibited CRIPTO1-dependent ZEB1 and SRC activation, restoring erlotinib sensitivity. CRIPTO1-induced erlotinib resistance was directly mediated through SRC but not ZEB1; therefore, cotargeting EGFR and SRC synergistically attenuated growth of erlotinib-resistant, CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this combination may overcome intrinsic EGFR-inhibitor resistance in patients with CRIPTO1-positive, EGFR-mutated NSCLC.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2014; DOI:10.1172/JCI73048 · 13.22 Impact Factor
  • David Salomon
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 02/2014; 106(2):djt441. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt441 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, but their potential tumorigenicity is a significant challenge for the clinical use of iPS cells. Previously, we succeeded in converting miPS cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) under the conditions of tumor microenvironment. Both stem cells and tumor cells are profoundly influenced by bi-directional communication with their respective microenvironment, which dictates cell fate determination and behavior. The microenvironment derived from iPS cells has not been well studied. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of secreted factors from Nanog-mouse iPS (miPS) cells on mouse Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells that are found in the conditioned media. The results demonstrated that miPS cells secrete factors that can convert the epithelia phenotype of LLC cells to a mesenchymal phenotype, and that can promote tumorigenisity, migration and invasion. Furthermore, LLC cells that have been exposed to miPS conditioned medium became resistant to apoptosis. These various biological effects suggest that the miPS microenvironment contain factors that can promote an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through an active Snail-MMP axis or by suppressing differentiation in LLC cells.
    American Journal of Cancer Research 01/2014; 4(1):80-88. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cripto-1 is highly expressed in undifferentiated pluripotential human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Cripto-1 is re-expressed in a variety of human tumors, promoting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Cripto-1 expression is very low or absent in the adult mouse and human tissues. During embryogenesis, Cripto-1 functions as a co-receptor for TGF-β family ligands, such as Nodal, and growth and differentiation factor-1 and -3. Cripto-1 can also activate the c-src/mitogen-activated protein kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3′ kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which is strongly involved in mediating the oncogenic activity of Cripto-1. Furthermore, Cripto-1 is enriched in a stem-like cancer cell subpopulation in embryonal carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and prostate carcinoma cells. Thus, Cripto-1 has been considered to play an important role not only during early embryogenesis but also in the malignant progression of tumors. In view of that, Cripto-1 targeting therapy might have a significant potential role of targeting cancer stem cells and provide new insight into future cancer therapy.
    Cancer Stem Cells, 01/2014: chapter The Role of Cripto‐1 in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: pages 331-345; John Wiley & Sons.
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    ABSTRACT: Because three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models are more accurate than 2D cell culture models and faster and cheaper than animal models, they have become a prospective trend in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields, especially for personalized and targeted therapies. Because appropriate 3D models can be customized to mimic the in vivo microenvironment wherein various cell populations grow within an intricate but well organized extracellular matrix (ECM), they can accurately recapitulate physiological and pathophysiological progressions. The majority of cancers are carcinomas, which originate from epithelial cells, and dynamically interact with non-malignant cells including stromal cells (fibroblasts), vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes), immune cells (macrophages and mast cells), and the ECM. Employing a tumor monoclonal colony, tumor xenograft or patient cancer biopsy into an in vivo-like microenvironment, the native signaling pathways, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and cell phenotypes are preserved and our fluorescent phenotypic 3D co-culture platforms can then accurately recapitulate the tumor in vivo scenario including tumor induced angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. In this paper, we describe a robust and standardized method to co-culture a tumor colony or biopsy with different cell populations, e.g., endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, etc. The procedures for recovering cells from the co-culture for molecular analyses, imaging, and analyzing are also described. We selected ECM solubilized extract derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swam sarcoma cells. Because the 3D co-culture platforms can provide drug chemosensitivity data within 9 days that is equivalent to the results generated from mouse tumor xenograft models in 50 days, the 3D co-culture platforms are more accurate, efficient, and cost-effective and may replace animal models in the near future to predict drug efficacy, personalize therapies, prevent drug resistance, and improve the quality of life.
    Journal of Cancer 12/2013; 4(9):755-763. DOI:10.7150/jca.7813 · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 08/2013; 73(8 Supplement):LB-261-LB-261. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM2013-LB-261 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    Changge Fang · Ingalill Avis · David Salomon · Frank Cuttitta
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed novel phenotypic fluorescent three-dimensional co-culture platforms that efficiently and economically screen anti-angiogenic/anti-metastatic drugs on a high-throughput scale. Individual cell populations can be identified and isolated for protein/gene expression profiling studies and cellular movement/interactions can be tracked by time-lapse cinematography. More importantly, these platforms closely parallel the in vivo angiogenic and metastatic outcomes of a given tumor xenograft in the nude mouse model but, unlike in vivo models, our co-culture platforms produce comparable results in five to nine days. Potentially, by incorporating cancer patient biopsies, the co-culture platforms should greatly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of personalized chemotherapy.
    Journal of Cancer 06/2013; 4(5):402-15. DOI:10.7150/jca.6780 · 3.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,165.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
  • 1981–2015
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Mouse Cancer Genetics Program
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Laboratory of Cancer Prevention
      • • Cancer Genomics Research (CGR) Laboratory
      • • Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology
      • • Laboratory of Pathology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • NCI-Frederick
      Фредерик, Maryland, United States
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1978–2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology
      • • Laboratory of Pathology
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Okayama University
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2000
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1995
    • Georgetown University
      • Lombardi Cancer Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Shikoku Cancer Center
      Matuyama, Ehime, Japan
  • 1993
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1992
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • Laboratory of Cellular Hematology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1991
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1983
    • Moncrief Cancer Institute
      Fort Worth, Texas, United States