C L Hanis

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (150)942.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Top signals from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are enriched with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) identified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. We therefore hypothesized that such eQTLs might account for a dispropor-tionate share of the heritability estimated from all SNPs interrogated through GWASs. To test this hypothesis, we applied linear mixed models to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) T2D data set and to data sets representing Mexican Americans from Starr County, TX, and Mexicans from Mexico City. We estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance attributable to the additive effect of all variants interrogated in these GWASs, as well as a much smaller set of variants identified as eQTLs in human adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and lymphoblastoid cell lines. The narrow-sense heritability explained by all interrogated SNPs in each of these data sets was substantially greater than the heritability accounted for by genome-wide-significant SNPs (~10%); GWAS SNPs explained over 50% of phenotypic variance in the WTCCC, Starr County, and Mexico City data sets. The estimate of heritability attributable to cross-tissue eQTLs was greater in the WTCCC data set and among lean Hispanics, whereas adipose eQTLs significantly explained heritability among Hispanics with a body mass index R 30. These results support an important role for regulatory variants in the genetic component of T2D susceptibility, particularly for eQTLs that elicit effects across insulin-responsive peripheral tissues.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2014; · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances of modern sensing and sequencing technologies generate a deluge of high dimensional space-temporal physiological and next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Physiological traits are observed either as continuous random functions, or on a dense grid and referred to as function-valued traits. Both physiological and NGS data are highly correlated data with their inherent order, spacing, and functional nature which are ignored by traditional summary-based univariate and multivariate regression methods designed for quantitative genetic analysis of scalar trait and common variants. To capture morphological and dynamic features of the data and utilize their dependent structure, we propose a functional linear model (FLM) in which a trait curve is modeled as a response function, the genetic variation in a genomic region or gene is modeled as a functional predictor, and the genetic effects are modeled as a function of both time and genomic position (FLMF) for genetic analysis of function-valued trait with both GWAS and NGS data. By extensive simulations, we demonstrate that the FLMF has the correct type 1 error rates and much higher power to detect association than the existing methods. The FLMF is applied to sleep data from Starr County health studies where oxygen saturation were measured in 22,670 seconds on average for 833 individuals. We found 65 genes that were significantly associated with oxygen saturation functional trait with P-values ranging from 2.40E-06 to 2.53E-21. The results clearly demonstrate that the FLMF substantially outperforms the traditional genetic models with scalar trait.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The purpose was to describe patterns of home self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in a diabetes self-management education protocol. Research questions were as follows: (1) What were the patterns and rates of home glucose self-monitoring over the 6-month course of the study? (2) What were the differences in monitoring rates between experimental and control groups? (3) What were the relationships between rates of monitoring and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), gender, and years with diabetes? Subjects and Methods: We used a randomized (by group) repeated-measures pretest/posttest control group design. Glucometer data from an experimental group (diabetes self-management education plus nurse case management) and a comparison group (diabetes self-management education only) were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: Overall average SMBG rates were low. Experimental and control group monitoring levels were not significantly different. More females than males never monitored glucose values, but more females than males checked at least one time per week. Those participants who checked their glucose levels more than once per week had diabetes for a longer period of time. Rates of monitoring were not strongly associated with A1C levels at 3 and 6 months, but at 6 months A1C levels were statistically significantly different based on whether or not individuals monitored their glucose levels (P=0.03, n=71). Conclusions: SMBG rates were low in this study despite SMBG education and access to free glucometers and test strips. The lower rates of SMBG may reflect the effects of unexpected environmental challenges, but exact causes remain unclear. Reasons for low rates of SMBG need to be explored further, especially in underserved communities.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 10/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Sharon A Brown, Craig L Hanis
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose is to provide an overview of a 20-year research program aimed at testing diabetes self-management education interventions culturally tailored for Mexican Americans residing in an impoverished rural community on the Texas-Mexico border.Methods The research program involved focus group interviews to obtain community input, pilot testing to refine instruments and interventions, and community-based randomized controlled trials to examine intervention effects. Here the authors summarize lessons learned related to the (1) overall effects of culturally tailored diabetes self-management education; (2) impact of culture on study design, intervention development, health outcomes, and community acceptance; (3) benefits of and findings from multiple focus groups held over time in the community; and (4) personal and cultural motivators for behavioral change that were evident among study participants.ResultsPostintervention reductions in A1C ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 percentage points. Individuals who attended ≥ 50% of intervention sessions achieved a 6-percentage point reduction in A1C. Intervention teams included bilingual Mexican American nurses, dietitians, and promotoras, all recruited from the local community. Focus group interviews indicated that a traditional promotora model was not acceptable to the participants who wanted knowledgeable health professionals, or perceived authority figures, to lead intervention sessions while promotoras provided logistical support. Free glucometers and strips, family participation, and interpersonal dynamics within intervention groups motivated individuals to make healthier lifestyle choices.Conclusions Culturally tailored diabetes interventions are effective in improving the health of socially disadvantaged minorities who bear a disproportional burden of type 2 diabetes, and these interventions are cost-effective.
    The Diabetes Educator 04/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10−6), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (−0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10−4). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10−6), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (−0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10−4). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry.
    Nature Genetics 03/2014; 46(3):234-244. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To detect novel loci with age-dependent effects on fasting (≥8 h) levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides using 3600 African Americans, 1283 Asians, 3218 European Americans, and 2026 Mexican Americans from the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). Methods Within each subgroup (defined by network, race, and sex), we employed stepwise linear regression (retention p ≤ 0.05) to adjust lipid levels for age, age-squared, age-cubed, body-mass-index, current smoking status, current drinking status, field center, estrogen therapy (females only), as well as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antilipidemic medication use. For each trait, we pooled the standardized male and female residuals within each network and race and fit a generalized variance components model that incorporated gene–age interactions. We conducted FBPP-wide and race-specific meta-analyses by combining the p-values of each linkage marker across subgroups using a modified Fisher's method. Results We identified seven novel loci with age-dependent effects; four total cholesterol loci from the meta-analysis of Mexican Americans (on chromosomes 2q24.1, 4q21.21, 8q22.2, and 12p11.23) and three high-density lipoprotein loci from the meta-analysis of all FBPP subgroups (on chromosomes 1p12, 14q11.2, and 21q21.1). These loci lacked significant genome-wide linkage or association evidence in the literature and had logarithm of odds (LOD) score ≥ 3 in the meta-analysis with LOD ≥ 1 in at least two network and race subgroups (exclusively of non-European descent). Conclusion Incorporating gene–age interactions into the analysis of lipids using multi-ethnic cohorts can enhance gene discovery. These interaction loci can guide the selection of families for sequencing studies of lipid-associated variants.
    Atherosclerosis 01/2014; 235(1):84–93. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Performing genetic studies in multiple human populations can identify disease risk alleles that are common in one population but rare in others, with the potential to illuminate pathophysiology, health disparities, and the population genetic origins of disease alleles. Here we analysed 9.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of 8,214 Mexicans and other Latin Americans: 3,848 with type 2 diabetes and 4,366 non-diabetic controls. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identified a novel locus associated with type 2 diabetes at genome-wide significance spanning the solute carriers SLC16A11 and SLC16A13 (P = 3.9 × 10−13; odds ratio (OR) = 1.29). The association was stronger in younger, leaner people with type 2 diabetes, and replicated in independent samples (P = 1.1 × 10−4; OR = 1.20). The risk haplotype carries four amino acid substitutions, all in SLC16A11; it is present at ~50% frequency in Native American samples and ~10% in east Asian, but is rare in European and African samples. Analysis of an archaic genome sequence indicated that the risk haplotype introgressed into modern humans via admixture with Neanderthals. The SLC16A11 messenger RNA is expressed in liver, and V5-tagged SLC16A11 protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of SLC16A11 in heterologous cells alters lipid metabolism, most notably causing an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol levels. Despite type 2 diabetes having been well studied by genome-wide association studies in other populations, analysis in Mexican and Latin American individuals identified SLC16A11 as a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes with a possible role in triacylglycerol metabolism.
    Nature 12/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal diabetes mellitus is known to have over 20 different monogenic causes. A syndrome of permanent neonatal diabetes along with primary microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern associated with severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy was recently described in two independent reports in which disease-causing homozygous mutations were identified in the immediate early response-3 interacting protein-1 (IER3IP1) gene. We report here an affected male born to a non-consanguineous couple who was noted to have insulin-requiring permanent neonatal diabetes, microcephaly, and generalized seizures. He was also found to have cortical blindness, severe developmental delay and numerous dysmorphic features. He experienced a slow improvement but not abrogation of seizure frequency and severity on numerous anti-epileptic agents. His clinical course was further complicated by recurrent respiratory tract infections and he died at 8 years of age. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA from the proband and parents. He was found to be a compound heterozygote with two different mutations in IER3IP1: p.Val21Gly (V21G) and a novel frameshift mutation p.Phe27fsSer*25. IER3IP1 is a highly conserved protein with marked expression in the cerebral cortex and in beta cells. This is the first reported case of compound heterozygous mutations within IER3IP1 resulting in neonatal diabetes. The triad of microcephaly, generalized seizures, and permanent neonatal diabetes should prompt screening for mutations in IER3IP1. As mutations in genes such as NEUROD1 and PTF1A could cause a similar phenotype, next-generation sequencing approaches-such as exome sequencing reported here-may be an efficient means of uncovering a diagnosis in future cases.
    Pediatric Diabetes 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of the study was to (1) characterize leptin in Mexican Americans with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, (2) examine relationships among leptin and indicators of diabetes status (body mass index and A1C), and (3) explore the effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management education intervention on leptin.Methods In Starr County, an impoverished Texas-Mexico border community, 252 Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes were recruited to test a diabetes self-management education intervention culturally tailored in terms of language, dietary recommendations, social emphasis, family participation, and incorporation of cultural health beliefs. Groups of 8 participants were randomized to experimental or wait-listed control conditions. Outcomes were measured at 3, 6, and 12 months; by 12 months, 109 had complete leptin data.ResultsMost participants were women and, on average, 55 years of age, diagnosed with diabetes for 8 years, obese, and in poor glycemic control. Three variables-body mass index, sex, A1C-explained 36% of the variance in baseline leptin; there were no intervention effects on leptin. Sex, time, and gender × time interaction effects on leptin were statistically significant; greater increases in leptin over time occurred in women compared to men. In women, fasting blood glucose changes from baseline to 12 months significantly predicted leptin changes from baseline to 12 months; in men, body mass index changes predicted leptin change.Conclusions With increasing obesity rates, further research is warranted to determine if leptin is a useful intervention target in type 2 diabetes.
    The Diabetes Educator 09/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, bi-allelic mutations in the transcription factor RFX6 were described as the cause of a rare condition characterized by neonatal diabetes with pancreatic and biliary hypoplasia and duodenal/jejunal atresia. A male infant developed severe hyperglycemia (446 mg/dL) within 24 h of birth. Acute abdominal concerns by day five necessitated exploratory surgery that revealed duodenal atresia, gallbladder agenesis, annular pancreas and intestinal malrotation. He also exhibited chronic diarrhea and feeding intolerance, cholestatic jaundice, and subsequent liver failure. He died of sepsis at four months old while awaiting liver transplantation. The phenotype of neonatal diabetes with intestinal atresia and biliary agenesis clearly pointed to RFX6 as the causative gene; indeed, whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous RFX6 mutation c.779A>C; p.Lys260Thr (K260T). This missense mutation also changes the consensus 5' splice donor site before intron 7 and is thus predicted to cause disruption in splicing. Both parents, who were not known to be related, were heterozygous carriers. Targeted genetic testing based on consideration of phenotypic features may reveal a cause among the many genes now associated with heterogeneous forms of monogenic neonatal diabetes. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using modern sequencing technology to identify one such rare cause. Continued research is needed to determine the possible cost-effectiveness of this approach, especially when clear phenotypic clues are absent. Further study of patients with RFX6 mutations should clarify its role in pancreatic, intestinal and enteroendocrine cellular development and explain features such as the diarrhea exhibited in our case.
    Pediatric Diabetes 08/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously localized type 2 diabetes (T2D)-susceptibility genes to five chromosomal regions through a genome-wide linkage scan of T2D and age of diagnosis (AOD) in the African American subset of the GENNID sample. To follow up these findings, we repeated the linkage and association analysis using genotypes on an additional 9203 fine-mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected to tag genes under the linkage peaks. In each of the five regions, we confirmed linkage and inferred the presence of 2 susceptibility genes. The evidence of multiple susceptibility genes consisted of: (1) multiple linkage peaks in four of the five regions; and (2) association of T2D and AOD with SNPs within 2 genes in every region. The associated genes included 3 previously reported to associate with T2D or related traits (GRB10, NEDD4L, LIPG) and 24 novel candidate genes, including genes in lipid metabolism (ACOXL) and cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion (MAGI2, CLDN4, CTNNA2).Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 4 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.21.
    Journal of Human Genetics 04/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT >40 IU/mL) is a marker of liver injury but provides little insight into etiology. We aimed to identify and stratify risk factors associated with elevated ALT in a randomly selected population with a high prevalence of elevated ALT (39%), obesity (49%) and diabetes (30%). Two machine learning methods, the support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian logistic regression (BLR), were used to capture risk factors in a community cohort of 1532 adults from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC). A total of 28 predictor variables were used in the prediction models. The recently identified genetic marker rs738409 on the PNPLA3 gene was genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. The four major risk factors for elevated ALT were fasting plasma insulin level and insulin resistance, increased BMI and total body weight, plasma triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol, and diastolic hypertension. In spite of the highly significant association of rs738409 in females, the role of rs738409 in the prediction model is minimal, compared to other epidemiological risk factors. Age and drug and alcohol consumption were not independent determinants of elevated ALT in this analysis. The risk factors most strongly associated with elevated ALT in this population are components of the metabolic syndrome and point to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This population-based model identifies the likely cause of liver disease without the requirement of individual pathological diagnosis of liver diseases. Use of such a model can greatly contribute to a population-based approach to prevention of liver disease.
    Archives of medical research 09/2012; 43(6):482-8. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Genetic variants in 296 genes in regions identified through admixture mapping of hypertension, BMI, and lipids were assessed for association with hypertension, blood pressure (BP), BMI, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). METHODS:: This study identified coding SNPs identified from HapMap2 data that were located in genes on chromosomes 5, 6, 8, and 21, wherein ancestry association evidence for hypertension, BMI, or HDL-C was identified in previous admixture mapping studies. Genotyping was performed in 1733 unrelated African-Americans from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Family Blood Pressure Project, and gene-based association analyses were conducted for hypertension, SBP, DBP, BMI, and HDL-C. A gene score based on the number of minor alleles of each SNP in a gene was created and used for gene-based regression analyses, adjusting for age, age, sex, local marker ancestry, and BMI, as applicable. An individual's African ancestry estimated from 2507 ancestry-informative markers was also adjusted for to eliminate any confounding due to population stratification. RESULTS:: CXADR (rs437470) on chromosome 21 was associated with SBP and DBP with or without adjusting for local ancestry (P < 0.0006). F2RL1 (rs631465) on chromosome 5 was associated with BMI (P = 0.0005). Local ancestry in these regions was associated with the respective traits as well. CONCLUSION:: This study suggests that CXADR and F2RL1 likely play important roles in BP and obesity variation, respectively; and these findings are consistent with those of other studies, so replication and functional analyses are necessary.
    Journal of Hypertension 08/2012; 30(10):1970-1976. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE An elevated insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) is more commonly seen in the Mexican American population than in European populations. We report quantitative ancestral effects within a Mexican American population, and we correlate ancestral components with HOMA-IR.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed ancestral analysis in 1,551 participants of the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort by genotyping 103 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). These AIMs allow determination of the percentage (0-100%) ancestry from three major continental populations, i.e., European, African, and Amerindian.RESULTSWe observed that predominantly Amerindian ancestral components were associated with increased HOMA-IR (β = 0.124, P = 1.64 × 10(-7)). The correlation was more significant in males (Amerindian β = 0.165, P = 5.08 × 10(-7)) than in females (Amerindian β = 0.079, P = 0.019).CONCLUSIONS This unique study design demonstrates how genomic markers for quantitative ancestral information can be used in admixed populations to predict phenotypic traits such as insulin resistance.
    Diabetes care 08/2012; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resting ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Simple markers of abnormal autonomic tone have also been associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in some populations. Data on these electrocardiographic abnormalities and correlations with coronary risk factors are lacking among Mexican Americans wherein these conditions are prevalent. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalent resting electrocardiographic abnormalities among community-dwelling Mexican Americans, and correlate these findings with coronary risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Study subjects (n=1280) were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort comprised of community-dwelling Mexican Americans living in Brownsville, Texas at the United States-Mexico border. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were defined as presence of ST/T wave abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, abnormal Q waves, and left bundle branch block. Parameters that reflect autonomic tone, such as heart rate-corrected QT interval and resting heart rate, were also measured. Ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities were more prevalent among older persons and those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Subjects in the highest quartiles of QTc interval and resting heart rate were also more likely to be diabetic, hypertensive, obese, or have the metabolic syndrome. Among Mexican Americans, persons with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, longer QTc intervals, and higher resting heart rates. A resting electrocardiogram can play a complementary role in the comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk in this minority population.
    World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases 04/2012; 2(2):50-56.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global disease, and diabetes, which is documented to increase susceptibility to TB threefold, is also becoming pandemic. This susceptibility has been attracting extensive research interest. The increased risk of TB in diabetes may serve as a unique model to understand host susceptibility to specific pathogens in humans. To examine this rationale, we investigated the expression of reported TB candidate genes in a longitudinal diabetes study. Two genes, HK2 and CD28, emerged as potential culprits in diabetes-increased TB susceptibility.
    The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 01/2012; 16(3):370-2. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia are common chronic diseases among Hispanics, a group projected to comprise 30% of the US population by 2050. Mexican Americans are the largest ethnically distinct subgroup among Hispanics. We assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for undiagnosed and untreated diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia among Mexican Americans in Cameron County, Texas. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data collected from 2003 to 2008 in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort, a randomly selected, community-recruited cohort of 2,000 Mexican American adults aged 18 or older, to assess prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia; to assess the extent to which these diseases had been previously diagnosed based on self-report; and to determine whether participants who self-reported having these diseases were receiving treatment. We also assessed social and economic factors associated with prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. Approximately 70% of participants had 1 or more of the 3 chronic diseases studied. Of these, at least half had had 1 of these 3 diagnosed, and at least half of those who had had a disease diagnosed were not being treated. Having insurance coverage was positively associated with having the 3 diseases diagnosed and treated, as were higher income and education level. Although having insurance coverage is associated with receiving treatment, important social and cultural barriers remain. Failure to provide widespread preventive medicine at the primary care level will have costly consequences.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2012; 9:110298. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined genetic associations of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and liver aminotransferases in an extensively documented, randomly recruited Mexican American population at high risk of liver disease. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the PNPLA3 gene (i.e., rs738409 and rs2281135) were genotyped in 1532 individuals. Population stratification was corrected by the genotyping of 103 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for Mexican Americans. Both PNPLA3 SNPs showed highly significant association with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, but was also, in males, associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Haplotypic association test of the two SNPs suggested stronger genetic association with rs738409 than rs2281135. Obvious sex effects were observed: rs738409-sex interaction in ALT levels P = 8.37 x 10(-4); rs738409-sex interaction in AST levels P = 5.03 x 10(-3). This population study highlights a sex-specific association of PNPLA3 polymorphisms and elevated liver enzymes in a population-based study, independent of common pathological factors of the metabolic syndrome. The strong genetic association found in women ≤ 50 years old, but not in women > 50 years old, suggests that sex hormones may mediate the sex effect.
    Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale 01/2012; 35(4):E237-45. · 1.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
942.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2014
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • • Human Genetics Center
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • School of Nursing
      Austin, TX, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College
      • College of Nursing
      Brownsville, Texas, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Human Genetics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2009
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science
      Newark, NJ, United States
  • 1998–2009
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006
    • Texas A&M University System Health Science Center
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Bryan, TX, United States
  • 1996–2005
    • University of Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Texas Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2000
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1996–2000
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1989
    • University of New Mexico
      • School of Medicine
      Albuquerque, NM, United States