Stijn Vandenberghe

ETH Zurich, Zürich, ZH, Switzerland

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Publications (43)94.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lumped parameter models have been employed for decades to simulate important hemodynamic couplings between a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and the native circulation. However, these studies seldom consider the pathological descending limb of the Frank-Starling response of the overloaded ventricle. This study introduces a dilated heart failure model featuring a unimodal end systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) to address this critical shortcoming. The resulting hemodynamic response to mechanical circulatory support are illustrated through numerical simulations of a rotodynamic, continuous flow ventricular assist device (cfVAD) coupled to systemic and pulmonary circulations with baroreflex control. The model further incorporated septal interaction to capture the influence of left ventricular (LV) unloading on right ventricular function. Four heart failure conditions were simulated (LV and bi-ventricular failure with/without pulmonary hypertension) in addition to normal baseline. Several metrics of LV function, including cardiac output and stroke work, exhibited a unimodal response whereby initial unloading improved function, and further unloading depleted preload reserve thereby reducing ventricular output. The concept of extremal loading was introduced to reflect the loading condition in which the intrinsic LV stroke work is maximized. Simulation of bi-ventricular failure with pulmonary hypertension revealed inadequacy of LV support alone. These simulations motivate the implementation of an extremum tracking feedback controller to potentially optimize ventricular recovery.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85234. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current article presents a novel physiological control algorithm for ventricular assist devices (VADs), which is inspired by the preload recruitable stroke work. This controller adapts the hydraulic power output of the VAD to the end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle. We tested this controller on a hybrid mock circulation where the left ventricular volume (LVV) is known, i.e., the problem of measuring the LVV is not addressed in the current article. Experiments were conducted to compare the response of the controller with the physiological and with the pathological circulation, with and without VAD support. A sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the influence of the controller parameters and the influence of the quality of the LVV signal on the performance of the control algorithm. The results show that the controller induces a response similar to the physiological circulation and effectively prevents over- and underpumping, i.e., ventricular suction and backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle, respectively. The same results are obtained in the case of a disturbed LVV signal. The results presented in the current article motivate the development of a robust, long-term stable sensor to measure the LVV.
    Artificial Organs 11/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of pulsatility is a recurring topic of debate in mechanical circulatory support. Lack of pulsatility has been identified as a possible factor responsible for adverse events and has also demonstrated a role in myocardial perfusion and cardiac recovery. A commonly used method for restoring pulsatility with rotodynamic blood pumps (RBPs) is to modulate the speed profile, synchronized to the cardiac cycle. This introduces additional parameters that influence the (un)loading of the heart, including the timing (phase shift) between the native cardiac cycle and the pump pulses, and the amplitude of speed modulation. In this study, the impact of these parameters upon the heart-RBP interaction was examined in terms of the pressure head-flow (HQ) diagram. The measurements were conducted using a rotodynamic Deltastream DP2 pump in a validated hybrid mock circulation with baroreflex function. The pump was operated with a sinusoidal speed profile, synchronized to the native cardiac cycle. The simulated ventriculo-aortic cannulation showed that the level of (un)loading and the shape of the HQ loops strongly depend on the phase shift. The HQ loops displayed characteristic shapes depending on the phase shift. Increased contribution of native contraction (increased ventricular stroke work [WS ]) resulted in a broadening of the loops. It was found that the previously described linear relationship between WS and the area of the HQ loop for constant pump speeds becomes a family of linear relationships, whose slope depends on the phase shift.
    Artificial Organs 07/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: /st>Cardiac output (CO) measurement with lithium dilution (COLD) has not been fully validated in sheep using precise ultrasonic flow probe technology (COUFP). Sheep generate important cardiovascular research models and the use of COLD has become more popular in experimental settings. /st>Ultrasonic transit-time perivascular flow probes were surgically implanted on the pulmonary artery of 13 sheep. Paired COLD readings were taken at six time points, before and after implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and compared with COUFP recorded just after lithium injection. /st>The mean COLD was 5.7 litre min(-1) (range 3.8-9.6 litre min(-1)) and mean COUFP 5.9 litre min(-1) (range 4.0-9.2 litre min(-1)). The bias (standard deviation) was 0.3 (1.0) litre min(-1) [5.1 (16.9)%] and limits of agreement (LOA) were -1.7 to 2.3 litre min(-1) (-28.8 to 39.0%) with a percentage error (PE) of 34.4%. Data to assess trending [rate (95% confidence intervals)] included a 78 (62-93)% concordance rate in the four-quadrant plot (n=27). In the half moon polar plot (n=19), the mean polar angle was +5°, the radial LOA were -49 to +35° and 68 (47-89)% of data points fell within 22.5° of the mean polar angle. Both tests indicated moderate to poor trending ability. /st>COLD is not precise when evaluated against COUFP in sheep based on the statistical criteria set, but the results are comparable with previously published animal studies.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 07/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2013; 145(4):1145-6. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular assist devices are blood pumps that offer an option to support the circulation of patients with severe heart failure. Since a failing heart has a remaining pump function, its interaction with the ventricular assist device influences the hemodynamics. Ideally, the hearts action is taken into account for actuating the device such that the device is synchronized to the natural cardiac cycle. To realize this in practice, a reliable real-time algorithm for the automatic synchronization of the ventricular assist device to the heart rate is required. This paper defines the tasks such an algorithm needs to fulfill: the automatic detection of irregular heart beats and the feedback control of the phase shift between the systolic phases of the heart and the assist device. We demonstrate a possible solution to these problems and analyze its performance in two steps. First, the algorithm is tested using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Second, the algorithm is implemented in a controller for a pulsatile and a continuousflow ventricular assist device. These devices are connected to a hybrid mock circulation where three test scenarios are evaluated. The proposed algorithm ensures a reliable synchronization of the ventricular assist device to the heart cycle, while being insensitive to irregularities in the heart rate.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 03/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Current pulsatile ventricular assist devices operate asynchronous with the left ventricle in fixed-rate or fill-to-empty modes because electrocardiogram-triggered modes have been abandoned. We hypothesize that varying the ejection delay in the synchronized mode yields more precise control of hemodynamics and left ventricular loading. This allows for a refined management that may be clinically beneficial. METHODS: Eight sheep received a Thoratec paracorporeal ventricular assist device (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, Calif) via ventriculo-aortic cannulation. Left ventricular pressure and volume, aortic pressure, pulmonary flow, pump chamber pressure, and pump inflow and outflow were recorded. The pump was driven by a clinical pneumatic drive unit (Medos Medizintechnik AG, Stolberg, Germany) synchronously with the native R-wave. The start of pump ejection was delayed between 0% and 100% of the cardiac period in 10% increments. For each of these delays, hemodynamic variables were compared with baseline data using paired t tests. RESULTS: The location of the minimum of stroke work was observed at a delay of 10% (soon after aortic valve opening), resulting in a median of 43% reduction in stroke work compared with baseline. Maximum stroke work occurred at a median delay of 70% with a median stroke work increase of 11% above baseline. Left ventricular volume unloading expressed by end-diastolic volume was most pronounced for copulsation (delay 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The timing of pump ejection in synchronized mode yields control over left ventricular energetics and can be a method to achieve gradual reloading of a recoverable left ventricle. The traditionally suggested counterpulsation is not optimal in ventriculo-aortic cannulation when maximum unloading is desired.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 01/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system has been developed and optimized using experimental data obtained from 13 healthy subjects during graded head-up tilt (HUT) from the supine position to [Formula: see text]. The model includes descriptions of the left and right heart, direct ventricular interaction through the septum and pericardium, the systemic and pulmonary circulations, nonlinear pressure volume relationship of the lower body compartment, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, as well as autoregulatory mechanisms. A number of important features, including the separate effects of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes, and autoregulation in the lower body, as well as diastolic ventricular interaction through the pericardium have been included and tested for their significance. Furthermore, the individual effect of parameter associated with heart failure, including LV and RV contractility, baseline systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, total blood volume, LV diastolic stiffness and reflex gain on HUT response have also been investigated. Our fitted model compares favorably with our experimental measurements and published literature at a range of tilt angles, in terms of both global and regional hemodynamic variables. Compared to the normal condition, a simulated congestive heart failure condition produced a blunted response to HUT with regards to the percentage changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, end diastolic volume and effector response (i.e., heart contractility, venous unstressed volume, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate) with progressive tilting.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77357. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel mock circulation for the evaluation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), which is based on a hardware-in-the-loop concept. A numerical model of the human blood circulation runs in real-time and computes instantaneous pressure, volume, and flow rate values. The VAD to be tested is connected to a numerical-hydraulic interface, which allows the interaction between the VAD and the numerical model of the circulation. The numerical-hydraulic interface consists of two pressure-controlled reservoirs, which apply the computed pressure values from the model to the VAD, and a flow probe to feed the resulting VAD flow rate back to the model. Experimental results are provided to show the proper interaction between a numerical model of the circulation and a mixed-flow blood pump.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 11/2012; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Energy-harvesting devices attract wide interest as power supplies of today's medical implants. Their long lifetime will spare patients from repeated surgical interventions. They also offer the opportunity to further miniaturize existing implants such as pacemakers, defibrillators or recorders of bio signals. A mass imbalance oscillation generator, which consists of a clockwork from a commercially available automatic wrist watch, was used as energy harvesting device to convert the kinetic energy from the cardiac wall motion to electrical energy. An MRI-based motion analysis of the left ventricle revealed basal regions to be energetically most favorable for the rotating unbalance of our harvester. A mathematical model was developed as a tool for optimizing the device's configuration. The model was validated by an in vitro experiment where an arm robot accelerated the harvesting device by reproducing the cardiac motion. Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment, the device was affixed onto a sheep heart for 1 h. The generated power in both experiments-in vitro (30 μW) and in vivo (16.7 μW)-is sufficient to power modern pacemakers.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 07/2012; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Rotary blood pumps (RBPs) running at a constant speed are routinely used for the mechanical support of the heart in various clinical applications, from short-term use in heart-lung machines to long-term support of a failing heart. Their operating range is delineated by suction and regurgitation events, leaving limited control on the cardiac workload. This study investigates whether different ratios of systolic/diastolic support are advantageous over a constant-speed operation. METHODS: In order to effectively control the load on the heart, this study aimed at developing a pulsatile control algorithm for rotary pumps to investigate the impact of pump speed modulation during systole and diastole on the left ventricle unloading. The CentriMag(TM) RBP with a modified controller was implanted in four sheep via a left thoracotomy and cannulated from the ventricular apex to the descending aorta. To modulate the pump speed synchronized with the heartbeat, custom-made real-time software detected the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram and controlled the pump speed during systole and diastole. Four different speed modulations with the same average speed but different systolic and diastolic speeds were compared with the baseline and the constant speed support. Left ventricular (LV) pressure and volume, coronary flow and pump flow were analysed to examine the influence of the pump speed modulation. RESULTS: Pulsatile setting reduces the cardiac workload to 64% of the baseline and 72% of the constant speed value. Maximum unloading is obtained with the highest speed during diastole and high-pulse amplitude. End-diastolic volume in the pulsatile modes varied from 85 to 94% of the baseline and 96 to 107% of the constant speed value. Consequently, the mechanical load on the heart can be adjusted to provide assuagement, which may lead to myocardial recovery. The higher pump speed during systole results in an increase in the pulse pressure up to 140% compared with the constant speed. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is an initial step to more accurate speed modulation of RBPs to optimize the cardiac load control. To develop future control algorithms, the concept of high speed during diastole having a maximal unloading effect on the LV and high speed during systole increasing the pulse pressure is worth considering.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 06/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Mismatches between pump output and venous return in a continuous-flow ventricular assist device may elicit episodes of ventricular suction. This research describes a series of in vitro experiments to characterize the operating conditions under which the EVAHEART centrifugal blood pump (Sun Medical Technology Research Corp., Nagano, Japan) can be operated with minimal concern regarding left ventricular (LV) suction. Methods: The pump was interposed into a pneumatically driven pulsatile mock circulatory system (MCS) in the ventricular apex to aorta configuration. Under varying conditions of preload, afterload, and systolic pressure, the speed of the pump was increased step-wise until suction was observed. Identification of suction was based on pump inlet pressure. Results: In the case of reduced LV systolic pressure, reduced preload (=10 mmHg), and afterload (=60 mmHg), suction was observed for speeds =2,200 rpm. However, suction did not occur at any speed (up to a maximum speed of 2,400 rpm) when preload was kept within 10-14 mmHg and afterload =80 mmHg. Although in vitro experiments cannot replace in vivo models, the results indicated that ventricular suction can be avoided if sufficient preload and afterload are maintained. Conclusion: Conditions of hypovolemia and/or hypotension may increase the risk of suction at the highest speeds, irrespective of the native ventricular systolic pressure. However, in vitro guidelines are not directly transferrable to the clinical situation; therefore, patient-specific evaluation is recommended, which can be aided by ultrasonography at various points in the course of support.
    The International journal of artificial organs 04/2012; 35(4):263-271. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical support of a failing heart is typically performed with rotary blood pumps running at constant speed, which results in a limited control on cardiac workload and nonpulsatile hemodynamics. A potential solution to overcome these limitations is to modulate the pump speed to create pulses. This study aims at developing a pulsatile control algorithm for rotary pumps, while investigating its effect on left ventricle unloading and the hemodynamics. The CentriMag (Levitronix GmbH, Zürich, Switzerland) rotary blood pump was implanted in 5 sheep and cannulated from the ventricular apex to the descending aorta. A modified controller was connected to the pump yielding direct speed control via analog voltage. Pump speed modulation patterns, including sine, saw tooth, triangle, and square waveforms with 2 different phase shifts, were synchronized with heartbeat. Various hemodynamic parameters, such as left ventricular pressure and volume, coronary flow, and arterial pressure, were analyzed to examine the influence of pump support. The pump speed modulation significantly affected left ventricular pressure and volume and arterial pressure, whereas coronary flow was not influenced by pump support mode. Stroke work in the pulsatile modes varied from 69% to 91% of baseline value and from 74% to 96% of constant speed value. Consequently, cardiac workload can be adjusted to provide relaxation, which may lead to myocardial recovery. A synchronized pulsing rotary blood pump offers a simple and powerful control modality for heart unloading. This technique provides pulsatile hemodynamics, which is more physiologic than continuous blood flow and may be useful for perfusion of the other organs.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2012; 144(4):970-7. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment of mitral leaflet prolapse using artificial neochordae shows excellent outcomes. Upcoming devices attempt the same treatment in a minimally invasive way but target the left ventricular apex as an anchoring point, rather than the tip of the corresponding papillary muscle. In this study, cine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare these 2 different anchoring positions and their dynamic relationship with the mitral leaflets. Eleven healthy volunteers (mean age, 31 years; 6 female; mean ejection fraction, 62%) were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla, cine steady free precession technique with retrospective gating), whereby dedicated software enabled assessment of the physiologic distances among 3 anchoring sites (anterior papillary muscle, posterior papillary muscle, and apex) and the plane of the mitral annulus at the level of leaflet coaptation. These distances were measured in systole and diastole, and the performance of virtual neochordae was analyzed for the 3 potential anchoring sites. Length difference between systole and diastole for the 3 measured distances were 0.19 ± 0.11 cm (5.9% ± 3.4%) for the anterior papillary muscle, 0.19 ± 0.09 cm (6.7% ± 3.6%) for the posterior papillary muscle, and 1.52 ± 0.18 cm (17.8% ± 2.8%) for the left ventricular apex (P = .001). Virtual neochordae between the leaflet and the left ventricular apex were first adjusted in systole to achieve leaflet coaptation. Leaflet tear in diastole can only be avoided if the width of the attached leaflet is larger than the systole-diastole length difference. On the other hand, if virtual neochordae are adjusted in diastole to avoid leaflet tear, residual leaflet prolapse during systole can result. Because the systole-diastole length difference for papillary muscle anchored chordae is smaller than for apical chordae by a factor 10, there is a strongly reduced risk of prolapse or tearing and the leaflet width is unimportant. Furthermore, if the neochordae attached to the anterior mitral leaflet uses the apex as a distal anchoring site, the angle α between the aortic valve plane and this mitral leaflet is significantly reduced in diastole and therefore increases the risk of systolic anterior motion. Anchoring of neochordae at the papillary muscles, thereby mimicking the real anatomy, should be preferred over the left ventricular apex. Further analysis of dilated hearts and papillary muscle displacement is necessary to include the whole spectrum of pathologies.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2011; 143(4 Suppl):S78-81. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of positioning and geometry of ventricular cannulas for contemporary continuous flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) was evaluated in a non-beating isolated heart preparation with borescopic visualization. Preload and LVAD flow were varied to evaluate degrees of ventricular decompression up to the point of ventricular collapse. The performance of a flanged cannula was compared to a conventional bevel-tipped cannula: quantitatively by the maximal flow attainable, and qualitatively by visualization of fluid tracer particles within the ventricular chamber. Three forms of ventricular suck-down occurred: concentric collapse, gradual entrainment and instantaneous entrainment. In some circumstances, unstable oscillations of the ventricle were observed prior to complete collapse. Under conditions of low preload, the flanged cannula demonstrated less positional sensitivity, provided greater flow, and exhibited fewer areas of stagnation than the beveled cannula. These observations warrant further consideration of a flanged ventricular cannula to mitigate complications encountered with conventional cannulae.
    Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology 09/2011; 2(3):203-211. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of time derivatives of flow rate and rotational speed was investigated on the mathematical modeling of a rotary blood pump (RBP). The basic model estimates the pressure head of the pump as a dependent variable using measured flow and speed as predictive variables. Performance of the model was evaluated by adding time derivative terms for flow and speed. First, to create a realistic working condition, the Levitronix CentriMag RBP was implanted in a sheep. All parameters from the model were physically measured and digitally acquired over a wide range of conditions, including pulsatile speed. Second, a statistical analysis of the different variables (flow, speed, and their time derivatives) based on multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the significant variables for pressure head estimation. Finally, different mathematical models were used to show the effect of time derivative terms on the performance of the models. In order to evaluate how well the estimated pressure head using different models fits the measured pressure head, root mean square error and correlation coefficient were used. The results indicate that inclusion of time derivatives of flow and speed can improve model accuracy, but only minimally.
    Artificial Organs 08/2011; 35(8):825-32. · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • S Vandenberghe, F Shu, D K Arnold, J F Antaki
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular assist devices (VADs) and total artificial hearts have been in development for the last 50 years. Since their inception, simulators of the circulation with different degrees of complexity have been produced to test these devices in vitro. Currently, a new path has been taken with the extensive efforts to develop paediatric VADs, which require totally different design constraints. This paper presents the manufacturing details of an economical simulator of the systemic paediatric circulation. This simulator allows the insertion of a paediatric VAD, includes a pumping ventricle, and is adjustable within the paediatric range. Rather than focusing on complexity and physiological simulation, this simulator is designed to be simple and practical for rapid device testing. The simulator was instrumented with medical sensors and data were acquired under different conditions with and without the new PediaFlowTM paediatric VAD. The VAD was run at different impeller speeds while simulator settings such as vascular resistance and stroke volume were varied. The hydraulic performance of the VAD under pulsatile conditions could be characterized and the magnetic suspension could be tested via manipulations such as cannula clamping. This compact mock loop has proven to be valuable throughout the PediaFlow development process and has the advantage that it is uncomplicated and can be manufactured cheaply. It can be produced by several research groups and the results of different VADs can then be compared easily.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 07/2011; 225(7):648-56. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Right axillary artery (RAA) cannulation is increasingly used in cardiac surgery. Little is known about resulting flow patterns in the aorta. Therefore, flow was visualized and analyzed. A mock circulatory circuit was assembled based on a compliant transparent anatomical silicon aortic model. A RAA cannula was connected to a continuous flow rotary blood pump (RBP), pulsatile heart action was provided by a pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD). Peripheral vascular resistance, regional flow and vascular compliance were adjusted to obtain physiological flow and pressure waveforms. Colorants were injected automatically for flow visualization. Five flow distributions with a total flow of 4 l/min were tested (%PVAD:%RBP): 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100. Colorant distribution was assessed using quantitative 2D image processing. Continuous flow from the RAA divided in a retrograde and an antegrade portion. Retro- to antegrade flow ratio increased with increasing RAA-flow. At full RBP support flow was stagnant in the ascending aorta. There were distinct flow patterns between the right- and left-sided supra-aortic branches. At full RBP support retrograde flow was demonstrated in the right carotid and right vertebral arteries. Further studies are needed to confirm and evaluate the described flow patterns.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 03/2011; 12(6):973-7; discussion 977. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PediaFlow pediatric ventricular assist device is a miniature magnetically levitated mixed flow pump under development for circulatory support of newborns and infants (3-15 kg) with a targeted flow range of 0.3-1.5 L/min. The first generation design of the PediaFlow (PF1) was manufactured with a weight of approximately 100 g, priming volume less than 2 mL, length of 51 mm, outer diameter of 28 mm, and with 5-mm blood ports. PF1 was evaluated in an in vitro flow loop for 6 h and implanted in ovines for three chronic experiments of 6, 17, and 10 days. In the in vitro test, normalized index of hemolysis was 0.0087 ± 0.0024 g/100L. Hemodynamic performance and blood biocompatibility of PF1 were characterized in vivo by measurements of plasma free hemoglobin, plasma fibrinogen, total plasma protein, and with novel flow cytometric assays to quantify circulating activated ovine platelets. The mean plasma free hemoglobin values for the three chronic studies were 4.6 ± 2.7, 13.3 ± 7.9, and 8.8 ± 3.3 mg/dL, respectively. Platelet activation was low for portions of several studies but consistently rose along with observed animal and pump complications. The PF1 prototype generated promising results in terms of low hemolysis and platelet activation in the absence of complications. Hemodynamic results validated the magnetic bearing design and provided the platform for design iterations to meet the objective of providing circulatory support for young children with exceptional biocompatibility.
    Artificial Organs 01/2011; 35(1):9-21. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The characteristic depressed hemodynamic state and gradually declining circulatory function in Fontan patients necessitates alternative postoperative management strategies incorporating a system level approach. In this study, the single-ventricle Fontan circulation is modeled by constructing a practical in vitro bench-top pulsatile pediatric flow loop which demonstrates the ability to simulate a wide range of clinical scenarios. The aim of this study is to illustrate the utility of a novel single-ventricle flow loop to study mechanical cardiac assist to Fontan circulation to aid postoperative management and clinical decision-making of single ventricle patients. Two different pediatric ventricular assist devices, Medos and Pediaflow Gen-0, are anastomosed in two nontraditional configurations: systemic venous booster (SVB) and pulmonary arterial booster (PAB). Optimum ventricle assist device strategy is analyzed under normal and pathological (pulmonary hypertension) conditions. Our findings indicate that the Medos ventricular assist device in SVB configuration provided the highest increase in pulmonary (46%) and systemic (90%) venous flow under normal conditions, whereas for the hypertensive condition, highest pulmonary (28%) and systemic (55%) venous flow augmentation were observed for the Pediaflow ventricular assist device inserted as a PAB. We conclude that mechanical cardiac assist in the Fontan circulation effectively results in flow augmentation and introduces various control modalities that can facilitate patient management. Assisted circulation therapies targeting single-ventricle circuits should consider disease state specific physiology and hemodynamics on the optimal configuration decisions.
    Artificial Organs 11/2009; 33(11):967-76. · 1.96 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

281 Citations
94.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • ETH Zurich
      • Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 2009–2013
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2006–2012
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2001–2006
    • Ghent University
      • Institute of Biomedical Technology
      Gent, VLG, Belgium