Shuang Song

Zhejiang University of Technology, Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (39)81.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ag supported on AgIO3 (Ag/AgIO3 particles), a plasmonic photocatalyst, was synthesized through a facile solid-state ion-exchange procedure followed by reduction with hydrazine hydrate. The particles displayed high activity and stability in the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CH4 and CO using water vapor under visible-light irradiation (> 400 nm wavelength).
    Nanoscale 07/2014; · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide can activate chemically inert carbon dioxide by the use of renewable energy. In the present work, the main products of photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in aqueous TiO2 suspensions were found to be methane, methanol, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and H2. Anatase TiO2 catalysts with various morphologies, such as nanoparticle, nanotube, and nanosheet, were synthesized through a hydrothermal method. The TiO2 nanosheets were more active than the nanotubes or nanoparticles in the reduction of CO2 in aqueous solution. This is because the photogenerated carriers prefer to flow to the specific facets. The TiO2 sheet with high-energy exposed {001} facets facilitates the oxidative dissolution of H2O with photogenerated holes, leaving more photogenerated electrons available for the reduction of CO2 on {101} facets. Moreover, surface fluorination promotes the formation of Ti3+ species, which is helpful in the reduction of CO2 to CO2– and in extending the lifetime of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The optimum ratio of exposed {001} to {101} facets for surface-fluorinated TiO2 nanosheets was found to be 72:28, which corresponds to an initial F/Ti ratio of 1. From our analysis of the effect of adding of known intermediates on the photocatalytic reduction of CO2, we propose that the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with H2O on surface-fluorinated TiO2 nanosheets proceeds via a mechanism involving generation of hydrogen radicals and carbon radicals.
    Energy & Fuels. 06/2014; 28(6):3982–3993.
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    ABSTRACT: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were employed for electro-Fenton (Fe3O4–electro-Fenton) degradation of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) in an undivided electrochemical reactor with an activated carbon fiber felt cathode and a platinum anode. On the basis of physicochemical characterization of the Fe3O4 MNPs as well as quantitative measurements of iron leaching and H2O2 generation, it is concluded that the Fe3O4 MNPs facilitated the decomposition of H2O2 to generate hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Moreover, the cathodic electro-Fenton facilitated electro-regeneration of ferrous ion and maintained continuous supply of H2O2. The effect of several operational parameters such as pH, current density, amount of added Fe3O4 MNPs, initial RB19 concentration, and temperature on the removal of total organic carbon was investigated. It was found that the Fe3O4–electro-Fenton degradation of RB19 followed two-stage first-order kinetics with an induction period and a rapid degradation stage. Mineralization of RB19 proceeded rapidly only at pH 3.0. Increasing the current density and the dosage of Fe3O4 MNPs enhanced the rate of RB19 degradation. However, higher current densities and Fe3O4 dosages inhibited the reaction. The rate of RB19 degradation decreased with the increase in initial RB19 concentration and increased with the increase in temperature. The removal efficiency of total organic carbon reached 87.0% after 120 min of electrolysis at an initial pH of 3.0, current density of 3.0 mA/cm2, 1.0 g/L concentration of added Fe3O4 MNPs, 100 mg/L initial dye concentration, and 35 °C temperature. On the basis of the analytical results for the intermediate products and the assumption that •OH radicals are the major reactive species, we propose a possible pathway of RB19 degradation during the cathodic electro-Fenton process using Fe3O4 MNPs as iron source.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 02/2014; 53(9):3435–3447.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel visible-light-active BiOCl/BiVO4 photocatalyst with a p–n heterojunction structure was prepared using a hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic activity of the heterojunction was investigated by monitoring the change in methyl orange (MO) concentration under visible-light irradiation. The results reveal that the composite exhibited markedly improved efficiency for MO photodegradation in comparison with pure BiVO4, BiOCl, and Degussa P25. This is ascribed to the B-type heterojunction structure with a strong oxidative ability and efficient charge separation and transfer across the BiOCl/BiVO4 p–n junction. The highest activity was obtained in the BiOCl/BiVO4 heterojunction using a composite of 13 mol % BiOCl and 87 mol % BiVO4. The removal of MO was mainly initiated by valence-band holes, but dissolved oxygen also played a crucial role in consuming the conduction-band electrons. This was verified by the effects of scavengers and N2 purging.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 12/2013; 118(1):389–398.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, reduction of Cr(VI) induced by UV–visible light in aqueous solution was investigated. The aqueous medium contained TiO2 nanosheets and no additional reducing agents or hole scavengers. A hydrothermal method was used to synthesize fluorinated TiO2 nanostructures with various percentages of exposed {001} facets and initial F/Ti ratios. Fluorine-free TiO2 nanosheets were obtained by washing the TiO2 samples with NaOH solution. The surface fluorination facilitates the adsorption process by increasing the number of surface OH groups generated. Moreover, fluorination efficiently inhibits the recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The {001} facets have an indirect role in the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) because oxidative dissolution of H2O occurring on {001} facets and Cr(VI) reduction occurring on {101} facets are simultaneous reactions. The optimal ratio of exposed {001} to {101} was found to be 72:18.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 07/2013; 52(28):9556–9565.
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    ABSTRACT: To enhance the activity of chemi-deposited palladium/nickel foam (Pd/Ni) electrodes used for an electrochemical dechlorination process, silver or copper was deposited electrochemically onto the nickel foam substrate (to give Ag/Ni or Cu/Ni) before the chemical deposition of palladium. The physicochemical properties of the resulting materials (Pd/Ni, Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electrochemical catalytic activities were evaluated by monitoring the electrochemical dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) in strongly alkaline methanol/water solution. The results show that the Pd/Ag/Ni and Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes had consistently higher electrocatalytic activities and current efficiencies (CEs) compared with the untreated Pd/Ni electrode. The Pd/Ag/Ni electrode exhibited the highest activity. The dechlorination was also studied as a function of Pd loading, the Ag or Cu interlayer loadings, and the current density. The Pd loading and the interlayer loadings both had positive effects on the dechlorination reaction. Increasing the current density increased the reaction rate but reduced the CE. The improvement of the electrocatalytic activities of the Pd/Ni electrode by applying the interlayer of Ag or Cu resulted from the enlargement of the effective surface area of the electrode and the adjustment of the metalH bond energy to the appropriate value, as well as the effective adsorption of 2-CB on Ag. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the Pd/Ag/Ni electrode was maintained after six successive cyclic experiments, whereas Pd/Cu/Ni electrodes deactivate severely under the same conditions.
    Journal of hazardous materials 02/2013; 250-251C:181-189. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of TiO2 with different crystal phases and morphologies was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process using titanium n-butoxide and concentrated hydrochloric acid as raw materials. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of Methyl Orange in aqueous solution under UV-Visible light irradiation. On the basis of detailed analysis of the characterizing results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement, it was concluded that the photo-activity of the catalyst is related directly to the 3D morphology and the crystal phase composition. An excellent catalyst should have both a rutile 3D flower-like structure and anatase granulous particles. The 3D flower-like structure could enhance light harvesting, as well as the transfer of reactant molecules from bulk solution to the reactive sites on TiO2. In addition, the optimum anatase/rutile phase ratio was found to be 80:20, which is beneficial to the effective separation of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs.
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 01/2013; 25(12):2460–2468. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Semiconducting silver iodate (AgIO(3)) was used to modify the visible light response of an AgI/TiO(2) (AIT) catalyst by a facile method. The uncalcined AIT (AITun) and AIT calcined at 200°C (AIT200) consisted of AgIO(3), AgI, and TiO(2) semiconductors, while that calcined at 450 °C (AIT450) was composed of AgI and TiO(2). The activity in p-chlorophenol (PCP) degradation under visible light irradiation using either AITun or AIT200 was much higher than that with AIT450, which was mainly attributed to the fact that the presence of AgIO(3) provided a new matching band potential. AIT200 exhibited better photocatalytic properties than AITun due to its higher crystallinity after calcination. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of AIT200 was maintained after five successive cyclic experiments under visible irradiation. Considering the effect of radical scavengers and N(2) purging on the photocatalysis process, we deduced that the probable pathway of PCP degradation was mainly a surface charge process, caused by valence band holes.
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 04/2012; 378(1):159-66. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation is a promising advanced oxidation technology for water treatment. In the present work, the surface fluorination of TiO2 catalysts with a high percentage of exposed {001} facets (F-TiO2) were synthesized through a hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate as the precursor and HF as the shape controlling agent. The structural properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sheetlike TiO2 is pure anatase, with 75% of highly reactive {001} facets. The surface fluoride of the F-TiO2 nanosheets can be removed by washing with dilute NaOH solution (abbreviated here as OH-TiO2), resulting in a decrease of Ti3+ content and an increase of the specific surface area. The catalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution in the presence of ozone. It was found that F-TiO2 facilitated the catalytic ozonation process by comparison with OH-TiO2 and pure TiO2 nanoparticles prepared in pure water. We conclude that the high surface energies of {001} facets and the increased concentration of oxygen vacancies contributed to the enhancement of the ozonation activity of fluorinated TiO2 with dominant {001} facets.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 04/2012; 51(16):5662–5668.
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    ABSTRACT: The photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) irradiated with visible light over iodine doped TiO(2) (IT) modified with SnO(2) (SIT) nanoparticles has been investigated in this study. The structure and optical properties of the SIT catalysts have been well characterized by X-ray diffraction, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of preparation conditions, such as SnO(2) content and calcination temperature, on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency have been surveyed in detail. The improved photocatalytic activity of SIT is derived from the synergistic effect between the SnO(2) and IT, which promoted the efficiency of migration of the photogenerated carriers at the interface of the catalysts and thereby enhanced the efficiency of photon harvesting in the visible region. The action of scavengers (fluoride ion, iodide ion, tert-butyl alcohol, and persulfate ion), as well as N(2) purging on the photodegradation rate reveal that the valence band hole is mainly responsible for the effective photocatalytic removal of 2-CP and the corresponding TOC reduction.
    Journal of hazardous materials 03/2011; 189(1-2):595-602. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Visible-light-driven TiO2-based catalysts for the degradation of pollutants have become the focus of attention. In the present work, iodine-doped titania photocatalysts (I-TiO2) were improved by doping with gallium (Ga,I-TiO2) and the resulting physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity were investigated. The structural properties of the catalysts were determined by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis and transmission electron microscopy. We found that Ga probably enters the TiO2 framework for doping levels
    Applied Surface Science 01/2011; 257(8):3427-3432. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to enhance the activity and stability of the chemi-deposited palladium/nickel foam (Pd/Ni foam) electrode used in the electrochemical dechlorination process. The electrochemical deposition of silver onto a nickel foam substrate (Ag/Ni foam) was applied before the chemical deposition of palladium. The physicochemical properties of the resultant material (Pd/Ag/Ni foam) were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the silver coating was in the form of spherical apophyses, and the palladium was dispersed finely on the surface of the Ag/Ni foam. Dichloroacetic acid was selected as an indicator to evaluate the activity and stability of the palladium catalyst. Pd/Ag/Ni foam electrode consistently had relatively higher dechlorination rate and current efficiency (CE) in the current density range of 1.5–10.5 mA cm−2 compared to the Pd/Ni foam electrode. Quantitative analysis of the main intermediates and final products involving monochloroacetic acid, acetic acid and the chloride ion further demonstrated the enhancement of electrochemical dechlorination by the presence of silver. Moreover, after five cycles of dechlorination, the CE for the Pd/Ni foam electrode decreased dramatically from 67% to 13%, whereas that for the Pd/Ag/Ni foam electrode was decreased by much less, from 78% to 62%, and the palladium loss was clearly reduced by the addition of a silver coating between the Ni foam and the Pd outer layer.Graphical abstractHighlights► Electrochemical deposition of Ag onto a Ni foam substrate before the deposition of Pd. ► Electrode for dechlorination of dichloroacetic acid. ► Ag modification enhances the activity and stability of Pd/Ni foam electrode. ► Intermediates and final products are monochloroacetic acid, acetic acid and the Cl−.
    Separation and Purification Technology 01/2011; 80(3):526-532. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zirconium and iodine co-doped titanium dioxide (Zr–I–TiO2) was prepared by the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate, premixed with zirconium nitrate in an iodic acid aqueous solution, followed by calcination in air. The structure and properties of the resultant catalyst powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was evaluated by monitoring the photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the activities of Zr–I–TiO2 catalysts were higher than that of TiO2 doped with iodine alone (I–TiO2), and the optimal doping concentration in the Zr–I–TiO2 calcined at 400°C was determined to be about 0.05 (molar ratio of Zr:Ti). In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Zr–I–TiO2 calcined at 400°C was found to be significantly higher than that calcined at 500 or 600°C. Based on the physico-chemical characterization, we concluded that the role of zirconium on the I–TiO2 surface is to increase the number of reactive sites by generating a small crystal size and large surface area. The inhibition of electron–hole pair recombination, by trapping photo-generated electrons with Zr4+, did not contribute markedly to the improved photocatalytic activity of Zr–I–TiO2.
    Applied Surface Science 01/2011; 257(23):10101-10108. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: I-doped titanium dioxide nanospheres (I-TNSs) were synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal synthesis route, their potential for the efficient utilization of visible light was evaluated. The prepared anatase-phase I-TNSs had a bimodal porous size distribution with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 76 m2/g, a crystallite size of approximately 14 nm calculated from X-ray diffraction data, and a remarkable absorption in the visible light region at wavelengths > 400 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by decoloration of Methyl Orange in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation in comparison to the iodine-doped TiO2 (I-TiO2). The I-TNSs showed higher photocatalytic efficiency compared with I-TiO2 after irradiation for 180 min even though the latter had a much greater surface area (115 m2/g). It was concluded that the surface area was not the predominant factor determining photocatalytic activity, and that the good crystallization and bimodal porous nanosphere structure were favourable for photocatalysis.
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 01/2011; 23(1):166-70. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ozonation combined with UV irradiation (UV/O(3)) is an advanced oxidation technique that is very promising for the destruction of organic compounds in aqueous solution. In this study, chlorophene was chosen as a model substrate to investigate the effects of pH, initial substrate concentration, ozone dose, and UV light intensity in degradation experiments. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for total organic carbon (TOC) removal was 2.4 × 10(-2), 9.8 × 10(-4), and 6.4 × 10(-2) min(-1) for O(3), UV, and UV/O(3) treatment, respectively. Clearly, UV-enhanced ozonation leads to a synergetic increase in the overall degradation efficiency. Comparative experiments were performed to investigate the effect of the matrix (distilled water or sewage) on chlorophene removal. The organic compounds in sewage retarded the rate of chlorophene removal by 38%, probably by competitively reacting with the oxidizing agent and screening light. The compound 2-benzoylbenzo-1,4-quinone, benzo-1,4-quinone, hydroquinone and maleic acid were identified as primary intermediates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of acetic, formic and oxalic anions were detected by ion chromatography. A possible degradation pathway is proposed on the basis of the reaction products identified.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2011; 46(1):1-8.
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    ABSTRACT: In an attempt to utilize ozone effectively, a series of praseodymium-modified γ-Al2O3 (Pr/Al2O3) was prepared via incipient wetness impregnation using Pr(NO3)3·6H2O as the precursor. The structure and properties of the catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET) method. Catalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of succinic acid (SA) in the presence of ozone. The praseodymium modification can effectively enhance the ozonation activity of γ-Al2O3 upon SA removal. Increasing the calcination temperature of Pr/Al2O3 is disadvantageous for the catalytic process, whereas increasing the load of praseodymium is helpful. After three successive cycles, the Pr/Al2O3 catalyst remained stable in the catalytic ozonation of SA. Overall, the initial degradation rate of SA, as well as the saturated adsorption capacity of SA, were found to have a linear relation to changes of the surface hydroxyl groups of the catalyst. On this basis, we conclude that the significant enhancement of SA degradation using Pr/Al2O3 as a catalyst should be because praseodymium, in the form of Pr6O11, promoted the formation of surface hydroxyl groups. Hence, the adsorption was increased, and the degradation rate of SA was enhanced.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 11/2010; 49(24).
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    ABSTRACT: TiO(2) nanomaterial is widely used for catalytic ozonation. In the present work, TiO(2) nanostructures with various morphology and crystallite phases were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, followed by calcination using Degussa P25 as precursor. The nanotube, nanorod, and nanowire forms were obtained by varying the hydrothermal temperature, and the anatase/rutile ratios were adjusted by controlling the annealing temperature. The catalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by degradation of phenol in aqueous solution in the presence of ozone. We found that the initial degradation rates (IDR) of phenol were dominated primarily by the surface OH groups. Thus, with the help of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses, the number of surface OH groups per unit area of TiO(2) was correlated with the morphology and crystallite phases. Finally, we conclude that the vast surface area and higher rutile phase ratios are favorable for the catalytic ozonation of phenol and the morphology of TiO(2) had negligible effect in our experiments.
    Environmental Science and Technology 05/2010; 44(10):3913-8. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the electrochemical degradation of C.I. Reactive Red 195 (RR195) in aqueous solution on a Ti/SnO2–Sb/PbO2 electrode. The influence of operating variables on the mineralization efficiency was studied as a function of the current density, the initial pH, the initial concentration of the dye and the addition of NaCl. The efficiency of RR195 mineralization decreased with increased initial concentration, from 100 mg L−1 to 400 mg L−1. The current density had both a positive and a negative effect on degradation rates, and no significant effect of initial pH on RR195 mineralization was observed. Measurement of absorbance was used to discriminate the effect of NaCl in the electro-oxidation process. We found that the decolouring efficiency increased whereas the mineralization efficiency decreased with the increasing concentration of NaCl. The intermediates formed during the degradation were detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and the major aromatic intermediates identified were 1-(3,6,8-trihydroxy-1-naphthyl)urea, nitrobenzene, benzo-1,4-quinone, (3,6,8-trihydroxy-1-naphthyl)carbamic acid and phthalic acid. Quantitative measurement of organic and inorganic ions was done by ion chromatography. On the basis of the reaction products identified, a possible degradation pathway for the anodic oxidation of RR195 in aqueous solution is proposed.
    Electrochimica Acta. 01/2010; 55(11):3606-3613.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel class of iodine-doped TiO2 nanotubes (I-TNTs) has been synthesized via a hydrothermal route using Degussa P25 as a precursor and subsequent calcination. The photocatalytic ability of the products was evaluated in terms of phenol degradation in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The structural properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. According to the XRD data, I-TNTs are pure anatase, revealing a shift of crystallite phase for P25 from rutile to anatase. The surface area of I-TNTs is significantly larger than that of I-doped TiO2 (I-TiO2) nanoparticles, which is an important advantage of the photocatalysts formed with a hydrothermal procedure. XPS and UV–vis spectroscopy show that iodine was incorporated into the TiO2 lattice, and such incorporation extends the photoresponse of TiO2 from UV to the visible light region. As far as phenol degradation is concerned, the I-TNTs are clearly superior to I-TiO2 nanoparticles, pure TNTs and P25. The photocatalytic activity of I-TNTs hydrothermally synthesized at 150°C had a significantly higher level than that synthesized at 200°C. This is attributed to the increase of reactive sites and the enhancement of mass transfer that result from the large surface areas associated with the tubular morphology. Additionally, the increase of Ti3+ content also contributes to the improvement of photocatalytic activity of I-TNTs.
    Applied Catalysis A-general - APPL CATAL A-GEN. 01/2010; 378(2):169-174.
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    ABSTRACT: Iodine-doped titania photocatalysts (I-TiO2) were improved by doping the catalysts with different contents of silver (Ag-I-TiO2) to investigate the effect of silver modification on the structure and activity of the photocatalysts. The chemical and physical properties of the catalysts were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The impact of silver modification on the photocatalytic activity was investigated via the photodegradation of p-chlorophenol (PCP) under visible-light irradiation. The significant enhancement of PCP degradation using Ag-I-TiO2, with an optimum silver content of 3% can be ascribed to the fact that the doped silver trapped photogenerated electrons and promoted the formation of Ti3+ and, hence, the inhibition of the recombination of electron–hole pairs. The probable pathway of PCP mineralization was mainly a surface charge process, caused by adsorbed OH radicals (OHads), valence band holes (hvb+) and electrons (ecb−), which was verified by studying the effects of scavengers and nitrogen purging.
    Journal of Molecular Catalysis A-chemical - J MOL CATAL A-CHEM. 01/2010; 319(1):78-84.