Takaaki Miyaji

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (19)101.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ascorbate is an antioxidant and coenzyme for various metabolic reactions in vivo. In plant chloroplasts, high ascorbate levels are required to overcome photoinhibition caused by strong light. However, ascorbate is synthesized in the mitochondria and the molecular mechanisms underlying ascorbate transport into chloroplasts are unknown. Here we show that AtPHT4;4, a member of the phosphate transporter 4 family of Arabidopsis thaliana, functions as an ascorbate transporter. In vitro analysis shows that proteoliposomes containing the purified AtPHT4;4 protein exhibit membrane potential- and Cl(-)-dependent ascorbate uptake. The AtPHT4;4 protein is abundantly expressed in the chloroplast envelope membrane. Knockout of AtPHT4;4 results in decreased levels of the reduced form of ascorbate in the leaves and the heat dissipation process of excessive energy during photosynthesis is compromised. Taken together, these observations indicate that the AtPHT4;4 protein is an ascorbate transporter at the chloroplast envelope membrane, which may be required for tolerance to strong light stress.
    Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:5928. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spermine and spermidine act as neuromodulators upon binding to the extracellular site(s) of various ionotropic receptors, such as N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. To gain access to the receptors, polyamines synthesized in neurons and astrocytes are stored in secretory vesicles and released upon depolarization. Although vesicular storage is mediated in an ATP-dependent, reserpine-sensitive fashion, the transporter responsible for this process remains unknown. SLC18B1 is the fourth member of the SLC18 transporter family, which includes vesicular monoamine transporters and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Proteoliposomes containing purified human SLC18B1 protein actively transport spermine and spermidine by exchange of H(+). SLC18B1 protein is predominantly expressed in the hippocampus and is associated with vesicles in astrocytes. SLC18B1 gene knockdown decreased both SLC18B1 protein and spermine/spermidine contents in astrocytes. These results indicated that SLC18B1 encodes a vesicular polyamine transporter (VPAT).
    Scientific Reports 10/2014; 4:6836. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine cells store ATP in secretory granules and release it along with hormones that may trigger a variety of cellular responses in a process called purinergic chemical transmission. Although the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) has been shown to be involved in vesicular storage and release of ATP, its physiological relevance in vivo is far less well understood. In Vnut knockout (Vnut(-/-)) mice, we found that the loss of functional VNUT in adrenal chromaffin granules and insulin granules in the islets of Langerhans led to several significant effects. Vesicular ATP accumulation and depolarization-dependent ATP release were absent in the chromaffin granules of Vnut(-/-) mice. Glucose-responsive ATP release was also absent in pancreatic β-cells in Vnut(-/-) mice, while glucose-responsive insulin secretion was enhanced to a greater extent than that in wild-type tissue. Vnut(-/-) mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance and low blood glucose upon fasting due to increased insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrated an essential role of VNUT in vesicular storage and release of ATP in neuroendocrine cells in vivo and suggest that vesicular ATP and/or its degradation products act as feedback regulators in catecholamine and insulin secretion, thereby regulating blood glucose homeostasis.
    Scientific Reports 10/2014; 4:6689. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotides are stored in the dense granules of platelets. The release of nucleotides triggers one of the first steps in a series of cascades responsible for blood coagulation. However, the mechanism of how the nucleotides are accumulated in the granules is still far less understood. The transporter protein responsible for storage of nucleotides in the neuroendocrine cells has been identified and characterized. We hypothesized that the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is also involved in the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets. In this article, we present three lines of evidence that VNUT is responsible for the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets and that vesicular ATP transport is crucial for platelet function, detection and characterization of VNUT activity in platelets isolated from healthy humans and MEG-01 cells, RNA interference experiments on MEG-01 cells, and studies on nucleotide transport and release with a selective inhibitor.
    Physiological reports. 06/2014; 2(6).
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    ABSTRACT: SLC17A1 protein (NPT1) was the first identified member of the SLC17 phosphate transporter family, and is known to mediate Na+/inorganic phosphate (Pi) co-transport when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Although this protein was suggested to be a renal polyspecific anion exporter, its transport properties were not well characterized. The clean biochemical approach revealed that proteoliposomes comprising purified NPT1 as the only protein source transport various organic anions such as urate, p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in a membrane potential (??)-driven and Cl- -dependent manner. Human NPT1 carrying an SNP mutation, Thr269Ile, known to increase the risk of gout, exhibited 32% lower urate transport activity compared to the wild type protein, leading to the conclusion that NPT1 is the long searched for transporter responsible for renal urate excretion. In the present article, we summarized the history of identification of the urate exporter and its possible involvement in the dynamism of urate under physiological and pathological conditions.
    Current Molecular Pharmacology 07/2013;
  • Yuri Kato, Hiroshi Omote, Takaaki Miyaji
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is responsible for vesicular ATP storage in ATP-secreting cells. In the present study, we examined the effects on VNUT-mediated transport of ATP release inhibitors such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, hemichannels, maxi anion channels and P2X7 receptor. The ATP transport activity of proteoliposomes containing purified human VNUT was blocked by glibenclamide, carbenoxolone, 18 α-glycyrrhetinic acid, flufenamic acid, arachidonic acid and A438079 without the formation of Δψ (positive inside) as a driving force being affected. Thus, inhibitors of ATP release may inhibit VNUT and subsequent ATP release, since the previous works proved that inhibitors of ATP release blocked VNUT-mediated ATP release at the cell level.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2013; 36(11):1688-91. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The SLC17 anion transporter family comprises nine members that transport various organic anions in membrane potential (Δψ)- and Cl(-)-dependent manners. Although the transport substrates and physiological relevance of the majority of the members have already been determined, little is known about SLC17A4 proteins known to be Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter homologue (NPT homologue). In the present study, we investigated the expression and transport properties of human SLC17A4 protein. Using specific antibodies, we found that a human NPT homologue is specifically expressed and present in the intestinal brush border membrane. Proteoliposomes containing the purified protein took up radiolabeled p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in a Cl(-)-dependent manner at the expense of an electrochemical gradient of protons, especially Δψ, across the membrane. The Δψ- and Cl(-)-dependent PAH uptake was inhibited by diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and Evans blue, common inhibitors of SLC17 family members. cis-Inhibition studies revealed that various anionic compounds, such as hydrophilic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pravastatin, and urate inhibited the PAH uptake. Proteoliposomes took up radiolabeled urate, with the uptake having properties similar to those of PAH uptake. These results strongly suggested that the human NPT homologue acts as a polyspecific organic anion exporter in the intestines. Since SLC17A1 protein (NPT1) and SLC17A3 protein (NPT4) are responsible for renal urate extrusion, our results reveal the possible involvement of a NPT homologue in urate extrusion from the intestinal duct.
    AJP Cell Physiology 03/2012; 302(11):C1652-60. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is a secretory vesicle protein that is responsible for the vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of ATP (Sawada, K., Echigo, N., Juge, N., Miyaji, T., Otsuka, M., Omote, H., and Moriyama, Y. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 5683-5686). Because VNUT actively transports ATP in a membrane potential (Δψ)-dependent manner irrespective of divalent cations such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), VNUT recognizes free ATP as a transport substrate. However, whether or not VNUT transports chelating complexes with divalent cations remains unknown. Here, we show that proteoliposomes containing purified VNUT actively took up Mg(2+) when ATP was present, as detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The VNUT-containing proteoliposomes also took up radioactive Ca(2+) upon imposing Δψ (positive-inside) but not ΔpH. The Δψ-driven Ca(2+) uptake required ATP and a millimolar concentration of Cl(-), which was inhibited by Evans blue, a specific inhibitor of SLC17-type transporters. VNUT in which Arg-119 was specifically mutated to alanine, the counterpart of the essential amino acid residue of the SLC17 family, lost the ability to take up both ATP and Ca(2+). Ca(2+) uptake was also inhibited in the presence of various divalent cations such as Mg(2+). Kinetic analysis indicated that Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) did not affect the apparent affinity for ATP. RNAi of the VNUT gene in PC12 cells decreased the vesicular Mg(2+) concentration to 67.7%. These results indicate that VNUT transports both nucleotides and divalent cations probably as chelating complexes and suggest that VNUT functions as a divalent cation importer in secretory vesicles under physiological conditions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 286(50):42881-7. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sialin, the protein coded by SLC17A5, is responsible for membrane potential (Δψ)-driven aspartate and glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles in addition to H+/sialic acid co-transport in lysosomes. Rodent sialin mutants harboring the mutations associated with Salla disease in humans did not transport aspartate and glutamate whereas H+/sialic acid co-transport activity was about one-third of the wild-type protein. In this study, we investigate the effects of various mutations on the transport activities of human sialin. Proteoliposomes containing purified heterologously expressed human sialin exhibited both Δψ-driven aspartate and glutamate transport activity and H+/sialic acid co-transport activity. Aspartate and glutamate transport was not detected in the R39C and K136E mutant forms of SLC17A5 protein associated with Salla disease, whereas H+/sialic acid co-transport activity corresponded to 30-50% of the recombinant wild-type protein. In contrast, SLC17A5 protein harboring the mutations associated with infantile sialic acid storage disease, H183R and Δ268SSLRN272 still showed normal levels of Δψ-driven aspartate and glutamate transport even though H+/sialic acid co-transport activity was absent. Human sialin carrying the G328E mutation that causes both phenotypes, and P334R and G378V mutations that cause infantile sialic acid storage disease showed no transport activity. These results support the idea that people suffering from Salla disease have been defective in aspartergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2011; 119(1):1-5. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutamate plays essential roles in chemical transmission as a major excitatory neurotransmitter. The accumulation of glutamate in secretory vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) that together with the driving electrochemical gradient of proteins influence the subsequent quantum release of glutamate and the function of higher-order neurons. The vesicular content of glutamate is well correlated with membrane potential (Δψ), which suggests that Δψ determines the vesicular glutamate concentration. The transport of glutamate into secretory vesicles is highly dependent on Cl(-). This anion stimulates glutamate transport but is inhibitory at higher concentrations. Accumulating evidence indicates that Cl(-) regulates glutamate transport through control of VGLUT activity and the H(+) electrochemical gradient. Recently, a comprehensive study demonstrated that Cl(-) regulation of VGLUT is competitively inhibited by metabolic intermediates such as ketone bodies. It also showed that ketone bodies are effective in controlling epilepsy. These results suggest a correlation between metabolic state and higher-order brain function. We propose a novel function for Cl(-) as a fundamental regulator for signal transmission.
    Biochemistry 06/2011; 50(25):5558-65. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human multidrug and toxic compound extrusion 2 (hMATE2) is a kidney-specific isoform of hMATE1, an exporter of toxic organic cations (OCs) of exogenous and endogenous origins at the final excretion step in the kidneys and liver (Otsuka et al., 2005), and contains a splicing variant, MATE2K, that has an exon of hMATE2 deleted (Masuda et al., 2006). In the present study, we characterized the degree of expression and the transport properties of hMATE2. Quantitative PCR analysis with probes specific for hMATE2 indicated the presence of hMATE2 mRNA in the kidneys, which corresponded to 39% of total mRNA encoding both hMATE2 and hMATE2K. hMATE2-specific antibodies immunostained the renal urinary tubules. Upon expression in HEK293 cells, hMATE2 was localized in intracellular vesicular structures, and thus transport activity of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a typical substrate for MATE transporters, by the cells was not detected. The hMATE2 protein was purified and reconstituted into liposomes. An artificially imposed pH gradient (ΔpH) across the proteoliposomal membrane drove the uptake of TEA. Dissipation of ΔpH by ammonium sulfate effectively inhibited the TEA uptake, while that of the membrane potential by valinomycin had little effect. The profiles of cis-inhibition of TEA transport by hMATE2 and hMATE2K are similar to each other. Thus, both hMATE2 and hMATE2K equally operate in the human kidneys to extrude OCs into the urine.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 03/2011; 43(6):913-8. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fasting has been used to control epilepsy since antiquity, but the mechanism of coupling between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission remains unknown. Previous work has shown that the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) required for exocytotic release of glutamate undergo an unusual form of regulation by Cl(-). Using functional reconstitution of the purified VGLUTs into proteoliposomes, we now show that Cl(-) acts as an allosteric activator, and the ketone bodies that increase with fasting inhibit glutamate release by competing with Cl(-) at the site of allosteric regulation. Consistent with these observations, acetoacetate reduced quantal size at hippocampal synapses and suppresses glutamate release and seizures evoked with 4-aminopyridine in the brain. The results indicate an unsuspected link between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission through anion-dependent regulation of VGLUT activity.
    Neuron 10/2010; 68(1):99-112. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SLC17A1 protein (NPT1) is the first identified member of the SLC17 phosphate transporter family and mediates the transmembrane cotransport of Na(+)/P(i) in oocytes. Although this protein is believed to be a renal polyspecific anion exporter, its transport properties are not well characterized. Here, we show that proteoliposomes containing purified SLC17A1 transport various organic anions such as p-aminohippuric acid and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in an inside positive membrane potential (Deltapsi)-dependent manner. We found that NPT1 also transported urate. The uptake characteristics were similar to that of SLC17 members in its Cl(-) dependence and inhibitor sensitivity. When arginine 138, an essential amino acid residue for members of the SLC17 family such as the vesicular glutamate transporter, was specifically mutated to alanine, the resulting mutant protein was inactive in Deltapsi-dependent anion transport. Heterologously expressed and purified human NPT1 carrying the single nucleotide polymorphism mutation that is associated with increased risk of gout in humans exhibited 32% lower urate transport activity compared with the wild type protein. These results strongly suggested that NPT1 is a Cl(-)-dependent polyspecific anion exporter involved in urate excretion under physiological conditions.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26107-13. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in abiotic stress responses, seed maturation, germination, and senescence. ABA is predominantly produced in vascular tissues and exerts hormonal responses in various cells, including guard cells. Although ABA responses require extrusion of ABA from ABA-producing cells in an intercellular ABA signaling pathway, the transport mechanisms of ABA through the plasma membrane remain unknown. Here we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, AtABCG25, from Arabidopsis by genetically screening for ABA sensitivity. AtABCG25 was expressed mainly in vascular tissues. The fluorescent protein-fused AtABCG25 was localized at the plasma membrane in plant cells. In membrane vesicles derived from AtABCG25-expressing insect cells, AtABCG25 exhibited ATP-dependent ABA transport. The AtABCG25-overexpressing plants showed higher leaf temperatures, implying an influence on stomatal regulation. These results strongly suggest that AtABCG25 is an exporter of ABA and is involved in the intercellular ABA signaling pathway. The presence of the ABA transport mechanism sheds light on the active control of multicellular ABA responses to environmental stresses among plant cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(5):2361-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspartate, an excitatory amino acid, is known to be stored in synaptic vesicles and exocytosed from some neurons to perform aspartergic neurotransmission. Through in vitro reconstitution, we found that sialin, a lysosomal sialic acid exporter, is responsible for the vesicular storage of aspartate in hippocampal neurons and pinealocytes. Mutations found in Salla disease cause decreased aspartate transport activity without affecting sialic acid transport. Thus, sialin is a multifunctional transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose the ability of aspartergic neurotransmission, and this could explain why Salla disease involves severe neurological defects.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2010; 33(11):1783-5. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Keisuke Sawada, Miki Hiasa, Noriko Echigo, Narinobu Juge, Takaaki Miyaji, Hiroshi Omote, Yoshinori Moriyama
    Neuroscience Research 01/2009; 65:S77. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this process is still debated because the mechanism for the vesicular storage of aspartate is unknown. Here, we show that sialin, a lysosomal H(+)/sialic acid cotransporter, is present in hippocampal synaptic vesicles and pineal SLMVs. RNA interference of sialin expression decreased exocytosis of aspartate and glutamate in pinealocytes. Proteoliposomes containing purified sialin actively accumulated aspartate and glutamate to a similar extent when inside positive membrane potential is imposed as the driving force. Sialin carrying a mutation found in people suffering from Salla disease (R39C) was completely devoid of aspartate and glutamate transport activity, although it retained appreciable H(+)/sialic acid cotransport activity. These results strongly suggest that sialin possesses dual physiological functions and acts as a vesicular aspartate/glutamate transporter. It is possible that people with Salla disease lose aspartergic (and also the associated glutamatergic) neurotransmission, and this could provide an explanation for why Salla disease causes severe neurological defects.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2008; 105(33):11720-4. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATP is a major chemical transmitter in purinergic signal transmission. Before secretion, ATP is stored in secretory vesicles found in purinergic cells. Although the presence of active transport mechanisms for ATP has been postulated for a long time, the proteins responsible for its vesicular accumulation remains unknown. The transporter encoded by the human and mouse SLC17A9 gene, a novel member of an anion transporter family, was predominantly expressed in the brain and adrenal gland. The mouse and bovine counterparts were associated with adrenal chromaffin granules. Proteoliposomes containing purified transporter actively took up ATP, ADP, and GTP by using membrane potential as the driving force. The uptake properties of the reconstituted transporter were similar to that of the ATP uptake by synaptic vesicles and chromaffin granules. Suppression of endogenous SLC17A9 expression in PC12 cells decreased exocytosis of ATP. These findings strongly suggest that SLC17A9 protein is a vesicular nucleotide transporter and should lead to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of ATP secretion in purinergic signal transmission.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2008; 105(15):5683-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) is responsible for the vesicular storage of l-glutamate, and plays an essential role in glutamate-mediated intercellular signal transmission in the CNS and in some neuroendocrine cells. Intestinal L cells are the glucose-responsive neuroendocrine cells responsible for the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We have shown that intestinal L cells express VGLUT2, a VGLUT isoform, which suggests that L cells secrete L-glutamate. In the present study, we investigated this possibility using GLUTag mouse clonal L cells. RT-PCR and northern blot analyses revealed expression of the VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 genes, but not of the VGLUT3 gene. Western blot analysis revealed immunological counterparts for VGLUT2, whereas an immunological counterpart of VGLUT1 was not detected. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a punctate distribution of VGLUT2 immunoreactivity throughout the cells, which co-localized with GLP-1. Double-labeling immunoelectronmicroscopy confirmed the association of VGLUT2 with GLP-1-containing secretory granules. The membrane fraction exhibited ATP-dependent L-glutamate uptake, which was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 (a vacuolar proton ATPase inhibitor) and Evans blue (a VGLUT inhibitor) but insensitive to D,L-aspartate. Upon depolarization with KCl, GLUTag cells secreted appreciable amounts of L-glutamate and GLP-1. D-Glucose and methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, stimulators of exocytosis of GLP-1, also triggered the secretion of L-glutamate. The L-glutamate secretion was partially dependent on Ca2+ and sensitive to bafilomycin A1. These results demonstrated that GLUTag cells stored L-glutamate in secretory granules and secreted it with GLP-1 by exocytosis. As GLUTag cells and intestinal L cells express kainate receptors and plasma membrane glutamate transporters, these results support the concept of L-glutamate-mediated intercellular signaling in the vicinity of intestinal L cells.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2006; 96(2):550-60. · 4.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

411 Citations
101.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Okayama University
      • • Advanced Science Research Center
      • • Department of Genomics and Proteomics
      • • Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan