Roberta Noberini

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (18)101.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Because of its overexpression in a range of solid tumors, the EphA2 receptor is a validated target for cancer therapeutics. We recently described a new targeted delivery system based on specific EphA2-targeting peptides conjugated with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Here, we investigate the chemical determinants responsible for the stability and degradation of these agents in plasma. Introducing modifications in both the peptide and the linker between the peptide and paclitaxel resulted in drug conjugates that are both long-lived in rat plasma and that markedly decrease tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model compared with paclitaxel alone treatment. These studies identify critical rate-limiting degradation sites on the peptide-drug conjugates, enabling the design of agents with increased stability and efficacy. These results provide support for our central hypothesis that peptide-drug conjugates targeting EphA2 represent an innovative and potentially effective strategy to selectively deliver cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells.
    ChemMedChem 03/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph receptor-ephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel antiangiogenetic agents. We recently identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a small molecule able to block EphA2-dependent signals in cancer cells, suggesting that its (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid scaffold can be used as a template to design a new generation of improved EphA2 antagonists. Here, we report the design and synthesis of an extended set of LCA derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with different α-amino acids. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the presence of a lipophilic amino acid side chain is fundamental to achieve good potencies. The L-Trp derivative (20, PCM126) was the most potent antagonist of the series disrupting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and blocking EphA2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells at low μM concentrations, thus being significantly more potent than LCA. Compound 20 is among the most potent small molecule antagonists of the EphA2 receptor.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fragment-based ligand design (FBLD) approaches have become more widely used in drug discovery projects from both academia and industry, and are even often preferred to traditional high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds (>10(5)). A key advantage of FBLD approaches is that these often rely on robust biophysical methods such as NMR spectroscopy for detection of ligand binding, hence are less prone to artifacts that too often plague the results from HTS campaigns. In this article, we introduce a screening strategy that takes advantage of both the robustness of protein NMR spectroscopy as the detection method, and the basic principles of combinatorial chemistry to enable the screening of large libraries of fragments (>10(5) compounds) preassembled on a common backbone. We used the method to identify compounds that target protein-protein interactions.
    Chemistry & biology 01/2013; 20(1):19-33. · 6.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EphB4 is a member of the large Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family. By interacting with its preferred ligand ephrin-B2, which is also a transmembrane protein, EphB4 plays a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes ranging from bone remodeling to cancer malignancy. EphB4-ephrin-B2 binding occurs at sites of contact between cells. Ephrin-B2 causes EphB4 clustering and increased kinase activity to generate downstream signals that affect cell behavior. Previous work identified a high-affinity antagonistic peptide that targets EphB4, named TNYL-RAW. This peptide is 15 amino acid long, has a molecular weight of ∼1,700Da and binds to the ephrin-binding pocket of EphB4. Here we report the structure-based design and chemical synthesis of two novel small molecules of ∼600-700Da, which were designed starting from the small and functionally critical C-terminal portion of the TNYL-RAW peptide. These compounds inhibit ephrin-B2 binding to EphB4 at low micromolar concentrations. Additionally, although the ephrin-B2 ligand can interact with multiple other Eph receptors besides EphB4, the two compounds retain the high selectivity of the TNYL-RAW peptide in targeting EphB4. TNYL-RAW peptide displacement experiments using the more potent of the two compounds, compound 5, suggest a competitive mode of inhibition. These EphB4 antagonistic compounds can serve as promising templates for the further development of small molecule drugs targeting EphB4.
    Biochemical pharmacology 12/2012; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: YSA is an EphA2-targeting peptide that effectively delivers anti-cancer agents to prostate cancer tumors (1). Here, we report on how we increased the drug-like properties of this delivery system. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By introducing non-natural amino acids, we have designed two new EphA2 targeting peptides: YNH, where norleucine and homoserine replace the two methionine residues of YSA, and dYNH, where a D-tyrosine replaces the L-tyrosine at the first position of the YNH peptide. We describe the details of the synthesis of YNH and dYNH paclitaxel conjugates (YNH-PTX and dYNH-PTX) and their characterization in cells and in vivo. RESULTS: dYNH-PTX showed improved stability in mouse serum and significantly reduced tumor size in a prostate cancer xenograft model and also reduced tumor vasculature in a syngeneic orthotopic allograft mouse model of renal cancer compared to vehicle or paclitaxel treatments. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that targeting EphA2 with dYNH drug conjugates could represent an effective way to deliver anti-cancer agents to a variety of tumor types. Translational Relevance: Overexpression of the EphA2 positively correlates with tumor malignancy and poor prognosis. For this reason, EphA2 is an attractive target for cancer cell specific drug delivery. In this study, we report on the development of dYNH, an EphA2 targeting peptide that when coupled to paclitaxel (PTX) has favorable pharmacological properties and possesses powerful anti-tumor activity in vivo. dYNH-PTX may allow for an expanded therapeutic index of paclitaxel as well as precluding the need for complex formulations and long infusion times.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tea contains a variety of bioactive chemicals, such as catechins and other polyphenols. These compounds are thought to be responsible for the health benefits of tea consumption by affecting the function of many cellular targets, not all of which have been identified. In a high-throughput screen for small molecule antagonists of the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase, we identified five tea polyphenols that substantially inhibit EphA4 binding to a synthetic peptide ligand. Further characterization of theaflavin monogallates from black tea and epigallocatechin-3,5-digallate from green tea revealed that these compounds at low micromolar concentrations also inhibit binding of the natural ephrin ligands to EphA4 and several other Eph receptors in in vitro assays. The compounds behave as competitive EphA4 antagonists, and their inhibitory activity is affected by amino acid mutations within the ephrin binding pocket of EphA4. In contrast, the major green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), does not appear to be an effective Eph receptor antagonist. In cell culture assays, theaflavin monogallates and epigallocatechin-3,5-digallate inhibit ephrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) of Eph receptors and endothelial capillary-like tube formation. However, the wider spectrum of Eph receptors affected by the tea derivatives in cells suggests additional mechanisms of inhibition besides interfering with ephrin binding. These results show that tea polyphenols derived from both black and green tea can suppress the biological activities of Eph receptors. Thus, the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family represents an important class of targets for tea-derived phytochemicals.
    Pharmacological Research 06/2012; 66(4):363-73. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph-ephrin system, including the EphA2 receptor and the ephrinA1 ligand, plays a critical role in tumor and vascular functions during carcinogenesis. We previously identified (3α,5β)-3-hydroxycholan-24-oic acid (lithocholic acid) as an Eph-ephrin antagonist that is able to inhibit EphA2 receptor activation; it is therefore potentially useful as a novel EphA2 receptor-targeting agent. Herein we explore the structure-activity relationships of a focused set of lithocholic acid derivatives based on molecular modeling investigations and displacement binding assays. Our exploration shows that while the 3-α-hydroxy group of lithocholic acid has a negligible role in recognition of the EphA2 receptor, its carboxylate group is critical for disrupting the binding of ephrinA1 to EphA2. As a result of our investigation, we identified (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid (cholanic acid) as a novel compound that competitively inhibits the EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction with higher potency than lithocholic acid. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that cholanic acid binds specifically and reversibly to the ligand binding domain of EphA2, with a steady-state dissociation constant (K(D) ) in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, cholanic acid blocks the phosphorylation of EphA2 as well as cell retraction and rounding in PC3 prostate cancer cells, two effects that depend on EphA2 activation by the ephrinA1 ligand. These findings suggest that cholanic acid can be used as a template structure for the design of effective EphA2 antagonists, and may have potential impact in the elucidation of the role played by this receptor in pathological conditions.
    ChemMedChem 04/2012; 7(6):1071-83. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase interacts with ephrin ligands to regulate many processes, ranging from axon guidance and nerve regeneration to cancer malignancy. Thus antagonists that inhibit ephrin binding to EphA4 could be useful for a variety of research and therapeutic applications. In the present study we characterize the binding features of three antagonistic peptides (KYL, APY and VTM) that selectively target EphA4 among the Eph receptors. Isothermal titration calorimetry analysis demonstrated that all three peptides bind to the ephrin-binding domain of EphA4 with low micromolar affinity. Furthermore, the effects of a series of EphA4 mutations suggest that the peptides interact in different ways with the ephrin-binding pocket of EphA4. Chemical-shift changes observed by NMR spectroscopy upon binding of the KYL peptide involve many EphA4 residues, consistent with extensive interactions and possibly receptor conformational changes. Additionally, systematic replacement of each of the 12 amino acids of KYL and VTM identify the residues critical for EphA4, binding. The peptides exhibit a long half-life in cell culture medium which, with their substantial binding affinity and selectivity for EphA4, makes them excellent research tools to modulate EphA4 function.
    Biochemical Journal 04/2012; 445(1):47-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of anticancer drugs is often limited by their systemic toxicities and adverse side effects. We report that the EphA2 receptor is overexpressed preferentially in several human cancer cell lines compared to normal tissues and that an EphA2 targeting peptide (YSAYPDSVPMMS) can be effective in delivering anticancer agents to such tumors. Hence, we report on the synthesis and characterizations of a novel EphA2-targeting agent conjugated with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel. We found that the peptide-drug conjugate is dramatically more effective than paclitaxel alone at inhibiting tumor growth in a prostate cancer xenograft model, delivering significantly higher levels of drug to the tumor site. We believe these studies open the way to the development of a new class of therapeutic compounds that exploit the EphA2 receptor for drug delivery to cancer cells.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 55(5):2427-36. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family includes many members, which are often expressed together in various combinations and can promiscuously interact with multiple ephrin ligands, generating intricate networks of intracellular signals that control physiological and pathological processes. Knowing the entire repertoire of Eph receptors and ephrins expressed in a biological sample is important when studying their biological roles. Moreover, given the correlation between Eph receptor/ephrin expression and cancer pathogenesis, their expression patterns could serve important diagnostic and prognostic purposes. However, profiling Eph receptor and ephrin expression has been challenging. Here we describe a novel and straightforward approach to catalog the Eph receptors present in cultured cells and tissues. By measuring the binding of ephrin Fc fusion proteins to Eph receptors in ELISA and pull-down assays, we determined that a mixture of four ephrins is suitable for isolating both EphA and EphB receptors in a single pull-down. We then used mass spectrometry to identify the Eph receptors present in the pull-downs and estimate their relative levels. This approach was validated in cultured human cancer cell lines, human tumor xenograft tissue grown in mice, and mouse brain tissue. The new mass spectrometry approach we have developed represents a useful tool for the identification of the spectrum of Eph receptors present in a biological sample and could also be extended to profiling ephrin expression.
    Cell adhesion & migration 03/2012; 6(2):102-12. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    Roberta Noberini, Ilaria Lamberto, Elena B Pasquale
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph receptors are a large family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Their kinase activity and downstream signaling ability are stimulated by the binding of cell surface-associated ligands, the ephrins. The ensuing signals are bidirectional because the ephrins can also transduce signals (known as reverse signals) following their interaction with Eph receptors. The ephrin-binding pocket in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the Eph receptors and the ATP-binding pocket in the intracellular kinase domain represent potential binding sites for peptides and small molecules. Indeed, a number of peptides and chemical compounds that target Eph receptors and inhibit ephrin binding or kinase activity have been identified. These molecules show promise as probes to study Eph receptor/ephrin biology, as lead compounds for drug development, and as targeting agents to deliver drugs or imaging agents to tumors. Current challenges are to find (1) small molecules that inhibit Eph receptor-ephrin interactions with high binding affinity and good lead-like properties and (2) selective kinase inhibitors that preferentially target the Eph receptor family or subsets of Eph receptors. Strategies that could also be explored include targeting additional Eph receptor interfaces and the ephrin ligands.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 10/2011; 23(1):51-7. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrin ligands control many physiological and pathological processes, and molecules interfering with their interaction are useful probes to elucidate their complex biological functions. Moreover, targeting Eph receptors might enable new strategies to inhibit cancer progression and pathological angiogenesis as well as promote nerve regeneration. Because our previous work suggested the importance of the salicylic acid group in antagonistic small molecules targeting Eph receptors, we screened a series of salicylic acid derivatives to identify novel Eph receptor antagonists. This identified a disalicylic acid-furanyl derivative that inhibits ephrin-A5 binding to EphA4 with an IC(50) of 3 μm in ELISAs. This compound, which appears to bind to the ephrin-binding pocket of EphA4, also targets several other Eph receptors. Furthermore, it inhibits EphA2 and EphA4 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells stimulated with ephrin while not affecting phosphorylation of EphB2, which is not a target receptor. In endothelial cells, the disalicylic acid-furanyl derivative inhibits EphA2 phosphorylation in response to TNFα and capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel, two effects that depend on EphA2 interaction with endogenous ephrin-A1. These findings suggest that salicylic acid derivatives could be used as starting points to design new small molecule antagonists of Eph receptors.
    Chemical Biology &amp Drug Design 07/2011; 78(4):667-78. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood vessel formation is important for many physiological and pathological processes and is therefore a critical target for drug development. Inhibiting angiogenesis to starve a tumour or promoting 'normalization' of tumour vasculature in order to facilitate delivery of anticancer drugs are both areas of active research. Recapitulation of vessel formation by human cells in vitro allows the investigation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in a controlled environment and is therefore a crucial step in developing HCS (high content screening) and HTS (high throughput screening) assays to search for modulators of blood vessel formation. HUVECs (human umbilical-vein endothelial cells) exemplify primary cells used in angiogenesis assays. However, primary cells have significant limitations that include phenotypic decay and/or senescence by six to eight passages in culture, making stable integration of fluorescent markers and large-scale expansion for HTS problematic. To overcome these limitations for HTS, we developed a novel angiogenic model system that employs stable fluorescent endothelial cell lines based on immortalized HMECs (human microvascular endothelial cell). We then evaluated HMEC cultures, both alone and co-cultured with an EMC (epicardial mesothelial cell) line that contributes vascular smooth muscle cells, to determine the suitability for HTS or HCS. The endothelial and epicardial lines were engineered to express a panel of nuclear- and cytoplasm-localized fluorescent proteins to be mixed and matched to suit particular experimental goals. HMECs retained their angiogenic potential and stably expressed fluorescent proteins for at least 13 passages after transduction. Within 8 h after plating on Matrigel, the cells migrated and coalesced into networks of vessel-like structures. If co-cultured with EMCs, the branches formed cylindrical-shaped structures of HMECs surrounded by EMC derivatives reminiscent of vessels. Network formation measurements revealed responsiveness to media composition and control compounds. HMEC-based lines retain most of the angiogenic features of primary endothelial cells and yet possess long-term stability and ease of culture, making them intriguing candidates for large-scale primary HCS and HTS (of ~10000-1000000 molecules). Furthermore, inclusion of EMCs demonstrates the feasibility of using epicardial-derived cells, which normally contribute to smooth muscle, to model large vessel formation. In summary, the immortalized fluorescent HMEC and EMC lines and straightforward culture conditions will enable assay development for HCS of angiogenesis.
    Biology of the Cell 07/2011; 103(10):467-81. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase together with its preferred ligand, ephrin-B2, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including tumor progression, pathological forms of angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and bone remodeling. We previously reported the identification of TNYL-RAW, a 15 amino acid-long peptide that binds to the ephrin-binding pocked of EphB4 with low nanomolar affinity and inhibits ephrin-B2 binding. Although ephrin-B2 interacts promiscuously with all the EphB receptors, the TNYL-RAW peptide is remarkably selective and only binds to EphB4. Therefore, this peptide is a useful tool for studying the biological functions of EphB4 and for imaging EphB4-expressing tumors. Furthermore, TNYL-RAW could be useful for treating pathologies involving EphB4-ephrin-B2 interaction. However, the peptide has a very short half-life in cell culture and in the mouse blood circulation due to proteolytic degradation and clearance by the kidneys and reticuloendothelial system. To overcome these limitations, we have modified TNYL-RAW by fusion with the Fc portion of human IgG1, complexation with streptavidin or covalent coupling to a 40 KDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer. These modified forms of TNYL-RAW all have greatly increased stability in cell culture, while retaining high binding affinity for EphB4. Furthermore, PEGylation most effectively increases peptide half-life in vivo. Consistent with increased stability, submicromolar concentrations of PEGylated TNYL-RAW effectively impair EphB4 activation by ephrin-B2 in cultured B16 melanoma cells as well as capillary-like tube formation and capillary sprouting in co-cultures of endothelial and epicardial mesothelial cells. Therefore, PEGylated TNYL-RAW may be useful for inhibiting pathological forms of angiogenesis through a novel mechanism involving disruption of EphB4-ephrin-B2 interactions between endothelial cells and supporting perivascular mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, the PEGylated peptide is suitable for other cell culture and in vivo applications requiring prolonged EphB4 receptor targeting.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28611. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Roberta Noberini, Elena B Pasquale
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    ABSTRACT: Eph receptors are important but controversial regulators of cancer development. A recent study reported in Cell reveals that in the intestinal epithelium, EphB2 enhances proliferation through a kinase-dependent pathway and inhibits migration independent of its kinase activity. These separate pathways simultaneously promote proliferation but suppress invasive growth of intestinal adenomas.
    Cancer cell 12/2009; 16(6):452-4. · 25.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EphA and EphB receptors preferentially bind ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands, respectively, but EphA4 is exceptional for its ability to bind all ephrins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the EphA4 ligand-binding domain in complex with ephrin-B2, which represents the first structure of an EphA-ephrin-B interclass complex. A loose fit of the ephrin-B2 G-H loop in the EphA4 ligand-binding channel is consistent with a relatively weak binding affinity. Additional surface contacts also exist between EphA4 residues Gln(12) and Glu(14) and ephrin-B2. Mutation of Gln(12) and Glu(14) does not cause significant structural changes in EphA4 or changes in its affinity for ephrin-A ligands. However, the EphA4 mutant has approximately 10-fold reduced affinity for ephrin-B ligands, indicating that the surface contacts are critical for interclass but not intraclass ephrin binding. Thus, EphA4 uses different strategies to bind ephrin-A or ephrin-B ligands and achieve binding promiscuity. NMR characterization also suggests that the contacts of Gln(12) and Glu(14) with ephrin-B2 induce dynamic changes throughout the whole EphA4 ligand-binding domain. Our findings shed light on the distinctive features that enable the remarkable ligand binding promiscuity of EphA4 and suggest that diverse strategies are needed to effectively disrupt different Eph-ephrin complexes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 285(1):644-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a variety of physiological and pathological processes not only during development but also in adult organs, and therefore they represent a promising class of drug targets. The EphA4 receptor plays important roles in the inhibition of the regeneration of injured axons, synaptic plasticity, platelet aggregation, and likely in certain types of cancer. Here we report the first crystal structure of the EphA4 ligand-binding domain, which adopts the same jellyroll beta-sandwich architecture as shown previously for EphB2 and EphB4. The similarity with EphB receptors is high in the core beta-stranded regions, whereas large variations exist in the loops, particularly the D-E and J-K loops, which form the high affinity ephrin binding channel. We also used isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and computational docking to characterize the binding to EphA4 of two small molecules, 4- and 5-(2,5 dimethyl-pyrrol-1-yl)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid which antagonize ephrin-induced effects in EphA4-expressing cells. We show that the two molecules bind to the EphA4 ligand-binding domain with K(d) values of 20.4 and 26.4 microm, respectively. NMR heteronuclear single quantum coherence titrations revealed that upon binding, both molecules significantly perturb EphA4 residues Ile(31)-Met(32) in the D-E loop, Gln(43) in the E beta-strand, and Ile(131)-Gly(132) in the J-K loop. Molecular docking shows that they can occupy a cavity in the high affinity ephrin binding channel of EphA4 in a similar manner, by interacting mainly with the EphA4 residues in the E strand and D-E and J-K loops. However, many of the interactions observed in Eph receptor-ephrin complexes are absent, which is consistent with the small size of the two molecules and may account for their relatively weak binding affinity. Thus, our studies provide the first published structure of the ligand-binding domain of an EphA receptor of the A subclass. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the high affinity ephrin binding channel of the Eph receptors is amenable to targeting with small molecule antagonists and suggest avenues for further optimization.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(43):29473-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) family of receptor tyrosine kinases regulates a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Despite the numerous possible research and therapeutic applications of agents capable of modulating Eph receptor function, no small molecule inhibitors targeting the extracellular domain of these receptors have been identified. We have performed a high throughput screen to search for small molecules that inhibit ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the EphA4 receptor. This yielded a 2,5-dimethylpyrrolyl benzoic acid derivative able to inhibit the interaction of EphA4 with a peptide ligand as well as the natural ephrin ligands. Evaluation of a series of analogs identified an isomer with similar inhibitory properties and other less potent compounds. The two isomeric compounds act as competitive inhibitors, suggesting that they target the high affinity ligand-binding pocket of EphA4 and inhibit ephrin-A5 binding to EphA4 with K(i) values of 7 and 9 mum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Interestingly, despite the ability of each ephrin ligand to promiscuously bind many Eph receptors, the two compounds selectively target EphA4 and the closely related EphA2 receptor. The compounds also inhibit ephrin-induced phosphorylation of EphA4 and EphA2 in cells, without affecting cell viability or the phosphorylation of other receptor tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, the compounds inhibit EphA4-mediated growth cone collapse in retinal explants and EphA2-dependent retraction of the cell periphery in prostate cancer cells. These data demonstrate that the Eph receptor-ephrin interface can be targeted by inhibitory small molecules and suggest that the two compounds identified will be useful to discriminate the activities of EphA4 and EphA2 from those of other co-expressed Eph receptors that are activated by the same ephrin ligands. Furthermore, the newly identified inhibitors represent possible leads for the development of therapies to treat pathologies in which EphA4 and EphA2 are involved, including nerve injuries and cancer.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(43):29461-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

252 Citations
101.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      • • Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center
      • • Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics
      La Jolla, California, United States